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General Introductory expressions: The [graph/bar chart/chart] shows/illustrates/represent] The [table] list Summary: In overall It is immediately apparent that

in. There is a significant/considerable discrepancy/difference betweenand n the contrary! To sum up In conclusion Time periods "romto #etween.and ver this/that/the same period ver the course of a day/wee$/year a/the period spanning years! fromto %igher/lower &rates/price' larger/smaller &amounts/number' than the ()year period Interestingly though! . Names Output Turnover Amount Number Demand Consumption Housing/estate prices evenue!income "revenue source#!turnover $xpenditure!outlets!Outgoes Ad%ectives Total "demand/consumption# o&' T(e least/most popular/&avourite

)pectacular

Grap(s $xpressions The stri$ing feature of the [graph]is that *erbs: To increase/rise/go up/surge &slightly/rapidly/steadily/gradually/significantly/considerably' To drop/fall/decline/decrease/go down/dip by. To &a pea$ of/to a high of/ To reach a pea$ at. To reach a bottom *n upward/downward trend in the percentage of change/price/demand during the period shown In almost all of &the cities/groups/categories' e+cept for To remain constant/level off/stable at/steady/stay constant at'/maintain the same' level To e+perience/to be &there be' no change/a levelling out It is evident from the charts that Turning to/,hanging the sub-ect The figures for were fairly similar Names: ,ities/places/companies witnessed Noun/groups/categories experienced/lived/ A "slig(t/s(arp/steady/rapid/+uic, /spectacular/substantial# gro-t(/rise/increase o&'in' A Drop/&all/decrease/decline/dip/reduction/slump o&' in ' 't(e number o& "countable# 't(e amount o& "uncountable# .ringing total'

$xpressions: "to be used -it( groups/categories# 'and'/ respectively

$xpressing t(e 0ovement o& a 1ine *erbs Nouns ise "to# a rise Increase "to# an increase Go up to Gro- "to# gro-t( Climb "to# a climb .oom a boom 2ea, "at# "reac(# a pea, "at# 3all "to# a &all "o&# Decline "to# a decline "o&# Decrease "to# a decrease "o&# Dip "to# a dip "o&# Drop "to# a drop "o&# Go do-n "to# educe "to# a reduction "o&# A slump 1evel out a leveling out No c(ange no c(ange emain stable "at# emain steady "at# )tay "at# )tay constant "at# 0aintain t(e same level Ad%ectives Adverbs

Dramatic dramatically )(arp s(arply Huge (ugely $normous enormously )teep steeply )ubstantial substantially Considerable considerably )igni&icant signi&icantly 0ar,ed mar,edly 0oderate moderately )lig(t slig(tly )mall 0inimal minimally )pectacular Describing t(e )peed o& a C(ange Ad%ectives apid rapidly Adverbs

4uic, +uic,ly )-i&t s-i&tly )udden suddenly )teady steadily Gradual gradually )lo- slo-ly

.ar C(arts 0ore555t(an55 To stand at 2ie C(arts 0aps *erbs To be located To lie 'sout( o& t(e' To t(e sout( Hal& -ay '6 And' )urrounded by To t(e nort( To t(e sout(!east In t(e nort(ern part in&rastructure &eatures

Task 1 Describing trends Related verbs and nouns Understanding data

To &all steadily To rise "rose/risen# gradually To &luctuate -ildly To drop"dropped# slig(tly To &all and t(en level"levelled# o&& To rise"rose# gradually and t(en climb"ed# s(arply To decrease and t(en level o&& To drop suddenly To "s,y#roc,et elative to previous &igures To double To (alve To treble To experienced a "ten!&old# increase Adverbs )teadily Gradually Continuously apidly Dramatically )(arply )uddenly )pectacularly

7ildly "&luctuate# / erratically "c(ange# )lig(tly 0oderately )lo-ly Noticeably Nouns T(ere -as/-ere' 'a steady &all in t(e consumption o& c(ocolate

'a -ild &luctuation in spice exports all over t(e period 66a gradual &all in t(e number o& ne- products 'a signi&icant drop in t(e purc(ases o& tic,ets 'a signi&icant rise in t(e number o& sites on t(e Internet 'a slig(t &luctuation in t(e number o& visitors6 'a sudden decrease in t(e sale o& mangos 'a gradual decline in sugar imports '6a slo- increase in t(e +uality o& &ood in supermar,ets6 'a remar,able &luctuation in t(e number o& air travellers 555 o& 5555 C(ocolate consumption 3ilm production

Task 2 Comparing information contrasting Adverbs in comparisons Comparing and

Comparing 0ore/&e-er "males# t(an "&emales# T(e T* -as more/less popular among "males# t(an "&emales# T(e most/least popular/&avourite &orm o& communication -as t(e Internet As many'as Not as many 'as "Not# As many "&emales# as males c(ose t(e computer 2asive T(e bicycle -as c(osen/selected/named/pic,ed by more/&e-er "males# t(an "&emales# T(e bicycle -as more/less popular among "males# t(an "&emales# Active 0ore/3e-er males t(an &emales c(ose/selected/named/pic,ed/expressed t(eir pre&erence &or t(e bicycle T(e 555club/society attracted/appeal to more males t(an &emales6 T(e 55club attracted a borader range o& people6 In general/ 89!year olds are more involved in societies6 T(e arts and cra&ts society (as t(e greatest/smallest number o& members o&' Only 89 people &rom t(e younger age group are members o& t(e (istorical society )ome "clubs/societies# are clearly more popular -it( one o& t(e groups6

Adverbs in comparisons )lig(tly more/&e-er/less't(an 3airly "+uite# popular -it( )igni&icantly )ubstantially Considerably 0any/slig(tly more 0uc(/slig(tly more/less e6g6 Illiteracy is muc( less common t(an in previous generations 3ar &e-er/more e6g6 T(e ex(ibition attracted &ar &e-er visitors t(an expected6

Almost "as many'as# Approximately 2ractically "as many 'as# $+ually "popular -it(# Comparing and contrasting 7(ereas e6g6 )ome societies are clearly more popular -it( one o& t(e age groups/ -(ereas t(e ar+ueological society is e+ually popular -it( bot( In comparison -it( "noun p(rase# e6g6555and55 clubs attract a broader attract a broader range o& people/ in comparison -it( t(e (istorical society .ut e6g6 T(e 55 (as t(e greatest number o& 25- ! "ear-olds# but is one o& t(e least popular -it( t(e older age group Compared -it( "noun p(rase# e6g6 In general/ t(e 8:!;: year!olds are more actively involved in societies compared -it( t(e older age group6 7(ile e6g6 Only 89 people &rom t(e younger age group are members o& t(e (istorical society/ -(ile t(e &igure &or <9!=9 year olds is about 9: Alt(oug( e6g6 T(e 55social club (as slig(tly more members in t(e younger age brac,et/ alt(oug( it is &airly popular -it( bot( age group6 To c(ange category6 3or t(e "category#/ t(e pattern is reversed "t(e same &or rein&orcing trend# Compared to As opposed to As against

Task T$e passive se%uencing Natural processes Active6 e6g6 t(e river &lo-s &rom its source/ &alls &rom t(e mountains/ meanders t(roug( t(e plateau and merges -it( t(e sea at its mout(6 0anu&acturing process2assive To reac( "-(en t(e air &lo- reac(es (ig( ground and cools do-n/ it condenses to &orm rain6 As a result'# To condense To &orm T(e temperature rises T(e sun s(ines To occur To begin To dry out To groTo cool do-n To open To rise To die/live To drop To turn To perspire "planst#!transpirar To po-er To be manu&actured/(eated/extracted/dug up "&rom t(e ground at t(e mine#/constructed/built/added Cooled "-it( blasts o& cold air/(eated "to a (ig(er tempeture# To be &ormed To be opened To be made To be designed To be produced To be sent To be obtained To be cooled To be (eated To be covered To be trapped To be mined To be planted To be ba,ed To be tested To passed on to

To be driven To be piped To be piped6 1ine -or,er &e%uence 3irstly/ T(en/ a&ter t(e &actory/ it is A&ter t(is A&ter-ards/ 3ollo-ing t(at/ )ubse+uently/ 3rom t(is A&ter t(e 555is collected/ it is sent and t(en55 Once555 t(e is5555/ it is 7(en t(e cycle is completed'' and t(en' As soon as'6 1ater on/ As a result And no- is .e&ore55!>ing/ t(e55 is5555!6

Task ' (eneral and specific statements proportions comparing information describing

&pecific statements- &ee introductor" e)pressions General statement > data6 Data: t(e &igures &or -ere/are 555 and 555 respectively6 T(e average or all students in t(is category is a (e&ty Transition "complete di&&erent trend but not necessarily opposed to t(e previous ones# 0ean-(ile/ t(e pattern &or appears to be slig(tly di&&erent6 2ie c(arts5555 Number categories Group 0ost read six or more 555/ out o& t(is total 8<? read55 and @@?/ -(ic( is almost a t$ird of t$e corresponding figure for555 It is clear t(at555 read more 555t(an eit$er *categor"+ or *categor"+ Overall/ 7e can see t(at 555s(o-ed /&ollo-ed similar trends6 T(e pattern &or -as555 2roportion e+uivalence: T(ree +uarters o& A9? Almost (al& t(e <B? o&/nearly (al& Cust over a +uarter 8=? One t(ird o& ;;? t(ree out o& &our t(e vast/over-(elming ma%ority Cust under one (al& o&/close to one (al& about one in &our One in t(ree $xactly one t(ird

T(e vast/over-(elming ma%ority A tiny minority A massive/impressive/over-(elming A modest/mere D8 per cent A (e&ty E9? A si,eable proportion *opposite of modes+ 2ercentage o&/2roportion o&

Task 5 Describing c$anges Describing c$anges -ntroductor" statements T(e maps s(o-/illustrate/compares t(e developments/c(anges t(at too, place in5555 bet-een555and555"&rom555to555/ over t(e period &rom 55 to 555#6 T(e "place# -as a "muc( greener area# but during t(e 5555"as a result o&# it experienced a number o&/various dramatic c(anges T(e city/to-n under-ent a pro&ound trans&ormation T(e most noticeable/remar,able is t(at5555/ -it( "sub%ect# being5555 to ma,e place &or a 55555 T(e most noticeable di&&erence/c(ange/development -as555 T(e city/to-n under-ent a pro&ound trans&ormation In555t(e to-n -as a muc( "greener/isolated/remote# area'but during t(e next555years t(e to-n experienced a complete trans&ormation Describing locations

2ast verbs $it(er in active or passive &orm T(e local council opened t(e social club .uild"built# Constructed Demolis( Fnoc,"ed# do-n Cut do-n C(op do-n To spring up "appeared suddenly# To be located To lie To be relocated To be reconstructed To be nestling To make .a" for a To give .a" to To be replaced b" To turn into

To be converted into /" 0000 t$e0000 $ad been0000 to Running nort$/sout$ &tretc$ing nort$ 1assive structures T(e area/to-n/city/island experienced/-itnessed/lived a "tremendous/pro&ound# trans&ormation/ -it( t(e clearance o& t(e tress5555 and t(e construction o& T(e area/to-n/city/island experienced/-itnessed/lived a number o& c(anges T(ere -ere spectacular c$anges in t(e to-n centre T(e to-n centre -as c(anged spectacularly T(e to-n centre experienced/-itnessed/lived spectacular c(anges T(e to-n centre c(anged completely T(ere -as a complete transformation o& t(e neig(bour(ood T(e neig(bour(ood -as completely trans&ormed T(e neig(bour(ood experienced a complete trans&ormation T(ere -as a total reconstruction o& t(e residential area T(e residential area -as totally reconstructed T(e residential area -itnessed a total reconstruction T(ere -as a total redevelopment o& t(e old &actories T(e old &actories -ere totally redeveloped T(e old &actories lived a total redevelopment T(ere -as a rebuilding o& t(e old (ouses T(e old (ouses -ere rebuilt T(e old (ouses experienced a reconstruction T(ere -as a complete modernisation o& t(e entertainment district "&incial district# T(e entertainment district -as completely modernised T(e entertainment city -itnessed a complete modernisation T(ere -as a pedestrianisation o& t(e city centre T(e city centre -as pedestrianised/converted into a pedestrian area/ providing and immediate tra&&ic!&ree environment T(e central district -as converted into a pedestrian Gone/ t(at no- is reserved to only pedestrian use and provides a tra&&ic &ree immediate environment6 /"23 .y 8::=/ t(e to-n (ad undergone a pro&ound trans&ormation

.y 8::=/ t(e ro- o& terraced (ouses t(at lied along t(e coastline (ad been demolis(ed to give -ay to a ne- stretc( o& t(e rail-ay6 .y 8::=/ t(e &actory (ad been completely modernised6 Cardinal direction Nort(/sout(/east o& t(e river/stadium/la,e In t(e nort( o& t(e to-n 1repositions In t(e to-n )urrounded by trees .eside t(e rail-ay line 1ocated in t(e nort( A ne- rail-ay -as constructed -(ic( ran &rom t(e station directly nort(/&rom nort( to sout(6 .y t(e sea On t(e s(ores o& t(e la,e T(e -ind turbines -ere paced in t(e sea/ %ust o&& t(e coastline Adittion 0oreover 3urt(ermore'6 3ut(er developments -ere t(e construction o& a marina at t(e mout( o& 4$at remained Only a &e- "trees/(ouses# remained "sout( o& t(e river/ in t(e nort(ern part o& t(e to-n/ in t(e nort(# 3urt(er developments -ere t(e construction o& "-(ere# / a ne- stretc( o& t(e rail-ay/(ig(-ay "&rom 555running directly nort(# Conclusion 5verall/All in all/-n conclusion/# a comparison bet.een t$e t.o *maps+ reveals a c$ange from *a largel" rural+ to a *mainl" rural+ landscape / t$e improvement of t$e infrastructures of t$e cit"

Task 6 Concluding statements Concluding statements &urve"s/opinion -t is clear t$at t$e over.$elming ma7orit" o& "group# are in &avour o& sc(ool visits bet-een countries It is evident t(at about one (al& o& bot( sexes &avoured/-ere in &avour o& increased cultural events 5verall/ %ust over (al& t(e people surveyed &ound 5555 t(e most di&&icult/easy t(ing to adapt to/ -it( a smaller number naming 55555 and 555556 T(e t(ree languages in %uestion# 00#00 and 000# .ere named as t$e most important languages after 8nglis$ b" about e%ual numbers of people3 To conclude# onl" a small minorit" of people feel t$at -t is evident t$at opinions are split almost e%uall" bet.een t$e t$ree options as regards t$e benefit of social cultural events 9ust under $alf t$e people surve"ed are of t$e opinion t$at0000 About $alf of t$e $olida" makers visited -tal" because t$e" .ere interested in000# .$eras t$e food and t$e climated .ere named as t$e most important factors b" appro)imatel" e%ual numbers of t$e remaining tourist3 To sum up#0000 Revision: proportion Nearly a t(ird Almost e+ual numbers Opinions -ere split e+ually bet-een A tiny minority Cust under (al& 55 Nearly t-o!t(irds o& 555 T(e vast ma%ority To account &or =;?/nearly t-o!t(irds o& -ntroductor" e)pression tables3 As can be seen &rom t(e table/ t(e age pro&ile o& people on t(e t-o di&&erent types o& (olidays varies considerably6 As can be seen &rom t(e table/ t(e pattern &or t(ose (oliday ma,ers on t(e t-o types o& (oliday is substantially di&&erent6 concession

T(e age pro&ile o& people on t(e t-o di&&erent types o& (olidays varies considerably 3or example/ 55555555? o& t(ose on555 belong to / but t(e same age group accounts for a small proportion o& t(ose on guided tours6 Ho-ever/ t(e pattern is reversed .$en it comes to/for t(e <D!9: year!olds6 .y contrast/ t(e pro&iles &or bot( 555include almost e+ual proportions &rom t(e "# and "# groups6 ;erbs To belong to "group# To account &or 55? o& 555/to ma,e up55?o&555"category# 3or / -(en it comes to "group# "pattern/category# To include5555"almost e+ual# proportions &rom "groups# Concession Clause "belonged to t(is group#/ alt(oug( only555-ere aged bet-een55and555 Clause "belonged to t(is group#6 Nevert(eless/Ho-ever/ only555-ere aged bet-een55and555 Clause "belonged to t(is group#/ despite accounting &or only5555

Task < Arts and sciences Adverbs Adverbs )lig(tly 0arginally "t(e &igure &or555ended t(e year marginally up# )igni&icantly Considerably )ubstantially "t(e income &or t(e arts centre -as substantially do-n on t(e previous +uarter# Consistently Continuously apidly )uddenly Dramatically 7ildly $rratically Approximately oug(ly Above/belo-5555t(e $H average/ot(er trade member/ot(er $H member states Considerably be(ind555 "per&orm# -ell/badly "good/bad per&ormance# 0arginally/considerably Approximately/exactly Constantly/erratically )lo-ly/rapidly )igni&icantly/)lig(tly Completely/partially Using adverbs to evaluate data Clearly/555 It is clear t(at Interestingly/555 It is interesting to note t(at 2robably/ numbers -ill continue to &all over t(e period It is probable t(at numbers -ill continue to &all' using adverbs to evaluate data avoiding irrelevance

Numbers are li,ely to continue &alling over t(e period It is not surprising t(at t(ere -ere skill s$ortages in t$e c$emical industr" Not surprisingly/ Noticeably/ It is noticeable t(at =ore importantly/ t(e cost o&555is set to &all It is more important t(at Nor surprisingly/55 It is not surprising t(at6 Clerarly/ t(e trend &or5555 -as do-n-ard T(e trend -as clearly do-n-ard Considerably/ sales &ell )ales &ell considerably $vidently/ It is evident t(at/

Task > =aking predictions -ntroduction T(e c(arts provide &orecasts &or t(e annual de&orestation rate in selected regions and -orld-ide toget$er .it$ t(e current opinion on /attitude to-ards concern &or tree loss6 (eneral statement Generally/ it is expected t(at 555-illl gro- until/ t(oug( at varying grades6 factual accurac"

It is predicted/anticipated/pro%ected/expect/&orecast/estimated t(at t(e number/proportion o&55-ill555 T(e prediction /&orecast/estimation/pro%ection is t(at t(e number/proportion/percentage o& -ill 5555 T(e number o&5555 is predicted/anticipated/pro%ected/&orecast/expected/set/estimated to .y 8:D9/ it is expected/predicted/&orecast/anticipated t(at very &e- trees -ill remain in our cities6 many trees -ill be standing in our cities many trees -ill (ave been cut do-n in/removed &rom our par,s .y 8:8:/ it is anticipated t(at many endangered species -ill (ave become extinct6 -reland# .it$ t$e lo.est rate t$roug$out t$e period# .ill e)perience t$e greater overall increase3 -t is anticipated t$at t$e figure .ill rise from 000 in 000to0000 in 0000 and t$en rise more s$arpl" 2assive / active structures Attitudes &omet$ing .ill become important =ore people are concerned about climate c$ange

Task ? @ealt$ ;ar"ing vocabular" $&&ect/impact Hse occupancy Cut/reduction Tendency/trend Considerably/signi&icantly 1o-/ $vident/clear Increase/gro-t(/rise Decrease/&all Dropping/&alling In&ormation/details esult/outcome )a-/experienced Hig( point/pea, )(arp/dramatic Dramatically/rapidly To provide/give/s(oTo (ave an impact on/to (ave an e&&ect on/a&&ected To reac( a pea,/reac(ed its (ig(est point/(it a pea, A similar pattern/trend/movement T(e C(inese (ospital/ by comparison/by contrast/on t(e ot(er (and/ continued to see a rise T(e number o& beds rose &rom around/about/approximately555 T(ere -as a reduction in t(e budget ";9 per cent compared to /as opposed to/as against 555 T(e c(ange in bed use is re&lected/can be seen/can be vie-ed in t(e budget6 C$ecking spelling

Task ? Use of .it$ -t is clear t$at t$e t.o groups .ere influenced b" t$e various factors to different degrees# .it$ 000and000being t$e most relevant3 As regards000*second categor"+ and *second categor"+ t$e relative importance of eac$ factor .as again t$e ot$er .a" round:A and A respectivel" for t$e "ounger# and 00A and 00A for t$e older3 T$e onl" similarit" .as t$at0000 T$e main reason for career c$oice is ambition# .it$ a $eft" 5< per cent c$oosing it3 8nerg" consumption rose# .it$ t$e $ig$est point being in 9anuar"3

-ntroductor" e)pression T(e grap( provides information/details about t(e income trends o& 5555 over t(e last year T(e c(art provides in&ormation about (o- selected/different/number age groups participate in several clubs/societies at a centre &or adults6 "(o- Icategories! verb Iattend/participate/etc6# T(e c(art provides in&ormation about (o- many articles &rom academic %ournals are read -ee,ly T(e diagram illustrate t(e various stages involved in t(e production o& 55/ 55production T(e diagram s(o-s t(e process by -(ic( 5555&orms over a period o& million years T(e diagram s(o-s t(e butter&ly li&e cycle T(e diagram s(o-s t(e various stages/steps in t(e production o& clean energy &rom coal T(e table provides in&ormation about T(e table provides a brea,do-n by "select age group/income source/expenditure # o& (oliday ma,ers on bac,pac,ing and guided tours in 555 T(e c(arts s(o- (o-5555vie-ed di&&erent 5555 on a scale o& easy to di&&icult T(e bar c(art s(o-s t(e result o& a555survey on T(e bar c(art provides in&ormation &rom a gree, survey about t(e reasons &or c(oosing a career among t-o age groups6

Clue: Name complement %ournal articles Iarticles &rom academic %ournal 3re+uency: 2er -ee,/-ee,ly 2er year/annually 2er day/daily Time &rame: Over t(e period &rom 5 to55 .et-een 55 and555 Over t(e course o& During last 555 (rap$/C$art introductor" e)pressions 3rom t(e pie c(art/ it can be seen t(at Jused to c(ange &rom bar c(arts to pie c(artsK

Generally/ it is expected t(at55555-ill gro- until/ t(oug( at varying grades6 T(ere are "t-o# basic general trends: do-n-ard and up-ard6 As regards/ egarding t(e &irst/ '6 Important &act5555 @@@ seems to (ave (ad an e&&ect on bed use It is clear &rom t(e c(art t(at' It is evident &rom t(e c(art t(at' It is apparent &rom t(e c(art t(at' 7e can see &rom t(e c(art'6 As can be seen It is interesting to note Noticeably/ It is noticeable t(at T(e most stri,ing &eature o& t(e c(art is t(at'6 Table introductor" e)pressions As can be seen &rom t(e table/ t(e age pro&ile o& people on t(e t-o di&&erent types o& (olidays varies considerably6 As can be seen &rom t(e table/ t(e pattern &or t(ose (oliday ma,ers on t(e t-o types o& (oliday is substantially di&&erent6

Contrast .y contrast .y -ay o& contrast 5555/ (o-ever/5555 Ho-ever "Category# &ollo-ed t(e reverse pattern Ho-ever/0ean-(ile/ t(e pattern &or "category# -as t(e reverse/substantially di&&erent6 &imilarit" T(e only similarity is t(at'6 )imilarly 555/similarly/555 "Category# &ollo-s/&ollo-ed t(e same pattern 'also ended t(e year up 1i,e-ise/ t(e trend &or 555 -as up-ard/do-n-ard &imilarit" .it$ some differences t(e trend -as up-ard to varying degrees Ho-ever/ t(e increase/&all -as slig(tly less mar,ed &or555

555 / except t(at in555 Addition 3urt(ermore/ 0oreover/ Conclusion T(ere is clear trend to-ards555>ing Use Average beds in use .ed use =one" Income &or "category# $arnings &or "category# 7ages evenue Net / gross income Allocate to )pending on $xpenses on $xpenditure on Outgoings C(arges 3ees Investment cost Outlets )(ortages o& "s,ills/&unds/s,illed -or,ers# in t(e "industry# Culture OrganiGed student exc(anges 1anguage learning International trade agreements )imilar climate and landscape Coint cultural events Transport lin,is Tourism )(ared scienti&ic and tec(nological ,no-!(o2ositive media images

)imilarities in li&estyle and culture To be in &avour o& / against T(e over-(elming ma%ority Arts and sciences T$e brain drain of skilled .orkers like scientist or tec$nicians to ric$ countries is morall" .rong3 Unstoppable @ealt$ To take regular e)ercise To monitor oneBs diet @ave a .ide range of interests To $ave a .ide net.ork of friends To live in t$e countr"side &leep at least seven $ours a .eek3

&urve"s/1olls *oting patterns &or "category# To select To name To express t(e opinion t(at To express t(e concern t(at To pic, To c(oose @@ o& people surveyed &elt/(old t(e opinion/expressed t(at 555-ere pre&erable6 "pre&er# 3actor eason &or 555c(oice/c(oosing a career "&actor # in&luenced It is clear t(at t(e t-o age groups -ere in&luenced by t(e various &actors to di&&erent degrees6 &urve"s/polls/Clubs Category is more/less/t(e most/t(e least popular .it$ group Category $as CC members from t(e group people &rom t(e group are more activel" involved in category"club/society#

T(e "vast ma%ority o& t(e Jgroup K# &eel t(at555 To belong to a group or a categor"3 &tructure ;erbs To attract To appeal =embers$ip of *categor"+stands at To be more/less activel" involved To be more / less / as important t$an / as To be t$e most important factor in / cause for To be more likel" to D verb *group+ under-represented in *categor"+

To $ave more fe.er /members from To be more popular .it$ To be rated To en7o" *st$+ Group!&ocused structures Only @@ &rom t(e "group# are members o& t(e "category# "Group# is more activel" involved in t(e "category# compared -it( t(e "group# '-(ile t(e figure for *group+ is about Ja&ter comparisonK Category!&ocused T(e "category#(as t(e greatest/smallest number o& "group# T(e "category# attracts a broader range o& people )ome "categories# are clearly more/less popular .it$ one o& t(e "groups# T(e "category# (ave slig(tly more members in/o& /&rom "in t(e younger age brac,et/&rom t(e younger age group#/ alt(oug( it is &airly popular -it( "bot(/all o& t(em# 7(ereas t(e average &or t(is 555in t(is category -as Age groups in younger/older age brac,et o&/&or t(e @ to L age group t(ere are @@ members &rom t(e 89!;9 age group/aged bet-een 89 and ;96 <9!=: year!olds T(ose belo-/over t(irty/sixty 1roportion

1roportion of / percentage of T$ose .$o000accounted for A To be more /less likel" =aps ;ocabular" Gol& course ),ate par, T(eatre ail-ay station Concert (all Gallery )tadium Ice rin, 2ar, College Airport Industrial estate A bypass "una circunvalaciMn# 2eace&ul / unspoilt Trees/7oodland T(e 7oodland made -ay &or555 3actory 7are(ouse Construction Trans&ormation Developments/C(anges t(at too, placed/occurred in5555 T(e single d-ellings T(e single!&amily (omes T(e terraced (ouses

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