Edward Arnold
A member of the Hodder Headline Group LONDON SYDNEY AUCKLAND
Continuous systems such as beams, rods, cables and strings can be modelled by discrete mass and stiffness parameters and analysed as multi degree of freedom systems, but such a model is not sufficiently accurate for most purposes. Furthermore, mass and elasticity cannot always be separated in models of real systems. Thus mass and elasticity have to be considered as distributed parameters. For the analysis of systems with distributed mass and elasticity it is necessary to assume an homogeneous, isotropic material which follows Hookes law. Generally free vibration is the sum of the principal modes. However, in the unlikely event of the elastic curve of the body in which motion is excited coinciding exactly with one of the principal modes, only that mode will be excited. In most continuous systems the rapid damping out of highfrequency modes often leads to the fundamental mode predominating.
4.1 4.1.1
WAVE MOTION
Transverse vibration of a string Consider a vibrating flexible string of mass p per unit length and stretched under a tension T a s shown in Fig. 4.1. The FBDs of an element of length dx of the string assuming small deflections and slopes are given in Fig. 4.2. If the lateral deflection y is assumed to be small, the change in tension with deflection is negligible, and sin 6 N 6. The equation for motion in the y direction is
d2y TB=pdx, dt2
[Ch. 4
Fig. 4.1.
Vibrating string.
so
P a2Y alax =T %.
Since
e = ayjax.
azy
Q =
c' ( p ) ,
1 a2y
where c
= J(T1P)
(4.1)
This is the waue equation, the solution of which is given in section 4.1.4. The velocity of propagation of waves along the string is c.
Longitudinal vibration of a thin uniform bar Consider the longitudinal vibration of a thin uniform bar of crosssectional area S, density p and modulus E under an axial force P, as shown in Fig. 4.3.
4.1.2
Sec. 4.1 ]
dP
S dx = P/SE,
S2U
2t2 .
so
SPISx = SE(S2u/Sx2).
Thus
S2uISt2 = (E,/p)(S2 u/Sx2),
or
S2uJSx2= (1/c2)(S2u/St2),
where
c = J(E/p).
(4.2)
This is the wave equation. The velocity of propagation of the displacement or stress wave in the bar is c.
4.1.3 Torsional vibration of a uniform shaft In the uniform shaft shown in Fig. 4.4 the modulus of rigidity in torsion is G, the material density is p , and the polar second moment of area about the axis of twist is J . From Fig. 4.4,
?T

Sx
dx
=p
J dx
s2e
et2
'
( 7 ) ( @ ) >
228
144
[Ch. 4
or
a2e
(&J
1
a2e
where c = J(G/P).
(4.3)
This is the wave equation. The velocity of propagation of the shear stress wave in the shaft is c.
ax2 = (.)(P)
can be solved by the method of separation of variables and assuming a solution of the form
Y(X,
t ) = F(x)G(t).
Substituting this solution into the wave equation gives dZF(x) 1 a2G(t) G(t) = 7F(xL dX2 c at2 that is,
~
The LHS is a function of x only, and the RHS is a function of t only, so partial derivatives are no longer required. Each side must be a constant,  ( O / C ) ~ say. (This quantity is chosen for convenience of solution.) Then
Sec. 4.11
and G(t) = C sin o t + D cos wt. The constants A and B depend on the boundary conditions, and C and D on the initial conditions. The complete solution to the wave equation is therefore C sin wt
+ D cos wt
(4.4)
Example 32 Find the natural frequencies and mode shapes of longitudinal vibrations for a free  free beam with initial displacement zero. Since the beam has free ends, du/?x = 0 at x = 0 and x = 1. Now
2 2 X = (A(:)
Hence
cos(
) :
x B
(5)
sin( :)x)
(c
sin wt
+ D cos wt
= A(:)
(C sin
wt
+ D cos wr) = 0,
so that
A = 0,
+D COSW~
That is
[Ch. 4
where o = clwavelength. These are the natural frequencies. If the initial displacement is zero, D = 0 and
where B' = B x C .
Example 33 A uniform vertical rod of length 1 and crosssection S is fixed at the upper end and is loaded with a body of mass M on the other. Show that the natural frequencies of longitudinal vibration are determined by
01 J(p/E) tan 01 J(p/E)
= Spl/M
At
x
Also
= 0,
= 0,
and at x
I, F = SE (aulax).
F = SE (aulax)= M(azU/at2).