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1.

INTRODUCTION
When the sliding parts inside each component move, there is wear, and, as a result, wear particles are produced. KOWA (Komatsu Oil and Wear Analysis) is a system for measuring the density of these metal wear particles in used oil. The results of the measurement are then used to judge if the wear condition of the parts lubricated by the oil inside each component (including the condition of corrosion) is normal or abnormal. The size of these wear particles is normally on a scale of only a few microns, so they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In particular, with engine oil, these particles are so small that they can pass easily through the oil filter, and are dispersed throughout the oil. If oil containing such small metal wear particles or dust which has enteredfrom outside is subjected to high temperatures, it emits (or absorbs) light of a wave length that is peculiar to that particular element. KOWA uses this property to measure optically and analyze the density of metal elements in the oil in units of ppm. The method of analyzing the metal content of engine oil using KOWA can detect dust and metal wear particles of micron size which cannot be seen by the naked eye. However, it cannot measure quantitatively particles of a size that can be seen. And it cannot detect beforehand any problems caused by excessive wear due to lack of oil or entry of large amounts of dust. Therefore, with KOWA, the measurement of the density of the minute wear particles and the trend in the changes in that value are used for estimating the condition of wear inside the component and for making judgements regarding preventive maintenance for the component.

2. OIL SAMPLING
2-1 When using sampling pump (Oil sampling tools) (1) Sampling pump (Part number: 799-801-1302)

Weight

: 170g

Overall length: 195mm Outer dia. : 32mm

(2) Sampling kit (Part number: 799-801-1503)

(3) Sampling Procedures

r Sample the oil while it is still warm, for exsample right after the machine is stopped. r Try to sample under the same conditions every time.

Caution

Example (1) Level gauge

Example (2) Replace the tube with a new one after each use. Plug

Cut the tube to the proper length if it is too long. Suc-

Cut

tion resistance will be reduced and smooth sam- Before remove the plug, wipe off all the dirt from around the plug. pling will be ensured. More than 50 mm into the oil (Generally, insert the tube to the same length the level gauge.)

(4) Assemble of the tube and bottle

1 Loosen the round nut.

3 Tighten the nut.

2 Extend the tube about 1.5cm from the lower end of the pump.

4 Screw the sample bottle in the pump.

Fill the bottle to the 80% with oil. 80% Do not fill the bottle to the top. Tighten the cap.

2-2 When using in-line sampler (1) Oil sampling tools

Sampling kit
No. Part name 1 In-line sampler assembly 2 Sampling kit Quick coupler 3 (Cejn) Part number 79A-851-1101 799-801-1503 799-101-5230 799-101-5220 799-101-5160 Remarks New M14 1.5 M10 1.25 PT1/8

Connect the adapter Check if there is an oil pressure pick-up port nipple on the machine.

Width across flats 19mm M14 1.5

Width across flats 17mm PT 1/8

Width across flats 17mm M10 1.25

(2) Sampling Procedures

Press the check valve portion of the self-seal type quick coupler and take a sample of oil from the circuit which is under low pressure. The components where it is possible to sample the oil are as follows. Take a sample of the oil from the final drive (axle, differential) using the sampling pump in the conventional way.
: Possible to take sample Work equipment
K K

) : Impossible to take sample

Component

Engin
Method

Power train
K K

Other units not Final drive under hydraulic (axle, differential) pressure
K K

sampling pump In-linesampler

K K

When taking samples, follow the conditions below.


Component

Conditions Whole speed range (mid-range speed) Neutral Neutral

Engine Power train Work equipment

1 Insert the tube of the sampling kit into the in-line sampler, then cut the tube to a suitable length for use. 2 Remove the cap from the quick coupler and wipe it clean with a cloth. 3 Fit the quick coupler to the in-line sampler for measuring the oil pressure of the component to be sampled. Use a finger to keep the washer portion pressed and hold the bottle in your left hand. In this way, the sample can be taken by one worker in a few seconds. When the pushing pressure is released, the spring force of the self-seal system will automatically close the quick coupler, and the flow of oil will stop. r Precautions when sampling oil 1 Carry out the warming-up operation thoroughly for the component to be sampled in the same way as for the sampling pump. 2 The oil can be sampled if the oil pressure at the sampling point is within a range of 0~60kg/ cm2. (If it is above 60kg/cm2, it is difficult to push the in-line sampler into the quick coupler, so it is impossible to take the sample). 3 For machines where a quick coupler has not yet been installed, remove the oil pressure pickup port, check the size of the screw thread, and install a suitable quick coupler. 4 Before installing the quick coupler, use a cloth to wipe off all the dirt from around the pick-up port. 5 After sampling the oil, dispose of the tube . It cannot be used again.

(3) Filling Out Machine Data Sheets and Check Sheets


The check sheet should be filled out as soon as an oil sample is taken in order to accurately record the service meter reading and various machine conditions. For an accurate evaluation of the results of oil analysis, it is essential to carefully and continuously observe the machine conditions during daily inspection and operation. The man who samples the oil should fill out the check sheet or tell the servicemen in as much detail as possible about the condition of the machines during operation. The servicemen should carefully observe the conditions of machines which are subject to oil sampling.

(4) Sampling Interval


1 Engine a. In case of oil change every 250 hours and 500 hours, sample oil when the oil is changed. b. Sample oil at 10 hours after a major repair. c. Shorten the sampling interval when any reading shows an abnormal increase. 2 Other Iubricated components a. Sample oil every 250 hours for the first 1,000 hours, based on the KOWA program. This rule includes new machine. b. Sample oil every 500 hours after the first 1,000 hours in the program. c. Sample oil between 50 and 250 hours after any major repair. d. Shorten the sampling interval when any reading begins to show an abnormal increase.

3. EVALUATION OF ANALYZED RESULTS

This section outlines how to evaluate the trends of the oil analysis in order to estimate the internal condition of a system. The wear rate of sliding parts in a machine will fluctuate depending on the operating conditions, differences in environment, performance of maintenance, subtle differences which occur during the assembly of the machine, the amount of oil which needs to be added, and the amount of time the oil is used. Scattered values will eventually concentrate themselves into a certain range as long as the machine is in normal condition, and can be rounded to a certain constant value in the long run. A key to success in this service, therefore, is to find the constant value particular to each machine in the shortest possible time, say, between the initial oil sampling and the second or the third sampling. The results of analysis are evaluated in comparison with the constant value to find out how much change occurs each time and the trend of wear. The accuracy of the constant value should improve as more samples are taken.

(1) Range of judgement for KOWA


The range of judgement is as shown in the table below. Take a sample of oil from the components that are lubricated by oil, and carry out an ICP analysis to investigate the density of the wear particles that are contained in the oil.
ICP analysis
Element Component

K : Analyzed element

Fe
K K K K

Cu
K K K K

Cr
K K K K

Al
K K K K

Si
K K K K

Pb
K K K K

Na
K

Engine Power train Final drive Work equipment Other analysis


Component

K : Analysis

Entry of fuel
K

Entry of water
K K K K

Entry of antifreeze
K

PQ Index
K K K K

Engine Power train Final drive Work equipment

(2) General Precautions at Time of Evaluation


1 Do not take it for granted that a rapid increase in the analyzed value indicates a machine failure. Rather, it is necessary to examine all conceivable causes (for examble, a sudden change in load or operating conditions, whether or not the machine was recently overhauled) and to eliminate the unreasonable ones. Other troubleshooting techniques should be used simultaneously. 2 Oil changes and number of service hours have a large influence on changes in concentration. Specifically, after an oil change the concentration will be lower, and the longer the service hours, the higher the concentration.

3 When an oil analysis is first used after the delivery of a new machine, it is necessary to take the initial wear into consideration. 4 The standard values for evaluation are based on 250/500 hours of oil use for the engine and 500 hours of oil use for the other systems. For engines whose oil is changed at 500-hour intervals or systems whose oil is changed at 1000-hour intervals, the standard values should be increased accordingly. In this case, note that the pattern of wear varies with the kind of element and that the wear is not always proportional to the number of hours that the oil has been used. 5 The evaluation of the analyzed results is based on a combination of the highly concentrated elements and the rate of increase. 6 When it is difficult to evaluate fine results or when KOWA data is lacking, resampling should be performed at shorter intervals. 7 The analyzed results should not be evaluated for every sampling. Instead, base the evaluation on trends noticed on a continuing basis. It is also necessary to know how the trend value compares with the standard value for the machine involved.

NOTE: Recently, large amounts of copper have been used as an additive in oil. If the KOWA data for the copper value is abnormally high, test a sample of unused oil to confirm the amount of copper used as an additive. Use the results of this test to set new quidelines for use when carring out KOWA on that oil.

8 SUPPLEMENT 8-1 Standard value and converted concentration. The standard value is provided, as shown in Fig.1.1, to divide the concentration per unit hour into normal, caution and critical ranges. Namely, the standard values are indicated by the minimum and the maximum value of the caution range. For example, they are indicated as (Min. caution value) = 40 ppm or (Max. caution value) = 90 ppm. [Explanation of standard value] Fig. 1.1 Standard value

8-2 Unit hour and converted concentration For comparing the analytical value we get from the Inductively Coupled Plasma with the standard value of concentration, the analytical value has to be converted to the concentration per unit hour (500h or 250h). The standard value indicates a permissable concentration in ppm for each element in oil used for unit hour. Two different unit hours are employed, one for oil used in engines and the other for oil used in units other than engines. The unit hours are shown in Table 1.1 below. Table 1.1 Unit hours for standard value
Oil used in engines Oil used in units other than engines 250/500h 500h

How to convert the analytical value obtained by the Inductively Coupled Plasma to the concentration per unit hour will be as follows: An analytical value of 20 ppm was obtained from hydraulic oil used for 1000hrs. in the hydraulic circuit of work equipment. Since the unit hour for work equipment. hydraulic circuit is 500 hrs, the converted concentration can be obtained as shown below. 20 ppm x 500 h (unit hrs.) 1000 h (hrs. oil wa used)

= 10 ppm

8-3 Criteria for evaluation of analytical values by Inductively Coupled Plasma Analyzer, and evaluation. We introduce here pattern control of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Analyzer values as an example for reference to improve the accuracy of judgement based on the results of analysis using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Analyzer. The pattern control of the analysis values is carried out as shown in Fig. 1.2 Fig. 1.2 Example of pattrn of analytical values obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Analyzer

Judgment is carried out as shown in Table 1.2 from the shape of the pattern.
Table 1.2 Criteria and evaluation Evaluation Criteria When converted concentraWhen converted concentration (*) of newly-obtained tion (*) of newly-obtained analytical value is the standanalytical value is over the ard value (Min. caution standard value (Min. value) or below. caution value). Not more tha 3 times previous value (**) More than 3 times but not Not more than 1.5 times more than 5 times previous previous value (**) value (**) More than 5 times previous More than 1.5 times prevalue (**) vious value (**)

Pattern
A B C Normal Caution Abnormal

Note: * : The converted concentration is a concentration converted to unit hour (See, Chapter 8-1) ** : The previous value is a mean value of three preceding data. If the three data are not available, two or one data will do.

(Note) [Density immediately after oil] When the oil is changed, metal wear elements in the remaining part of the old oil still remain. Therefore, even immediately after changing the oil, the analysis value is not 0,so immediately after changing the oil take a sample and carry out analysis, or calculated the analysis value immedately after changing the oil from the sampling analysis value obtained immediately before changing the oil.

< Oil change ratio > The operation & Maintenance Manual gives the specified oil amounts and oil change amounts for each oil filling location.
(Example)

Oil filling location Hydraulic system

Specified oil amount (R) 230

Oil change amount (R) 170

Therefore, in this example, the oil change ratio is

170 x 100 = 74%. 230

(1) When sampling When carrying out sampling, operate the component to be sampled thoroughly to mix the remaining oil and new oil completely. (2) When calculating analysis value (simple method, less accurate than method(1)) If the sampling analysis value for Fe immediately before changing the transmission oil shows a density of 20 ppm, and the oil change ratio is 74%, the estimated analysis value immediately after changing the oil is as follows. 20 ppm x (1 74 ) = 5.2 ppm 100

< Example of calculating converted density > In a case where the estimated analysis value immediately after changing the oil is 5.2 ppm, and the sampling analysis value after 1000 hours of use shows a density of 30 ppm, the unit time for an actuator circuit is 500 hours, so the converted density is calculated as follows. (30 ppm - 5.2 ppm) x 500h (Unit time) 1000h (Length of use of oil) = 12.4 ppm

(3) Assuming Causes of Defects from the Combination of Highly Concentrated Elements
Table 1
Component

K : Rapid increase or high concentration


Fe K Highly concentrated elements Cu Cr Al Si Pb Na

! : Concentration may become higher


Assumed location of defect

Engine

K K K K

Torque converter, transmission, and steering controls

K ! K K K K

K K

Final drive unit

K K K

! K K ! K

K K ! K K K K

Main Clutch

Liner, crankshaft, timing gear, camshaft, rocker arm, FCD piston Timing gear thrust bearing, bushing for timing gear, piston pin, oil pump, and camshaft, bearing metal for crankshaft Water leaks from oil cooler Crankshaft thrust bearing, turbo thrust bearing, aluminum piston Piston rings Dust (Note 1) Fresh oil contains 10 to 20 ppm of Si as an additive, which, however, will diminish to zero with the lapse of operating time. Gear, bearing Brake linings Dust Clutch plate and disc Thrust bearing metal, retarder brake disc Torque converter (Note 2) For machines with TORQFLOW Fe : Cu = 1 : 2 to 4 (When in normal condition) Gear bearing Bushing, thrust bearing metal Dust (Floating seal) (Note 3) Generally, Al : Si = 1 : 2 to 4 Cylinder rod Cylinder wall, pump gear Pump body Dust Pump side plate, plain bearing, retarder brake disc Plate and disc

Work equipment

Table 2 Parts which may be cause of abnormality in KOWA analysis value for elements on SA12V140
Symbol Fe Element Iron Parts possibly causing problem Crankshaft Camshaft Timing gear Piston Piston ring Cylinder liner Valve guide Oil pump Air compressor cylinder Main bearing Pin bearing Crank thrust bearing Cam bushing Bushing at small end of connecting rod Cam follower roller pin Rocker arm bushing Timing gear bushing Oil pump bushing Turbocharger bearomg Oil cooler core (corrosion) Oil additive (seizure prevention agent) Piston ring Exhaust valve (chrome plated part) Compressor piston Compressor piston rod Entry of dust Entry of dust Oil additive (antifoaming agent) Main bearing overlay Pin bearing overlay Cam bushing Remarks

Cu

Copper

HD785, WA800 only Appears after overlay layer is worn

In this case, there is no problem. Analyze fresh oil.

Cr Al Si Pb

Chromium Aluminum Silicon Lead

} HD785, WA800 only


Check for entry of dust Check for entry of dust In this case, there is no problem. Analyze fresh oil.

(4) Sammary of Evaluation by System


ENGINE r After complating a major repair, the analysis should be performed by collecting oil samples after about 10 hours of operation. This may also serve as confirmation of successful repair. r Take precautions to prevent the ingress of water and fuel. r An increase or decrease of Si, Al content is important, because Si, Al content is a sensitive

monitor of abnormalities in the air intake system. Simple inspection around the air cleaner element may often eliminate troubles. A high Si content does not occur alone. It is always r When Fe and Al are high, it may indicate wear of the pistons and liners. Check the amount of oil consumption, or, if nedessary, confirm the wear by means of a blow-by check and compression check. r When only the Cu content is high, it may be because Cu is set free from the oil pipes of the oil cooler because of the reaction of ingressed water with Cu. However, a high concentration of Cu is not likely to occur because the ingression of water is usually checked and corrected before the water can react with the Cu. r An excessive amount of oil tends to lower the concentration and the use of oil for longer the specified time tends to increase the concentration. (Fe is especially sensitive to this tendency.) Be careful about samples of oil to which a loarge amount of fresh oil has been added. (A low concentration does not always prove that the machine is in normal conditions.) r The Al content from aluminum-based bearings (including thrust earings) is apt to be overr The Pb content may exceed the normal value during break-in operation. The Pb content alone is not significant, therefore, observe it in conjunction with the Cu content. Improper lubrication and the ingress of dust tend to increase the Pb content. whelmed by the Al content coming from pistons or from dust. Be alert to symptoms of trouble, because the former is hard to notice. combined with the presence of Fe, Al, Cu, Pb or Cr. Note hat fresh oil contains about 10 ppm of a Si-bases antifoam agent.

r As can be seen from the preceding explanation, the amount of metal particles in the oil is preduced according to the properties of each sliding part and the operating conditions, such as the speed, load, and temperature of the sliding part. Furthermore, the amount differs for each engine. Therefore, the range of the density of the metal wear particles produced when the engine is operated normally also differs for this reason for each type of engine and the way that the machine is operated by the user. However, the present KOWA standard values are the average values for each machine without any consideration of the type of engine, and are given as a quideline. Fig. 1 Range for each standard value

r Action taken according to KOWA judgement standards It is important to make economic and overall judgement of the KOWA data by comparing it with various analyzed values. In addition, by looking at the data together with the machine history, it is possible to judge the operating condition of the engine, so use the method of reading the administration graph as reference and draw a graph of the changes with the passage of time to make judgement. With a new engine or rebuilt engine, the first few sets of KOWA data may be in the caution range, but this is because of initial breaking in and does not indicate any abnormality, so exclude these data when making judgement. However, if this level does not go down after the initial period, it is necessary to take action.

r Method of reading administration graph of KOWA analysis values When making a graph (such as shown on the left) locally and observing the data, use the following procedure.

1 Put Si and Al (which are common causes) at the top, then put Cr, Fe, Pb, and Cu below them in turn. The reason for this is that if there is entry of dust, Si and Al often show the same trend and it is easier to read the graph. Next, there is a trend for the entry of dust to show effect on the area around the piston, and after that, to show effects on the bearings, so it is easier to see this if the graphs are arranged as shown on the left. 2 If the oil change intervals are much shorter than the standard interval (standard: 250/500 hours), convert the values to the standard interval and plot them on the graph.

r If the value for each element shown in the graph exceeds the caution range three times in succession and shows a tendency to increase ([B] and [C]) or exceeds the caution range ([D]), judge this to be an abnormality and take the action given below according to the element that is causing the problem.

1 If there is a abnormality in the value for Si or Al It is probable that there is dust in the oil. (If there is entry of dust, Si and Al may show the same trend.) Check the connectors and take action, or check other parts where dust may have been sucked in and take the necessary action. If Si is being used as an additive in the oil (antifoaming agent) and a high level of Si is detected, carry out analysis of fresh oil. Then subtract the value for Si in the fresh oil and compare the result with the standard value.

2 If there is any abnormality in the value for Cr or Fe It is probable that there is abnormal wear of the piston ring or liner. In this case, there is probably an increase in the consumption of oil, so inspect all points and check if there is any oil leakage. After this, carry out the checks before starting to check the oil level, then periodically check the amount of oil that is added. If a large amount of oil must be added and there is danger that the oil level may go down to the L level during operations, carry out an overhaul immediately.

3 If there is any abnormality in the value for Pb or Cu It is probable that there is abnormal wear of the bearing. Particularly, if Pb continues to be detected in the caution range, and then abnormal amounts of Cu appear, there has probably been seizure of the bearing, so carry out an overhaul immediately.

r Example of following problem

Dust sucked in m excessive oil consumption m seizure of bearing (Abnormality was detected by KOWA, but no overhaul was carried out and problem advanced to seizure of bearing).

There was the same trend in the increase in Si and Al, dust was being sucked in.

r Example of situation where an overhaul was carried out after Pb and Cu entered the caution range and abnormal wear of the bearing was found.

Example of where Pb entered the caution range and Cu also entered the caution range after this. (wear of bearing)

TORQFLOW TRANSMISSION (INCLUDING STEERING SYSTEM)

r The initial oil sampling and analysis should be performed beween 50 and 250 hours after completion of a major reair. The analysis of the initial oil sample can also be used to confirm whether or not the repair was successful. r The TORQFLOW transmission is subjected to constant wear during ordinary operation, as it is not much affected by the operators skill. Although the ratio of Fe and Cu varies from one machine to another, it is generally Fe:Cu = 1:2 ~ 4 Any large variation from this ratio can be regarded as a symptom of trouble. r An extraordinarily high value of Cu together with the ingress of water indicates trouble with the cooler. (If they use antifreeze the presence of antifreeze can also be detected at the same time.) In the case of dump trucks which equipped with retarder brakes of sintered disc and the oil circulate from TORQFLOW system to retarder brakes, the Cu content should be higher than in other TORQFLOW type machines, except for those equipped with fiber disc type retarder brakes. r Wear of brake linings may also result in a higher Si content. It is necessary to analyze the Mg content to see if the Si content is related to the wear of brake linings. If the Mg content exceeds the ratio of Si:Mg = 2:1, the wear of the brake linings is progressing and, If the Mg content approaches the ratio of Si:Mg = 1:1, the wear is extensive. However, since the Al:Si ratio r Since the torque converter has no sliding parts made of Al and is a highly reliable component, it is almost impossible for the Al content to increase because of torque conberter trouble. Nevertheless, the Al content should be observed just in case. It is ecommended that the Al:Si ratio for dust and dirt be observed regularly. brought about by dust and sand is already known, if an extremely high ratio of Si occurs, the additional portion of Si maybe attributable to wear of the brake linings.

FINAL DRIVE UNIT

r The initial oil sampling should be analyzed between 50 and 250 hours after completion of a major repair. The analysis of the initial oil sample can also be used to confirm whether or not the repair was successful. r If the Fe content is close to the abnormal value, change the oil. When draining oil, inspect the oil for foreign matter such as metallic powder, fragments, and dirt. r Usually Fe content increases along with Si (dirt from outside). It is often accompanied by an increase in Cr and Cu contents and an ingress of water. The Al content also increases in correlation with Si content. Both of these values should be recorded since they are useful when troubleshooting other systems. r There are many chances for dirt to get into the final drive unit, especially if taking oil samples or checking the oil level without paying due attention. You should eliminate as many uncertain factors as possible by cleaning the oil filler plug before removing it. This will facilitate the r If the Si content is gradually increasing, there is potential for oil leakege. Therefore, visual checks in daily inspections and periodic oil level checks should be strictly observed. Look for evaluation because any increase in Si content may be directly releated to a trouble with the final drive unit.

defective floating seals, case, gasket, etc. r If the Si content is still increasing even though you can not find any oil leakage, leaks may be readily located by feeding compressed air (less than 1 kg/cm2) through the oil inspection hole while moving the vehicle body a little.

HYDRAULIC OIL r In hydraulic oil, the content of all the elements is low. This is because of the large volume of oil in relation to the sliding parts involved. Even if a failure occurs, the rate of increase in concentration of the elements will be so small that extra care must be exercized to get an accurate evaluation. r If the Cr content is increasing, the cylinder rod may be warped or scratched. In this case, dust r If the Si content is increasing, it may be because of defective dust seals on the rods or improper fitting of the hydraulic tank cap. Also, water is likely to enter the hydraulic oil together with Si. r An increase in Al content is caused by either Al powder coming from the pump body or dust coming in from outside. Since the absolute amount of Al is small, however, it is difficult to judge. Just because the analyzed value shown an increase in Al does not mean that the pump is defective. Attention should be paid to other symptoms as well in order to locate the trouble. r An increase in Fe content useally indicates damage inside the cylinder and wear of the pump. r In general, an increase in Cu content is caused by defects on the pump side plate and plain bearings, but its absolute value is too small to make judgement easily. Some cylinders have metallic (Cu) piston rings. In these cases, a high Cu content may be detected even under normal conditions. Confirm this damage by checking other possible symptoms such as hydraulic drift or lack of power. seals and rod seals may also be defective. The presence of oil leakage is also an important factor.

(5) Assuming the Extent of Wear


The unit used in analysis is ppm (parts per million). For example, 250 ppm is equal to 250 out of one million. ppm can be used to express the ratio by weight or the ratio by volume. In the OIL ANALYSIS, however, it is used as follows: 1 ppm = 1 gram of the element 1,000,000 ml of oil

For example, lets assume that 250 ppm of Fe was detected in the final drive unit of D155A. Since the specified oil capacity is 55 liters, 55 (or 55,000ml) x 250g 1,000,000 ml = 13.7g

This shows that 13.7 g of Fe is suspended in the oil, assuming that the correct oil level is maintained. To convert this into volumetric figure, the specific gravity of Fe, 7.9, is used. That is, 13.7g = 1.73 cm3 7.9 g/cm3 Although there are some uncertain factors such as the impracticability of making a 100 per cent complete oil change or the attraction of larger wear particles by a magnetic plug, it is possible to estimate the gross wear by accumulating values obtained at every oil change. It is impossible to estimate the wear of every individual part however. This same rule applies to Cu, Cr, Al, and Pb. Before proceeding to the analysis, it is necessary to be familiar with element composition ratio for individual parts and also the structure of the systems. The conversion for Si is a little troublesome. As described above, the ratio of dirt:Si is expressed by dirt:Si = 100:28. Therefore, an approximate quantity of dirt is calculated as follows: Quantity of dirt = Calculated quantity of suspended Si a 0.28 In reality, however, the quantity of dirt is greater than the value obtained above, since the analysis can not detect 100 per cent of the Si.

4. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR EVALUATION


(1) Characteristics of Elements
Fe ----- Roughly proportional to the number of hours the oil has been used. The Fe content is influenced by the residual contamination and history of oil changes.

Cu ----- Unlike Fe, the Cu content is not proportional to the number of hours the oil has been used. The trend of Cu content can be illustrated as shown in the graph below.

Cr ----- Concentration is usually low. Although the Cr content is roughly proportional to the number of hours the oil has been used, this is not very significant because it is at such a low level. The Cr value will be meaningful only after excessive wear occurs.

Al ----- Difficult to predict the location of trouble because some Al comes from dust (Al2 O3 , SiO2 , etc.) in addition to that which comes from Al parts. Pay attention to the Al content which comes from the wear of parts, since a small amount may indicate serious trouble.

Si ----- The Si content usually comes from dust (Al2 O3 , SiO2 , etc). Note that fresh oil contains about 10 ppm of Si-based antifoaming agent. This is an organic Si which does not accelerate wear of parts directly and will disappear with the lapse of operating time. The tendency of the Si content is as follows.

Pb ----- Only the lead contained in the engine oil is analyzed. The Pb content may exceed the normal value during the break-in period. By itself, the Pb content is not significant. It has a close correlation to Cu content. Na ----- This is contained in antifreeze. It applies only to engine oil. If large amounts are detected, there is probably leakage of coolant into the engine oil.

(2) Relation between Si and Al due to Intrusion of Dust


The average chemical composition of rocks is generally reported as follows.
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Ca Na K Mg 59.09% / Si 15.35 / Al 7.29 3.60 2.97 2.57 2.11 27.61% 8.12

Rock

Al : Si = 1 : 3.4

The above ratio will vary to some extent depending on properties of soil at the site where the machine is operated. ( 1 : 2 to 4 ) If the Si content is high, you may sagely assume that some of the Al content came from dust. If Al parts are not used on the machine, the entire Al content comes from dust.

(3) Introduction of the KOWA standard values for the engine oil changing interval of 500 hours
[ Complying with the oil changing interval of 500 hours ! ]
With recent engines, the oil changing interval is being prolonged to 500 hours. Pursuant to this prolongation, we changed the sampling time of the KOWA to 500 hours and the standard values have been revised as follows. 1. Standard values for the 500 hour changing interval The standard values are being preset after conversion to 500 hours similar to the case of other equipment and they are about 1.5 times as much as the current standard values ( after conversion to 250 hours ). Although the interval time has been doubled from 250h to 500h, be careful that the standard values will not be doubled like the interval time did.
Unit: ppm
Current interval of every 250H Abnormal Caution range range 1 or more and 2 or more less than 2 New interval of every 500H Abnormal Caution range range 1 or more and 2 or more less than 2

Element Fe Cu Cr Al Si Pb Na

1 45 15 5 8 20 25 50

2 95 45 15 16 40 80 100

Element Fe Cu Cr Al Si Pb Na

1 70 25 10 10 30 40 75

2 150 70 25 25 60 120 150

2. Applicable engines 500 hour oil change interval engines are as per the Parts sales handbook including the following engines. Regarding the standard values for respective engine models, refer to the attached file. SAA4D102E-2, SAA6D102E-2, SAA6D114E-2 S6D125E-2, 3, SA6D125E-3, SAA6D125E-3 SA6D140E-3, SAA6D140E-3, SDA6D140E-3 SA6D170E-3, SAA6D170E-3

3. Ground for calculation of the new standard values 1) Standard values The standard values of the KOWA is being set up on the premise that the metallic abrasion chips being contained in the oil will increase in proportion to the using time of the oil. From this theory, if the capacity of the oil pan is the same and if the oil changing interval is 2 times longer, the standard values will also become 2 times as much . However, the capacity of the oil pan after prolongation of the oil changing interval to 500 hours has been set to, for example, about 1.4 times as much as the capacity of the previous oil changing interval . On the other hand. the engine is always consuming the engine oil and the total quantity of the metallic abrasion chips being contained in the engine oil decreases together with the consumption of the oil by the engine and, as the new engine oil is added to supplement the consumption, the concentration of the metallic abrasion chips in the engine oil will also decrease. The rate of decrease of the concentration of the metallic abrasion chips in the engine oil is in proportion to the rate of consumption of the engine oil. (Refer to Fig. 1) With regard to the aforementioned circumstances and in consideration of the actual oil change interval data, we shave set the new standard values to about 1.5 times as much as the current standard value .

Progress of the concentration of the metallic abrasion chips in the engine oil in consideration of foil consumption ( In case oil is supplemented at every 50 hours)
3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Fig.1
Oil consumption rate
!.!"# !.$# !.%# !.&#

S ervic e m eter

2) The reason why the sampling interval was set to 500 hours Judging from the actual oil change interval data, sampling is being made at the time of changing the engine oil and, therefore, the standard value should better match the above status, thus having been set to 500 hours. (Refer to Fig. 2)

A ctual oil c hange interval data

Fig. 2

551 hours or more 501~550 hours or les s 451~500 hours or les s 401~450 hours or les s 250~400 hours or les s 250 hours or les s

3 31 35 0 10 13 0 10 20 Num ber of cas es 30 40

4. Comparisons of the standard values in case of 250 hour oil change interval and the standard values in case of 500 hour oil change interval Shown below are comparisons of actual measurement data by each element of the case of the HD785-3 (standard values in case of 250 hour oil change interval) and the HD785-5 (standard values in case of 500 hour oil change interval). [Factual measurement data in case of the HD785-3] (250 hours) (Analysis results of iron)
Fe(Caution range: 45-95, Abnormal range: 95 or more)
200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Service meter 30,000

[Factual measurement data in case of the HD785-5] (500 hours) (Analysis results of iron)
Fe(Caution range: 70-150, Abnormal range: 150 or more)
200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Service meter

Abnormal
range

Value of analysis (ppm)

range

Value of analysis (ppm)

Abnormal
Caution range

Caution range

35,000

20,000

(Analysis results of copper)


Cu(Caution range: 15-45, Abnormal range: 45 or more)
150 135 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Service meter 30,000
Value of analysis (ppm)

(Analysis results of copper)


Cu(Caution range: 25-70, Abnormal range: 70 or more)
150 135 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Service meter

Value of analysis (ppm)

Abnormal
range

Abnormal
range Caution range
35,000

Caution range

20,000

[Actual measurement data in case of the HD785-3] (250 hours) (Analysis results of chromium )
Cr(Caution range: 5-15, Abnormal range: 15 or more)
30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Service meter 30,000

[Actual measurement data in case of the HD785-5] ( 500 hours) (Analysis results of chromium )
Cr(Caution range: 10-25, Abnormal range: 25 or more)
30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Service meter

Abnormal
range

Value of analysis (ppm)

range

Value of analysis (ppm)

Abnormal

Caution range

Caution range

35,000

20,000

(Analysis results of aluminum)


Al(Caution range: 8-16, Abnormal range: 16 or more)
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Service meter 30,000

(Analysis results of aluminum)


Al(Caution range: 10-25, Abnormal range: 25 or more)
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Service meter

Value of analysis (ppm)

Value of analysis (ppm)

Abnormal
range

Abnormal
range Caution range
35,000

Caution range

20,000

[Actual measurement data in case of the HD785-3] (250 hours) (Analysis results of silicon)
Si(Caution range: 20-40, Abnormal range: 40 or more)
150 135 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Service meter 30,000

[Actual measurement data in case of the HD785-5] ( 500 hours) (Analysis results of silicon)
Si(Caution range: 30-60, Abnormal range: 60 or more)
150 135 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Service meter

Value of analysis (ppm)

Value of analysis (ppm)

Abnormal
range Caution range

Abnormal
range Caution range
35,000

20,000

(Analysis results of lead)


Pb(Caution range: 25-80, Abnormal range: 80 or more)
150 135 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Service meter 30,000

(Analysis results of lead)


Pb(Caution range: 40-120, Abnormal range: 120 or more)
150 135 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Service meter

Abnormal
range

Value of analysis (ppm)

range

Value of analysis (ppm)

Abnormal

Caution range
35,000

Caution range

20,000

In consideration of the above actual measurement data, we determined the standard values for 500 hour oil changing interval .

5. OTHER ANALYSIS
Besides wear analysis by INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASM SPECTROMETER (ICP), the KOWA program also includes a test to detect the presence of water, fuel, and antifreeze in the oil. The methodfor judging the analytical results obtained from such analyses is described below.

(1) Checking for Water Mixed in Lubricating Oil


1 Bad influence from water If water is mixed in the oil, will deteriorate and emulsify, lose some of it lubricity, and possibly cause other damage. 2 How water gets in the oil: e Water can enter from the cooling system. e Water can formed by the condensation of moisture in the oil pan due to change of temperature. Very little water is produced by condensation. If you notice a sudden increase of water, it is more reasonable to assume water leakage. 3 Method of checking for water A hot plate is used to check to water. The existence of water is judged by seeing whether or not bubbles of steam are produced by putting one or two drops of oil on a metal plate heated to approx ............... 150: (300<). The degree of bubbling is judged in comparison with a standard oil sample whose ratio of water to oil is known beforehand (for instance, 0.2%, 0.1%).

4 Method of judgement
Applicable equipment
Engine e Work equipment

Condition of bubbles produced No change Bubbles of approx. 0.5 mm are produced a little but soon disappear. Bubbles of approx. 2 mm are produced, gather to the center, grow 3 ~ 4 mm but disappear soon. Bubbles of 2 ~ 3 mm are produced and grow to 3 ~ 4 mm. This process is repeated 2 ~ 3 mm times. If there is too much water, violent bubbling may occur. No change Bubbles of approx. 0.5 mm are produced a little but soon disappear. Bubbles of approx. 2 mm are produced, gather to the center, grow 3 ~ 4 mm but disappear soon. Bubbles of 2 ~ 3 mm are produced and grow to 3 ~ 4 mm. This process is repeated 2 ~ 3 mm times. If there is too much water, violent bubbling may occur.

Water mixing ratio (%) 0 0.05 ~ 0.1 0.1 ~ 0.2

Measure to be taken ! None ! Changing oil is advisable. ! Changing oil is advisable. ! Check for water leakage. ! Changing oil at once. ! Check for water leakage.

0.2 and more

Swing machinery e Mission e Final

0 0.05 ~ 0.1 0.1 ~ 0.5

! None ! Changing oil is advisable. ! Changing oil is advisable. ! Check for water leakage. ! Changing oil at once. ! Check for water leakage.

0.5 and more

If excess of water is detected, you can wether it is due to cooling water or condensation. Find out if antifreeze is used in the cooling water. If so, check the oil for antifreeze. NOTE: When the oil for the receiver tank of compressor (EC series) is used to lubricate the compressor, it always absorbs the moisture contained in the air. As a result, it shows a certain amount of moisture. For this reason, we cannot set any rules for the water cannot for receiver tank oil. Please keep to the oil change intervals specified in the operation manual.

(2) Checking for Antifreeze (ethylene glycol) Mixed in Lubricating Oil


Antifreeze contains Na. Therefore, only the engine oil is analyzed. With the Shimazu ICP at present used at the domestic analysis center, Na is detected, but this analysis can be used for judging the approximate amount of antifreeze which has leaked in. Standard value: Caution 50 ppm, Critical 100 ppm 1 Bad influence of antifreeze As mentioned in section 8.1, water will cause the oil to lose some of its lubricity. Antifreeze promotes the oxidation of oil. Varnish and deposits will increase, the cylinders and piston rings will be subject to damage, and more breakdowns will occur. 2 How antifreeze gets in the oil. If antifreeze is in the lubricating oil, it indicates that water is leaking from the cooling system. If excess water is detected by the water checking method and if the existence of water is confirmed by checking antifreeze, it is necessary to check the cooling system for faults. 3 Method of checking for antifreeze A colorimetric analysis with the use of a chemical change is used to check for antifreeze. In this method, if there is antifreeze in the oil a distinctive color will be produed by the chemical change of the oil and the reagent. This method is only useful for checking for the presence of antifreeze in oil, the percentage of antifreeze cannot be obtained.

4 Method of judgement
Presence of antifreeze Colorless, light pink, or colors other than the ones below. Pink-purple in 10 minutes after reagent is added and stirred. No Yes Measure to be taken No need. ! Changed oil. ! Repair water leakage.

NOTE: There are two kinds of antifreeze, a permanent (ethylene glycol) and semipermanent (mixture of ethylene glycol and alcohol). Note the different content (%) of ethylene glycol when a sample is tested. The content (%) of wthylene glycol is generally as follows: Permanent type Approx. 98% Semi-permanent type Approx. 50%

(3) Checking for Fuel Mixed in Lubrication Oil


1 Bad influence of fuel in the oil Fuel, if a mixed in oil, will decreases the viscosity of oil and its lubricity. 2 How fuel gets in the oil In some cases, the fuel does not burn completely in the combustion chamber. The unburned fuel is scraped off by a piston ring and enters the oil pan. In addition, the fuel injection pump on many of the latest models is lubricated by engine oil. There are many opportunities for fuel to enter through this lubrication system. 3 Method of checking for presence of fuel. Compare the flash point of new oil and sampled oil (fuel mixing oil) by means of a flash point test. The percentage of fuel mixed in the oil can be judged from the degree of fall of the flash point. A graph which correlates the fuel mixing ratio and flash point should be worked out before testing. In this connection, the flash points for various amounts of fuel mixed in SAE #10W and #30 (SAE #5 and #40 may also be needed) should be plotted. For reference, Komatsu specifies the flash point of new oil as follows:
Specified flash point of various kinds of oil Engine oil SAE #5W SAE #10W SAE #30W SAE #40W Specified flash point Min. 180 : (356<) 200 : (392<) 220 : (428<) 225 : (437<)

Example of fuel mixing ration - flash point

4 Method of judgement
Fuel mixing ratio (%) 0 Measure to be taken None If engine BOSCH pump is use - No particular problem. If engine PT pump is use - Change oil. Locate the cause of fuel mixing. Change oil. Locate cause of fuel mixing.

Less than 2%

2% or more

NOTE: The usable limit for engine oil equivalent to SAE #30 is flash point of 180:(356<), and fuel mixing ratio (diesel fuel) of 2 - 3%