ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE.

GEORGE CĂLINESCU, UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN…

ANALELE
UNIVERSITĂŢII
BUCUREŞTI
ISTORIE
2000
SUMAR

SOMMAIRE • CONTENT

GHEORGHE ZBUCHEA, The Istro-Romanians. Notes regarding their historical Past
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3
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BOGDAN POPA, Tradiţie şi raţiune de stat. Consideraţii asupra politicii agrare a lui
Frederic
cel
Mare
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17
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ALIN CIUPALĂ, Masculin şi feminin în mediul social-urban din Vechiul Regat, la
sfârşitul secolului al XIX-lea şi începutul secolului al XX-lea
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35
BOGDAN ANTONIU, Formularea doctrinei securităţii naţionale în Statele Unite ale
Americii,
în
perioada
postbelică
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49
GABRIEL MARIN, Entre culpabilité et mythe. George Călinescu, un historien litteraire
roumain
pendant
le
régime
communiste
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87
EVANTIA BOZGAN, OVIDIU BOZGAN, Restabilirea relaţiilor româno-elene, între
interes
naţional
şi
politică
de
bloc

1

.......................... 99 12 ......................................................... ...........................2 GABRIEL MARIN .....................................................................................................................................................

and especially with the so called Daco-Romanians that mainly live among the present day frontiers of Romania. the 'melting' inside of the major population (Greek. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. NOTES REGARDING THEIR HISTORICAL PAST GHEORGHE ZBUCHEA During the centuries. primarily the linguists. commonly named as Istro-Romanians. Albanian. They are into connection with the more numerous groups of the Megleno-Romanians. . or foreigners. there exists nowadays a tiny group of the eastern romanity's descendants. Isolated and situated at the Western extremity of the Romanian block. The scholars' majority. the Romanian entity has been spread on the entire Southeast European space. they are different because of the elements concerning the linguistic structure of the spoken dialect – there are four dialects of the Romanian language –. On the other side. and also of their ancient or new historical destiny. either Romanians. The continuous numerical diminishing during the centuries. UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 3 THE ISTRO-ROMANIANS. Aromunians. Slave) and the possible complete disappearing in a not far period have been and still are common features for the three groups on the right bank of the Danube.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. considers that the four groups above mentioned constitute an ethnical union.

without the possibility of a correct and exact statistical estimation. SÂRBU. Nowadays. 2. when their number was considered to be somewhere between 6. The Istro-Romanians live nowadays in less than ten rural settlements in the Central and Eastern side of the pre-island of Istria. the official Italian census mentioned in 1921 a number of 1. 2nd edition.000 and 8.644 speakers of the Romanian language. Therefore. 1975: 190. 1926: 40–43. because of different reasons. PUŞCARIU and others. Thus. Bucharest. while its typical elements are in an unceasing alteration. there were different figures to be advanced. the scientist Sextil Puşcariu considered that there were less than 3. and of the national activity. "L'Istroromeno". 1 For an examination of the figures concerning the Istro-Romanians beginning with the middle of the 19th century. usually less than 1. 3. 130: 186.000 Romanians in Istria.000 Croatians and Slovenians". 1993: 15. all these Romanians from the South of the Danube are characterised by a bilingual or even a trilingual feature. and "under our eyes. it was only considered that there had been in 1940 a number of 3. vol. Texte şi glosar.000 Istrian Romanians live in the middle of an approximative number of 100. They are spread on the Northern and the Southern sides of the Ucika Gora Mountains (Monte Maggiore). for example 500 Istro-Romanians living in their native settlements. see MATILDA CARAGIU MARIOŢEANU. vols. Bucharest. see Arhiva MAE (Bucharest). they were only mentioned in a hurry in the official materials having a synthetic feature.000 Istro-Romanians1. The weight of the Roman dialect's utilisation is in a continuing decreasing. beside the mountain regions. AUGUST KOVAČEK. in an area that comprises hills and valleys. according to Arhiva MAE. see Spaţiul istoric şi etnic românesc. 1 (1999): 129–142 (130). L’Annuario dell’Istituto Romeno di Cultura e Ricerca Umanistica di Venezia. question 18. whether it is taken into consideration the fact that the 3. as it has been stipulated even in some documents adopted at the scientific or political international meetings. Bucharest. sooner or later. respectively their continuous emigration. Studii istroromâne. FRĂŢILĂ. 1998: 18. Compendiu de dialectologie română (nord. The existence of the transdanubian groups has also some other common attributes. V. This latter has had as a consequence the creation of a diaspora dispersed on the European continent and outside of it. capable to contribute to the own identity's preservation. 497: 349. vol. practically those groups has never enjoyed the fewest guarantees that should result from their official recognition as ethnical-linguistic minorities. The synthetic material entitled Românii de peste hotare made up in 1945 considered that: "Their ethnical disappearing is unavoidable. their number has been reduced with almost two thirds during the last three decades. 1946. fund 71 (1920–1944).500 Istro-Romanians. There is also specific the general scarcity of a proper educational system at any level. information that seemed to be furnished by S. the Istro-Romanians and their numerical weight were not taken into consideration by the Bucharest authorities. vol. Unlike the case of the other Romanians in the Balkans. Timişoara. they become a historical . vol. fund Conferinţa Păcii de la Paris. see S. Dialectul istroromân. After the Second World War. R. Upon some estimations. PUŞCARIU. Therefore.şi suddunăreană). there are pondered smaller figures.4 GABRIEL MARIN 12 The Istro-Romanians' case illustrates also another reality for those Romanians outside of a personal national state. unpaged.000. In an official material constituted in 1942 with a view to the projected conference of peace. Five years later. With the partial exception for some of the Aromunians. The situation is not a new one from this viewpoint. 1 and 8.

the Istro-Romanians had also other denominations than the one nowadays utilised as a consequence of the cult factors' intervention. Relaţii lingvistice cu slavii de sud: cuvinte de origine veche slavă. to the proximity of Venice4. TANAŞOCA accomplished two massive works still unpublished: Corpusul izvoarelor istoriei romanităţii balcanice.. Bucharest. TANAŞOCA. Habsburg milieus. 4 A. the Istro-Romanians represented just a part of the 'Eastern Romanians'. 2 (1994): 47. A long time they were known under the names given by the others. Ottoman. and many times they are full of controversies. in his studies elaborated during more than three decades3. who approached and presented the status and the historical evolution of the Aromunian dialect. the scholars took relatively late the Istro-Romanians into consideration. There are to be also regarded the last contributions of S. "Romanitatea dispărută din nord-vestul Peninsulei Balcanice" in Sud-estul…. either the populations inside of which they lived. part 1: 63–101. Timişoara. 7 (1944). the most important contribution belonged to S. A. Those who investigated the past and present realities of the Istro-Romanians were almost exclusively linguists. This historical reality is nowadays almost totally disappeared. "Relaţiile între românii sud-dunăreni şi daco-romani în evul mediu" in Studii de istorie medievală. Upon his interpretation.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. TANAŞOCA "History of Balkan Romanity" in Politics and culture in South-Eastern Europe (edited by R. idem. idem. Izvoare privind romanitatea nord-vest balcanică and Istoria romanităţii balcanice. or the chancelleries of the states they came into contact with. Under the care of the Institute of the Southeast European Studies from Bucharest. I. idem. Istroromânii şi istroromâna. SCĂRLĂTOIU. S. 1999: 77–134. DRAGOMIR: "La patrie primitive des Roumains et ses frontieres historiques". where there are summarily presented some different sources coming from the Serbian. Consequently. however it massively existed in the Middle Ages on a geographical area distributed on the entire zone adjacent to the Adriatic Sea. Bucharest. see CRISTEA SANDU TIMOC. some respects regarding their evolution during the centuries are less known. Beside the linguistic referrals to the past centuries. from the Republic of Ragusa. Bulletin 2 (1994): 58 sq. through Croatia. The preoccupations respecting their existence practically commenced in 1846 and attained the apogee only after 1900. UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 5 Unlike other Romanian branches or other European national minorities. see E. For the Medieval period. S. Ragusan. see also N. there have been only few researchers that has approached the ancient or new historical life of these Romanians. "Originea istroromânilor vazută de lingvişti" in Sud-estul şi contextul european. TANAŞOCA. they were for a long time denominated (and sometimes they still are) memory". Vlahii din nordul Peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu. Timişoara. During the medieval period. 1996: 80. . "Contribuţia lui Silviu Dragomir la cercetarea romanităţii balcanice" în Sud-est şi contextul european. Tragedia românilor de peste hotare (9–13 milioane). Mărturii de la românii uitaţi. 1998: 206–237. useful for the reconstitution of the Istro-Romanian medieval history. 4 (1995): 107 sq. Cluj-Napoca. 2 For an almost complete bibliography for this domain. 1995: 9. 1959. Balcania. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. Repertoriul analitic de izvoare şi bibliografie critică. 3 A. 1998: 9–36. Croatian. 2nd edition. Therefore. Dragomir. TANAŞOCA and N. as far as they could be known2. Bucharest. Venetian. Theodorescu). idem.

in E.. . In itself. DRAGOMIR. the hypothesis seems to be extremely plausible from the historical viewpoint. it is going to be confirmed or not by some historical researches that for a moment are missing. together with the opinion of the Western Romanians' nativity in general. N. excerpt from Omagiu lui N. 31(1992) idem Istroromânii…: 52–94. although it considerably diminished them. "Despre morlaci". CONSTANTINESCU. Vlahii şi morlacii. on the both sides of the Danube. this language would be spread to the South towards the Pindus Mountains.. 'Cici'. Privire istorică. 1943: 54 sq. Originea şi expansiunea românilor. 29 (1991). either on the left bank of the Danube. towards the river Morava. Studiu din istoria românismului balcanic. It was began to be talked about a more restraint area towards the East. Many decades ago. 3–4. II". constituted through the contribution of the Romanian elements coming from the all component parts of the Romanian block from the North and the South of the Danube after the 14th centuries7. towards the West until the Adriatic Sea. we appreciate that there are some other elements to be taken into account. The spreading of the Roman people itself and 5 S. SCĂRLĂTOIU. Nevertheless. 30 (1992). it was promoted the idea of a multi-genesis of the Istro-Romanians. the idea of the Istro-Romanian nativity was abandoned. Cluj. or on the right one. Afterwards. nos. It was before the middle of the 17 th century. Origines et difusion. like the Romanians from the Dalmatian and Western Croatian regions. Subsequently. etc. The savants' greatest number embraces nowadays the opinion that. especially invoking the linguistic elements but also the lack of a documentary information. During the last years. the Italian historiography advanced the very plausible opinion of a feeble continuity between the romanity certainly existing in Istria during the Roman imperial period and a part of the so-called medieval Istro-Romanians. SCĂRLĂTOIU. It is also considered that that their native country would be somewhere towards the East. 1921. I. where it would be formed a people speaking in a personal language. the Central Serbia and even Bulgaria 6. conquered large regions. etc.GABRIEL MARIN 6 12 as 'Vlachs'. 1924: 51 sq. These ones were not totally dislocated or exterminated by the Slave mass settled there beginning with the 7 th century. nos. Bucharest. 7 E. "La romanité balkanique. 6 A note regarding the main hypothesis and their representatives. the Istro-Romanians had not their origin in those areas. Craiova. 1–2. imposing their language. Especially in the 19th century. usually called as 'the common Romanian'. more connected to their Roman origin and to their language's Latin feature5. idem. From this point of view. Sextil Puşcariu draw attention on the hypothetical and improbable feature of such a theory: "It is certitude that history demonstrates that there are a lot of examples of populations that. Iorga. when it was noticed the name of 'rumeri'. Revue des Etudes Sud-Est Européennes. then 'Morlachs'. A. coming from a small country. towards Transylvania and Banat. Istroromânii …: 311–331.

MUSSET. However. Les invasions. PUŞCARIU. the eastern romanity could disappear in this part of the continent neither suddenly. by the similar social status and by the lack of a complicated political organisation.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. it is more natural to admit that the Romanians are nowadays the last survivors of the Roman population that had lived in the Northern half of the Balkan Peninsula and in the romanised regions on the left of the Danube… Whether the Eastern Roman empire would last having a Latin character. there are all the reasons to believe that those were the future Western Romanians appeared in the medieval 8 S. and especially the Slavs' conquest of these regions made that the Romanic population to decrease and to thin out. It is certitude that the written sources regarding the eastern romanity's descendants are not very much at the beginning of the Middle Ages. Arheologie şi tradiţie istorică. 9 . UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 7 of the Latin language is a typical example for this. nor totally9. 1991: 232–251. Paris. the Romanians… Conditioned by the geographical contact. the cohesion between different pre-Romanians groups was so strong that the Romanian language could develop in the pre-Romanian epoch on the same great evolution lines…"8. vol. chapter "Argumentul tăcerii izvoarelor". Bucureşti. Le second assaut contre l’Europe chretienne (VII–XI siècles). because of some favourable circumstances that could not be supposed. thus different than the Greek speaker Byzantines. would be preserved more Romans than in the others giving birth to the Romanian people. we should expect that at least this 'cradle' to offer an ancient historical information about it or at least here to be conserved the toponymy in a traditional form. it seems to me that instead of searching a cradle for the Romanian people on a restraint territory. as it has pertinently been demonstrated. Thus. L. The situation of the Roman people in the South-eastern Europe is also peripheral. with prosperous commercial and cultural centres. BÂRZU and S. This situation has been speculated in different manners. in that region. The invaders'. He utilised the denomination of Ροµανοι. in the Alps. the Byzantine Emperor Constantine the Porphyrogenitus mentioned many times in his De administrando imperio the romanised population on the Adriatic shores. because of the fact that some of the invaders had definitely settled in those places. Nevertheless. Northern Africa. 1965: 191. In the 10th century. Studii…. the invasion of the peoples had lasted longer than in the West and their results were graver. models of populations and languages formerly spread on huge spaces. but later reduced and losing their national features by conquests. Actually. respectively the Ροµαιοι. Originea şi continuitatea românilor. and so on. more Romanic languages would be developed. in Minor Asia. BREZEANU. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. But it is not the case. Whether there existed a region somewhere in the Roman empire where the population. BREZEANU. and especially S. in L. 2: 357–358. What as Romanic people has been preserved are we. there are also some reverse examples in history. This is the case of the same Roman people and of the Latin language on the Empire's peripheries.

even the Habsburgs in Istria were vastly investigated on the basis of unpublished or published documents. between 1440 and 1797. for the 11th and the subsequent centuries. vol. De la cetăţenii români la naţiunea medievală. The author utilised especially Serbian sources and also A. the natural tendencies of some impoverished families to begin a new life on another regions. DRAGOMIR. Studii şi documente privitoare la istoria românilor. then the lettere segrete di Collegio for the years between 1308 and 1627. respectively the Vlachs' and Morlachs' ones. 2. S. there took place some important population motions in the Balkan space. respective diverse acts. Zagreb. it could not be asserted the same conclusion about the Romanians' situation. Revista de istorie. Dragomir identified some data concerning the Romanians' penetration and settling in Istria. the different maladies and natural calamities. There still misses some massive general studies12. 1923: 201–220. It is known that then. vol. 45 and the bibliography: 656–657. 5. invoking exaggeratedly the pastoral feature. 47 sqq. We express the conviction that these documents could provide numerous news regarding the Romanians. They would afterwards appear under the name of 'Vlachs' on the same zones beginning even with the 11th century10. PUŞCARIU. 1959. 88–89. During some decades. vol. . GEORGESCU. the needed of soldiers. Among them. Generally speaking. see S. from Macedonia to the Hungarian and Austrian regions. Puòcariu embraced them11. His arguments and conclusions have been generally accepted almost entirely by nowadays. 225 sqq. and this was due to the fact that a prestigious scholar like S. especially in its Central and Western sides. p. 2: 29–40. based upon the Venetian archives. passim. before but especially during the Ottoman expansion. "Originea coloniilor române din Istria". etc. nr. There were many factors that concluded the ethnic and demographic modification. Studii…. Vlahii….GABRIEL MARIN 8 12 historical sources. The elements gathered by Dragomir himself denoted some realities. Tamaro's collection of documents. the Croatians. A. pp. p. he mentioned Simun Koziçiç from 10 For the respective passages from Constantine Porphirogenitus. Memoriile secţiei istorice. 1908. 11 S. there were the wars. In the Romanian case. these Balkan Romanians gradually came in contact with the different political entities and consequently were mentioned in diverse acts. etc. see DRAGOMIR. XIII(1960). XX. vol. During the first centuries of the second millennium. Bucureşti. 12 For the period that interests us. BREZEANU. NICOLAE IORGA. în Studii. 1999: 61–62. This motions took place especially from the South to the Northeast. Whether the problems concerning the history of the Italians. The same Dragomir indicated that the 16th century Croatian writers regarded the Morlachs or the Vlachs as being the same ethnical group with the Romanians from the Trajanic Dacia. XVII. we mention the synthetic analysis from Historia naroda Jugoslavie. V. Românitatea orientală în evul mediu. chapters 29. This could offer new arguments to oppose to the generalising assertion that after the 16 th century the Vlachs or the Morlachs would not be the same with the Romanians anymore. S. then the so called Senato Segreti for the period between 1401 and 1630. beyond the fact that the Romanian nationality of the Vlachs was beyond any doubt. Societta istriana di archeologia e storia patrie published the decisions of the "Great Senate" (Senato Grande) respecting the Istrian area. Analele Academiei Române. the policy promoted by some governors to attract labour and to inhabit the devastated areas. the situation of Istria in the Middle Ages is still less known. Bucureşti. Among them. 3rd series.

The rich terminology that is connected to the crop activity could be a good reason for the age and the continuation of such an occupation. and also the recent testimonies about the traditional occupations suggest that those Romanians were engaged in breeding and in turning to good account of the animals (dairy-produce. By their Latinity. Ivan Pergosiç – the translator of Verboczi's Tripartitum. In their case. it is curious that the Italian scholar Enea Silvio Piccolomini mentioned the exclusive utilisation of the Croatian and the Italian languages by the citizens from the Adriatic harbours. in the sense that the sources mention them as being Catholics. DRAGOMIR. The life conditions in the Istrian area. respectively the obtaining of the coal by the wood's burning and thus the exploitation of their activity's results at Fiume. Anyhow. some lexical terms attest the age of the Christian faith among the Istro-Romanians. I. Anyway. who regarded Dacia as "Morovlasca Zemlja"13. The curiosity relies upon the fact that the former archbishop of Aquilea and then pope under the name of Pius II also wrote about the Romanians in his work about the Dalmatian area. There still does not exist an analysis of the Istro-Romanian lifestyle for the Middle Ages and for the beginning of the Modern period. probably like the entire Balkan populations. Burada. as a consequence of the activity of the Roman curia's clergy. Many of them began to display maritime activities. and leather). From this optic. and also the lexicographer Iacob Nikaglia. they were subordinated to the Roman hierarchy. it seems that it has been forgotten another occupation. the Venetian authorities would not mention their settling in the acts. Thus.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. Popovici and others related that 13 S. It is certitude that even in these conditions it is not the case of a nomadic feature for the breeders. T. Some of them became warriors. It is possible that their continuing diminishing in number be determined also by their affiliation to the Catholic faith. in the sense that they furnished raw materials for the Venetian fleet's shipyards. probably entering into the piracy. Triest and even Venice. in order to receive first and foremost their own necessities. UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 9 Modrussa. Beside their own needs. or under the Hungarian kings and afterwards under the Hapsburg emperors. Thus. he was well informed about them. through the agency of the ecclesiastical residence from Aquilea. or the privileged militaries from the Craines created by the Viennese emperors as models. "Originea…": 213–214. or especially as sailors. either as harbour workers. Thus. Also. the hunting completed and diversified their nutrition. . wool. they had the voinuci from the Slave area in the Ottoman Empire. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. it brought them supplementary incomes. Thus. either under the Ottomans. it was a kind of exception. The same environmental conditions imposed that their life be early connected with the forest. They were also farmers.

S. IX(1846).. H. there did not appear any necessary element for a national Renaissance among the Istro-Romanians. the Romanians (the Vlachs) enjoyed of the existence of some proper institutions. The material was immediately received in the Romanian milieus. Actually. O călătorie în satele româneşti din Istria. GIURESCU. under the Turkish regime. pp. pp. Revista de istorie. vol. in Foaie pentru minte inimă şi literatură. In the immediately subsequent years. studying for a period in Pavia. this latter intended to send his own son to Istria in order to take direct contact with the respective Romanians15. the publishing of the article Dei Ringliani o Vlahi d'Istria by A. Between the 15th and the 18th centuries. in Studii. Then. at the beginning of the Modern era. There could be many explanations for this. part 1. see also V... C. Many of these organisational forms originated in ancient ages and were many times guaranteed by the political factors. and the more increasing emigration. Bucharest. TANAŞOCA. "Un nou popor român". Perhaps that a necessary analyses of the Venetian documents would offer important data respecting the specificity of the Istrian Romanity's institutional life before the 19th century. 34 (1981). no. 5: 225–235 about "Jus valahicum în spaţiul balcanic”. and Timotei Cipariu were also interested about these Western Romanians. meaning in the epoch of the 1848 revolution when they were 'discovered' by some Romanian leaders from the Principalities. Then. A. Jassy. the influence of the assimilation factors.. the departure to the Dalmatian and Istrian towns. "Autonomia vlahilor din imperiul otoman în secolele XV–XVII". From this viewpoint. no. . the different ways of modernisation and the new political realities. such as their small number. 13 (1960). It was reprinted at Braşov. Covaz in a magazine from Triest entitled l'Istria was a 'releaser' factor. and thus the lack of an elevated cultural elite among them. DRAGOMIR. where there are also invoked some documents published by Nicolae Iorga. Ion Maiorescu followed them afterwards. XVIII(1846). C. just like inside of the Hapsburg Empire. în Albina Românească..GABRIEL MARIN 10 12 around 1900 the Croatian Catholic clergy had vehemently opposed to the timid attempts of a Romanian national consciousness manifestation in the Istrian space. Revista de istorie. 73–74. 1943: 337 sq. Vlahii…: 65. STAHL). Unlike in the case of the Aromunians. 1896: 87 sq. It was only on the middle of the 19th century. 14 A. 15 T. determined some other phenomena. Foaie…. 1990: 11 sq. 2. BURADA. Paris – Bucharest. including in Istria. 8: 1513 sq. Etudes Roumaines et Aroumaines (edited by P. namely by the sultans from Istanbul or by the emperors from Vienna 14. 45–46. Istoria românilor. GEORGESCU. like the renunciation to the traditional occupations. and especially the abandonment of the native villages. etc. Aron Pumnul. BELDICEANU "Les Roumains des Balkans dans les sources ottomanes". 129 sq. N. Simion Bărnuţiu. in Arhiva Albina Românească retook it at Jassy with the translation and the notes of Gheorghe Asachi. the traditional lifestyle.

ethnographical. POPOVICI. The same Ion Maiorescu pleaded for their assistance and cultivation. wrote about them from the historical. 1 (1999): 143–150. Constantini. .299 inhabitants. It was also considered that "I romanici d’Istria conservarono la loro lingua malgrado che siano circondati da popolazione slava e che da preti slavi ricevano l’istruzione religiosa. 18 Ibidem: 23. MAIORESCU. 1914: 21–27. Although they were protected by the 16 I. Dialectele române (Rumaenische Dialecte). abandoned. the problem of a Romanian school was discussed in the autumn of 1888. MAIORESCU). The Italian deputy. Laginja. Charged with the informing upon the matter. an appeal appeared in the Giovine pensiero newspaper on October 27. in order to approve the setting up of a school teaching in the Romanian language. and also the subsequent debates. There was published the stenography of the inhabitants' letter.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. Thus. vol. although the requirements were made with the assistance of some Italian deputies in the Diet. The Croatian majority rejected the demand. dr. For instance. The Croatian representative. Jassy. there appeared an activity in the Romanian milieus from Istria. Halle. of a people that has the origins in the Rome's glories in common with us. see S. The same Ion Maiorescu draw for the same time attention on the danger of their denationalisation because of the church and the school in Croatian language. 1874: 20. It is not definitely elucidated whether this idea appeared because of a singular endeavour or because of the intervention of some outsider factors. and even drawn up the first lexical collection about them. a people that must be associated with our civilisation's benefits"19. To the end of the 19th century. neglected by everybody. it was rejected the motion proposed on August 1900. Based upon a proposal belonging to an Italian. trying to demonstrate that they were Slaves. 9: Dialectele române din Istria. 17 See J. 1887. Sguardo retrospettivo e prospettivo". and linguistic viewpoints. there appeared the idea of a national school in the Romanian language. PUŞCARIU. To the end of the century. Itinerar în Istria şi vocabular istriano-român (edited by T. where is totally reproduced Ubaldo Scampiccio's speech. Annuario dell'Istituto Romeno di Cultura e Ricerca Umanistica di Venezia. "Recerche sull'istroromeno e gli istroromeni. namely Dr. UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 11 This latter was actually the Romanian from the North of the Danube that visited them. part 1. signed by the Istro-Romanians from some villages. gathered in eight settlements. and also declined the subsequent and repeatedly others. forgot. Scampichio finished one of his pleadings in this manner: "I defend today the cause of a very noble people. After Ion Maiorescu. 19 Ibidem: 28–32. Studii istroromâne …. Dr. For a review of them. there were some other Romanian travelers in Istria. per cui sino da fanciulli sono costretti di apprendere lo slavo"18. the school commission recognised that the Romanians existed in a number of 2. in the provincial Diet of Istria. 3 and NICOLAE MOCANU. considering their survival as "unu miraculu" (a miracle)16. as it was earlier proceeded for the Aromunians. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. vehemently contested the Istro-Romanians' existence itself. and also the interventions of the Italian and Croatian deputies17.

op. thus contributing to the knowledge of the Istro-Romanian realities.. who made ethnical and linguistic investigations in the area. 1925 at Pola. T. and also a collection of his non linguistic works. 1998: 35 sq. made Andrei Glavina's efforts almost useless. It was appreciated by Sextil Puşcariu in 1925 in such a terms: "The Slav propaganda. P. They were reflected in the epoch's press. The school was under the care of the Catholic priest. There was a pleading for the preserving and the recognition of the national identity. BEJAN. 20 It was many times written about Andrei Glavina. PUŞCARIU drew up ample notes about Glavina in the third volume of his Studii…: 175–246. S. and continued them in the great cultural centre in Blaj. 4 (December 1997) and also V. who collaborated with him. Filipescu. there began his efforts destinated to create a Romanian school. as a tool of the Slavisation policy. The same Glavina gathered dialectal texts from the village of Jeiani and set up two vocabularies: a Romanian-IstroRomanian and an Istro-Romanian-Daco-Romanian one. The destiny reserved him the almost exclusive part of national apostle".12 GABRIEL MARIN 12 public opinion and the press of Romania. C. made up an obituary in 1926. where he began his studies at Jassy. where his activity before 1914 was presented. Thus. Dr. Istroromânii. RAŢIU also wrote about A. where he also finished the high-school. DICULESCU.cit. who made usellessly efforts to attract the Romanians. it was set up a Croatian school at Valdarsa in 1905. Because of the financial efforts of "Saints Cyril and Methodius Society". by his liveliness and intelligence. He has been considered as the national apostle and the distinctive figure of the Istro-Romanians20. Bucharest.. Jassy. it may also be added Andrei Glavina's activity. the result of such an applies was contrary to the expectations. 1881 at Susnievita and died on February 9. stimulated by the central government in Vienna. . he returned to Istria. The young Istro-Romanian came in Romania. Recently. Gh. BURADA. Afterwards. professor at Jassy.: 130 sq. Densuşianu. Glavina: "Cine fost-a Andrei Glavina" in Scrisore către frat Rumer. Burada. published in Daco-Romania magazine. Under these circumstances. etc. T. As a teenager. such as O. Both of them would be published in Sextil Puşcariu's volumes. He also forwarded some testimonies from his native places to the magazines in Romania and was in contact with different researchers. Secolele XVIII–XIX. At the same period. but it still misses a necessary biography. 1999: 248 sq.. Andrei Glavina was born on March 30. becoming temporarily teacher at the Italian school in Arenzo. 4. He had the endeavour to create and publish for the first time a work printed in the dialect and adressed to his co-nationals. it was printed in Bucharest in 1905 and spread in Istria the work entitled Calindaru lu Rumeri din Istrie cu figure lucrat parvea votea de Andreiu Glavina şi Constantin Diculescu. evoked the circumstances of the period when A. ZBUCHEA. O istorie a românilor din Peninsula Balcanică. vol. Glavina studied at Jassy and then at Blaj. in a calendar form. he impressed T.

he retook his activity under the circumstances that Istria was integrated inside of the Italian frontiers. It had a distinctive part in the cultivation of the national identity. Andrei Glavina succeeded in 1921 to open at Valdarsa the first Romanian school in Istria. in order to obtain assistence for the Istro-Romanian cause. others being forbidden to return to their inborn territories by the local authorities.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. During the decades. Glavina distributed religious handbooks brought from Bucharest. beginning even with the medieval times. actually. A. For instance. some Istro-Romanians were brought in Romania for studies. the Church authorities also acted as a factor of desethnisation. He addressed to the authorities'. where there were opened schools in Italian language exclusively. after the First World War. none of the Bucharest authorities' endeavours succeeded. but also in the other Romanian settlements. having the symbolic denomination of Împăratul Traian ("The Emperor Trajan"). the Croatian language became compulsory in all the schools. After the death of A. the teaching in the Romanian language was ceased. Thus. I happened not only at Valdarsa. Between 1893 and 1935. it was also issued a small book of prayers. Grădişteanu. the Istro-Romanians were the only ones that embraced the Catholic faith. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. Glavina in 1925. He received a small material aid from the politician I. who also sustained the Romanians from the Timok valley and the Aromunians. it was in 1920 when it was authorised the sending of a teacher from Romania and of the books donated by the Romanian Academy. C. There must be added the religious calendars published in dialect at Cernăuţi. UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 13 During the First World War. The lack of the Romanian education has contributed and still completely contributes to the assimilation and alienation processes. the education process being developed exclusively in the Italian language. this school had a number of 443 pupils from all the seven villages and hamlets from the South of Monte Maggiore. After the Second World War. also composed in a dialectal form. Even at the beginning of the 20th century. Thus. Italy manifested intially a relative understanding regarding the Romanian ideals. Andrei Glavina went to Bucharest. Among the Romanians. this latter was for a time the president . In 1928. in order to prepare them for a presumable schooling and national activity in their native regions. There existed some attempts to utilise the religious education for national purposes. Among them. when Andrei Glavina participated in the trenches. This heterogeneous and unsufficient efforts were not continued after the war. the statemen's and the culture men. Some of them remained in Romania after the graduation. The school developed its activity in the Romanian language and also in the Italian one. To a certain moment. when practically every kind of circulation of the Romanian book was obstacled and even forbidden.

In 1995 also began the publishing of some dialectal books. In 1923. It also militated for the free utilisation of . coming from some scholars. Long time after the Second World War. the townhall utilised a stamp having a Romanian text. in Romanian and Italian. Since 1996. notes with historical and ethnical characteristics. Their problem was raised on the occasion of some international meetings. Whether the Romanian state enterprised different actions for the Aromunians and even for the Romanians from Timok in the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th. At the end of the First World War. An interest was only individually manifested. it was founded the Istro-Romanian Association "Andrei Glavina" at Trieste. The 1997 Congress of the Federative Union of the European Ethnical Communities adopted a special resolution. but it was unsufficient. dr. with the purpose of the Istrian Romanians' salvation and of their ethnical and lingistic preservation. a distinctive administrative organisation was attempted. especially from the universitary milieu at Cernăuţi and Cluj. in order to juridically recognise the Romanians in Croatia as an ethnical community. Petre Raţiu contributed in different manners to the popularisation of the Istrian problems. The general circumstances generated by the unweaving of Yugoslavia and by the breakdown of the communist regimes opened a new page in the Istro-Romanian history. it has begun to appear the first Istro-Romanian magazine. As president of the association. ‘Scrisore către frat Rumer’. For a time. Generally speaking. news about the Aromunians' life. Also. under Italian administration. Its content is extremely various: original fiction or translated from Romanian. It supposes an appeal to the Croatian government and also to the different European organisations. as there were the different congress of the Federative Union of the European Ethnical Communities. Glavina nor other Istro-Romanians or Istro-Romanians' sympathisers acquired assistence in Bucharest in order to impede an irreversible process. the villages on the South of Monte Maggiore were grouped in the commune of Valdarsa. especially linguistic ones. a leading part being played by the same Andrei Glavina. On April 19. For decades. neither A. 1994. beginning with ‘Calendaru lu rumeri din Istria’. It was available on the level of the state institutions and also of the public opinion. etc. The press from Romania and from other countries has begun to present the Romanian realities from Istria. the news about the evolution of the Istro-Romanian villages and settlements missed. and in the middle of the stamp was represented the Trajan's column.14 GABRIEL MARIN 12 of the two societies. they were exclusively presented in scientifical works. there missed a support for the Istro-Romanians at all. there were introduced the bilingual inscriptions.

. N. "Istroromânii". V. 153–163. 1999. under the care of the "Andrei Glavina" Association and also of the Democratic Association of the Romanians from Croatia.: 86–98. while the impact of other forms of national activity in the area seems to be still minor. extras din Lui N. extras din Glasul Bucovinei. f. în Limbă şi literatură. See also GH. 1968. 21 The action promoted by Dr. ZBUCHEA.cit. "Noi date istorice referitoare la istroromâni". Emil Petru Raţiu has many times addressed to the authorities and to the public opinion requiring assistance and informing about his co-nationals' life and aspirations. TRAIAN CANTEMIR. 1921. CONSTANTINESCU. P. Dr.: 263 sq. pp. See LECA MORARIU. see for example the ones published in the Bucharest newspaper România liberă on June 10. 1998. Trieste. Con documenti storici e fotografie dei nostrigiorni. UN HISTORIEN LITTÉRAIRE ROUMAIN… 15 their language according to the European standards' system of the protection of the nationalities in the education. 1998. etc. Cernăuţi. 91–110. 1985–1987. în Anuar de lingvistică şi istorie literară. 1927. All of these do not seem to represent reliable signs for the ethnical future of this tiny Romanian group. pp. There were organised for the same purpose different cultural and scientifical meetings. religious and mass media domains 21. GEORGE CĂLINESCU. idem. cit. Editioni Italo Suevo. RAŢIU was integrated in a more ample activity that followed the same ideals. op.. Craiova. Il Comune istro-romeno di Valdarsa. June 16. It is obvious that the aid of the Romanians from Romania would be welcome and thus necessary. "Despre morlaci". BEJAN. There were not yet materialised the efforts in order to promote the Romanian language (in its Istro-Romanian dialect) in the education system. Iaşi. this latter one appeared in Zagreb. 1997. By open letters.ENTRE CULPABILITÉ ET MYTHE. X(1927). op. Iorga. October 29. NERINA FERESINI. meaning the introduction of some European standards in the life of all the Balkan Romanians. "Cultura materială a istroromânilor". Omagiu. A. June 18.a.

16 GABRIEL MARIN Tiparul s-a executat sub c-da nr. 69/2002 la Tipografia Editurii Universităţii din Bucureşti 12 .

17 .

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