You are on page 1of 156

Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering Nowowiejska 21/25 0-665 Warsaw Poland

Katholieke Hogeschool Brugge-Oostende Departement Industrile wetenschappen & Technologie Zeedijk 101 8400 Oostende Belgi

Final Project:

The Conception of Turbojet Maintenance System


Made by Laurens Vanhoyland Stefan Van der Jonckheyd

Promoter: Reviewer:

PhD. Eng. Miroslaw Muszynski Prof. DSc. Eng. Andrzej Teodorczyk May 2009

Announcement
This Project was made by students and can contain faults because errors during the defense were not corrected. Possible mistakes made during the writing of this project were corrected by our promoter PhD. Eng. Miroslaw Muszynski. This project can be used as a reference after positive advice from our promoter PhD. Eng. Miroslaw Muszynski and reviewer Prof. DSc. Eng. Andrzej Teodorczyk.

Preface
We were glad that we have had the privilege of spending our last semester of study at the Warsaw University of Technology. We would like to thank all the people that made this possible for us. Especially we want to thank our mentor PhD. Eng. Miroslaw Muszynski for the support in this final project and Prof. DSc. Eng Andrzej Teodorczyk for reviewing it. We also would like to thank the people from LOT polish airlines for the educational practical training they provided us with, Especially MSc. Eng. Krzysztof Buczko and Miroslaw Siwinski.

Of course this Socrates adventure would not be possible if we didnt have support from the people of KHBO in Belgium, especially Eng. Roland Defever. At last we want to thank the rest of the people who helped us and supported us during these great 4 months.

Abstract
This project deals with the conception of turbojet maintenance system. In it, we discuss all the different aspects concerning this subject, for example, the architecture, damages, testing and different kinds of maintenance.

We start in the first part with a global overview of all the different kinds of engines and general performance characteristics of different kinds of engines. Following this is an overview of the main systems which are needed on the engine. A next major section in this project deals with the most common damages that could occur in jet engine parts and systems. To detect these damages we have a lot of methods of inspection, these methods are described in a next major part. After the global overview of maintenance of a turbojet engine, we gave our own conception about the way of effective maintenance can be done for a Turbojet engine in our opinion, this is the most important part of this final project.

Keywords:

Turbojet Engines Engine Testing

Engine Performances On Condition Maintenance

Typical Damages FADEC

Conception of Turbojet Maintenance

Table of contents
Announcement ................................................................................................................... 2 Preface ................................................................................................................................ 3 Abstract .............................................................................................................................. 4 Table of contents ............................................................................................................... 5 List of figures ..................................................................................................................... 9 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................... 12 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 15 1. General characteristics and performances of aircraft engines ........................... 16 1.1. Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 16 1.1.1.Air breathing Engines .......................................................................................... 16 1.1.1.1. Introduction ........................................................................................... 16 1.1.1.2. Turbojet ................................................................................................. 17 1.1.1.3. Turbofan ................................................................................................ 18 1.1.1.4. Turboprop.............................................................................................. 20 1.1.1.5. Turboshaft ............................................................................................. 21 1.1.1.6. Ramjet ................................................................................................... 22 1.1.1.7. Pulsejet ................................................................................................. 23 1.1.1.8. Pulse Detonation Engine ....................................................................... 24 1.1.2.Rocket Engines ................................................................................................... 24 1.2. Performances ........................................................................................................ 25 1.2.1.Introduction .......................................................................................................... 25 1.2.2.Thrust Equivalent Horse Power (TEHP) .............................................................. 27 1.2.3.Specific Fuel Consumption SFC .......................................................................... 28 1.2.4.Variations of thrust with engine RPM................................................................... 28 1.2.4.1. Centrifugal or Single Spool Axial Flow Engines .................................... 28 1.2.4.2. Twin Spool Engines............................................................................... 29 1.2.4.3. Triple Spool Engines ............................................................................. 30 1.2.5.Engine Power Nominations ................................................................................. 30 1.2.6.Variations with altitude change ............................................................................ 31 1.2.6.1. Turbojet engine ..................................................................................... 31 1.2.6.2. Turboprop engine .................................................................................. 32 1.2.7.Variation of Thrust with Temperature .................................................................. 33 1.2.7.1. Above ISA ............................................................................................. 33 1.2.7.2. Below ISA.............................................................................................. 34 1.2.8.Variations with aircraft speed............................................................................... 35 1.2.8.1. Turbojet engine ..................................................................................... 35 1.2.8.2. Turboprop engine .................................................................................. 36 2. General characteristics of turbojet parts and systems ........................................ 37 2.1. Main Parts .............................................................................................................. 37 2.1.1.Inlet...................................................................................................................... 37 2.1.1.1. Subsonic Inlets ...................................................................................... 37 2.1.1.2. Supersonic Inlets ................................................................................... 38 2.1.1.3. Static Inlets............................................................................................ 39 5

2.1.2.Fan ...................................................................................................................... 40 2.1.3.Compressor ......................................................................................................... 40 2.1.3.1. Centrifugal Compressor ........................................................................ 41 2.1.3.2. Axial flow Compressor........................................................................... 42 2.1.4.Combustor or Combustion chamber .................................................................... 43 2.1.4.1. Can-type Combustors ........................................................................... 44 2.1.4.2. Annular-type Combustors...................................................................... 45 2.1.4.3. Can Annular-type Combustors .............................................................. 46 2.1.5.Turbine ................................................................................................................ 46 2.1.6.Outlet ................................................................................................................... 47 2.1.7.Afterburner........................................................................................................... 50 2.1.8.Thrust Reverser ................................................................................................... 51 2.1.9.Accessory Gearbox ............................................................................................. 52 2.2. Main Systems ........................................................................................................ 52 2.2.1.Lubrication system............................................................................................... 52 2.2.1.1. Oil Tank ................................................................................................. 54 2.2.1.2. Oil Pump ............................................................................................... 55 2.2.1.3. Oil filter .................................................................................................. 56 2.2.1.4. Magnetic Plugs or Chip Detector ........................................................... 56 2.2.2.Fuel system ......................................................................................................... 58 2.2.3.Internal Air system ............................................................................................... 58 2.2.4.Engine Start system ............................................................................................ 60 2.2.5.Ignition system..................................................................................................... 60 2.2.5.1. Igniter plugs ........................................................................................... 61 2.2.6.Noise suppression ............................................................................................... 63 2.3. Summary ................................................................................................................ 64 3. Typical Damages in Turbojet engine ..................................................................... 65 3.1. Sorts of damages in turbojet engine ................................................................... 65 3.1.1.Bending ............................................................................................................... 65 3.1.2.Curled .................................................................................................................. 65 3.1.3.Cracked ............................................................................................................... 66 3.1.4.Gouged ................................................................................................................ 66 3.1.5.Broken Blades ..................................................................................................... 67 3.1.6.Dents ................................................................................................................... 67 3.1.7.Nicks .................................................................................................................... 68 3.1.8.Deposits .............................................................................................................. 68 3.1.9.Overheating ......................................................................................................... 69 3.2. Specific damages in Parts .................................................................................... 70 3.2.1.Typical damages in Fan/Inlet ............................................................................... 70 3.2.2.Typical damages in Compressor ......................................................................... 71 3.2.3.Typical damages in Combustor ........................................................................... 72 3.2.4.Typical damages in turbine .................................................................................. 73 3.3. Specific Damages in Systems.............................................................................. 73 3.3.1.Typical damages in the fuel system..................................................................... 73 3.3.2.Typical damages in the Ignition system ............................................................... 74 3.3.3.Typical damages in the thrust reversing system .................................................. 75 3.3.4.Typical damages in the internal air system.......................................................... 75 3.3.5.Typical damages in the oil system ....................................................................... 76 3.4. Summary ................................................................................................................ 76 6

4.

Methods of engine testing ...................................................................................... 77

4.1. Universal Methods of Testing .............................................................................. 77 4.1.1.Non-destructive Testing NDT ........................................................................... 77 4.1.1.1. Visual Inspection ................................................................................... 77 4.1.1.2. Liquid Penetrant Inspection ................................................................... 78 4.1.1.3. Eddy Current Testing ............................................................................ 79 4.1.1.4. Radiographic Testing ............................................................................ 81 4.1.1.5. Ultrasonic Testing.................................................................................. 82 4.1.1.6. Thermography ....................................................................................... 84 4.1.1.7. Magnetic Particle Inspection ................................................................. 86 4.1.1.8. Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program - SOAP......................................... 87 4.1.1.9. Vibration Measurements ....................................................................... 89 4.1.1.10. Acoustic Emission Testing .................................................................... 91 4.1.2.Destructive Testing - DT ...................................................................................... 93 4.1.2.1. Stress Test ............................................................................................ 93 4.1.2.2. Crash Test............................................................................................. 94 4.1.2.3. Fatigue Test .......................................................................................... 95 4.1.2.4. Hardness Test ....................................................................................... 96 4.1.2.5. Metallographic Tests ............................................................................. 98 4.2. Methods on (Engine) Aviation Testing ................................................................ 99 4.2.1.Visual inspection................................................................................................ 100 4.2.2.Liquid penetrant inspection ................................................................................ 103 4.2.3.Eddy current testing........................................................................................... 103 4.2.4.Ultrasonic testing ............................................................................................... 104 4.2.5.Thermography ................................................................................................... 105 4.2.6.Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program .................................................................. 107 4.2.7.Vibration measurements .................................................................................... 108 4.2.8.Acoustic emission testing .................................................................................. 109 4.2.9.X-ray .................................................................................................................. 110 4.3. Summary .............................................................................................................. 112 5. The conception of turbojet maintenance systems ............................................. 113 5.1. General requirements for maintenance system ............................................... 113 5.1.1.Maintenance philosophies ................................................................................. 113 5.1.1.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 113 5.1.1.2. Hard time............................................................................................. 113 5.1.1.3. On condition ........................................................................................ 115 5.1.1.4. Condition monitoring ........................................................................... 121 5.1.2.Engine construction requirements for on condition maintenance system .......... 121 5.1.2.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 121 5.1.2.2. Modular Construction .......................................................................... 122 5.1.2.3. Modular Maintenance Concept ........................................................... 124 5.1.2.4. Inspection Holes .................................................................................. 124 5.1.2.5. Monitoring and Diagnostic Systems .................................................... 125 5.1.3.Engine Monitoring and Diagnostic Systems (ECU) ........................................... 125 5.1.3.1. General ............................................................................................... 125 5.1.3.2. FADEC ................................................................................................ 126 5.1.3.3. HIDEC ................................................................................................. 127 5.1.3.4. HUMS.................................................................................................. 128 7

5.1.4.Engine parameters for monitoring system ......................................................... 128 5.1.4.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 128 5.1.4.2. Thrust and Power Measuring Instruments........................................... 129 5.1.4.3. Engine Torque ..................................................................................... 130 5.1.4.4. Engine RPM ........................................................................................ 132 5.1.4.5. Temperature Sensing Equipment ........................................................ 136 5.1.4.6. Turbine Gas Temperature ................................................................... 139 5.1.4.7. Pressure Sensing Equipment .............................................................. 141 5.1.4.8. Engine Vibration .................................................................................. 145 5.1.4.9. Fuel Flow meter .................................................................................. 146 5.2. Proposal for Turbojet Maintenance System ..................................................... 148 5.2.1.Introduction ........................................................................................................ 148 5.2.2.Block Diagram ................................................................................................... 149 5.2.3.Components ...................................................................................................... 150 5.2.4.Operational Systems ......................................................................................... 151 5.2.5.Fluid Systems .................................................................................................... 151 5.2.6.Database ........................................................................................................... 152 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 153 References ..................................................................................................................... 154

List of figures
Figure 1: Gas Generator .................................................................................................... 16 Figure 2: Turbojet engine ................................................................................................... 17 Figure 3: General Electric J79 ........................................................................................... 18 Figure 6: Turboshaft Engine .............................................................................................. 21 Figure 7: Ramjet ................................................................................................................ 23 Figure 8: Pulsejet ............................................................................................................... 23 Figure 9: Detonation Engine .............................................................................................. 24 Figure 10: Rocket Engine .................................................................................................. 24 Figure 11: Pressures and Temperatures at various locations through the engine ............. 25 Figure 12: Output of an Fan Engine ................................................................................... 26 Figure 13: Output of a Turbo Shaft Engine ........................................................................ 27 Figure 14: TEHP ................................................................................................................ 27 Figure 15: Thrust of Single Spool Engine .......................................................................... 29 Figure 16: Thrust of Twin Spool Engine ............................................................................. 29 Figure 17 & 18: Variations of Thrust with Altitude (Turbojet Engine) ................................. 31 Figure 19 & 20: Variations of Thrust and SFC with Altitude (Turbojet Engine) .................. 31 Figure 21 & 22: Variations of SHP & Jet Thrust with Altitude (Turboprop Engine)............. 32 Figure 23 & 24: Variations in TEHP & SFC with Altitude (Turboprop Engine) ................... 33 Figure 25: Variations of Thrust with Temperature (Above ISA).......................................... 33 Figure 26: Variations of Thrust with Temperature (Below ISA) .......................................... 34 Figure 27: Variations of Thrust with Speed (Turbojet Engine) ........................................... 35 Figure 28, 29 & 30: Variations of SHP & Jet Thrust & TEHP with Altitude (Turboprop) ..... 36 Figure 31: Subsonic Inlet ................................................................................................... 38 Figure 32: Supersonic Inlet ................................................................................................ 39 Figure 33: Static Inlet ......................................................................................................... 39 Figure 34: Fan ................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 35: Progression of Pressure and Velocity through Compressor ............................. 41 Figure 36 & 37: Centrifugal Compressor............................................................................ 42 Figure 38: Axial Flow Compressor ..................................................................................... 43 Figure 39: Working Principle of Combustor ....................................................................... 44 Figure 40: Can-Type Combustor ....................................................................................... 45 Figure 41: Annular-Type Combustor .................................................................................. 45 Figure 42: Can Annular-type Combustor ........................................................................... 46 Figure 43: Turbine ............................................................................................................. 47 Figure 44: Basic Nozzle ..................................................................................................... 48 Figure 45: Subsonic & Supersonic Outlet .......................................................................... 49 Figure 46: Adjustable Exhaust, Nozzle .............................................................................. 49 Figure 47: Principle of Afterburner ..................................................................................... 50 Figure 48A: Thrust Reverser.............................................................................................. 51 Figure 48B: Accessory Gearbox ........................................................................................ 52 Figure 49: Lubrication System ........................................................................................... 53 Figure 50 & 51: Oil Supply and Oil Scavenge System ....................................................... 54 Figure 52: Oil Tank ............................................................................................................ 54 Figure 53: Magnetic Plug Detector .................................................................................... 57 Figure 54: Locations of Magnetic Plugs ............................................................................. 57 Figure 55: Internal Air System ........................................................................................... 59 Figure 56: Ignition System ................................................................................................. 61 9

Figure 57: Igniter Plug........................................................................................................ 62 Figure 58: Noise Suppression System ............................................................................... 63 Figure 59: Corrugated Internal Mixer ................................................................................. 64 Figure 60: Typical Damages: Bending ............................................................................... 65 Figure 61: Typical Damages: Curled.................................................................................. 65 Figure 62: Typical Damages: Cracked ............................................................................... 66 Figure 63: Typical Damages: Gouged ............................................................................... 66 Figure 64: Typical Damages: Broken Blades ..................................................................... 67 Figure 65: Typical Damages: Dents ................................................................................... 67 Figure 66: Typical Damages: Nicks ................................................................................... 68 Figure 67: Typical Damages: Deposits .............................................................................. 68 Figure 68: Typical Damages: Overheating......................................................................... 69 Figure 69: Typical Damages in Parts: Fan/Inlet ................................................................. 70 Figure 70: Typical Damages in Parts: Compressor ........................................................... 71 Figure 71: Typical Damages in Parts: Combustor ............................................................. 72 Figure 72: Typical Damages in Systems: Ignition System ................................................. 74 Figure 73 & 74: Typical Damages in Systems: Thrust Reversing System ......................... 75 Figure 75: NDT: Liquid Penetrant Inspection ..................................................................... 78 Figure 76: NDT: Eddy Current Testing............................................................................... 80 Figure 77 & 78: NDT: Eddy Current Testing ...................................................................... 80 Figure 79: NDT: Radiographic Testing............................................................................... 82 Figure 80: NDT: Ultrasonic Testing .................................................................................... 82 Figure 81: NDT: Wall thickness Measurement with Ultrasonic Testing .............................. 83 Figure 82: NDT: Thermography ......................................................................................... 85 Figure 83 & 84: NDT: Magnetic Particle Inspection ........................................................... 87 Figure 85: NDT: Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program ........................................................ 88 Figure 86: NDT: Vibration Measurements.......................................................................... 90 Figure 87 & 88: NDT: Acoustic Emission Testing .............................................................. 92 Figure 89: DT: Stress Test ................................................................................................. 93 Figure 90: DT: Crash Test ................................................................................................. 94 Figure 91: DT: Fatigue Test ............................................................................................... 95 Figure 92: DT: Brinell Hardness Test ................................................................................. 96 Figure 93: DT: Vickers Hardness Test ............................................................................... 97 Figure 94: DT: Rockwell Hardness Test ............................................................................ 97 Figure 95 & 96: DT: Metallographic Testing....................................................................... 98 Figure 97 & 98: Visual Inspection FOD + Boroscope....................................................... 100 Figure 99: Visual Inspection: Walk Around ...................................................................... 101 Figure 100: Liquid Penetration: Engine Casing................................................................ 103 Figure 101 & 102: Eddy Current Testing: Engine Mounts ................................................ 104 Figure 103: Ultrasonic Testing: Inner Wall Thrust Reverser ............................................ 105 Figure 104 & 105: Thermography: Water in honeycomb structure .................................. 106 Figure 106: Spectrometric Oil Analysis System ............................................................... 107 Figure107 & 108: Vibration Measurements: Compressor Blisk........................................ 108 Figure 109 & 110: Acoustic Emission: Space Shuttle ...................................................... 109 Figure 111: X-Ray: Engine Nose Cowl ............................................................................ 110 Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of most important NDT-methods..................... 111 Table 2: Summary of NDT-Methods ................................................................................ 112 Figure 112: Hard Time Maintenance................................................................................ 114 Figure 113 & 114: Examples of Hard Time Maintenance................................................. 115 Figure 115: On Condition Maintenance ........................................................................... 116 10

Figure 116: On Condition Maintenance: Visual Inspection .............................................. 117 Figure 117: On Condition Maintenance: Chip Detector ................................................... 117 Figure 118: On Condition Maintenance: SOAP ............................................................... 118 Figure 119: On Condition Maintenance: Vibration Survey ............................................... 119 Figure 120: On Condition Maintenance: Trend Monitoring .............................................. 120 Figure 121: Modular Construction .................................................................................... 123 Figure 122: Principle of ECUs ......................................................................................... 126 Figure 123: FADEC ......................................................................................................... 127 Figure 124: Overview of Engine Parameters ................................................................... 129 Figure 125 & 126: Thrust and Power Measuring Instruments .......................................... 130 Figure 127: Helical Gear Torquemeter............................................................................. 131 Figure 128: Electronic Torquemeter ................................................................................ 132 Figure 129: RPM meter: Mechanical Tachometer ........................................................... 133 Figure 130: RPM meter: Electrical Generator System ..................................................... 134 Figure 131 & 132: RPM meter: Inductive Probe System.................................................. 135 Figure 133: Synchroscope ............................................................................................... 135 Figure 134 & 135: Temperature Sensing: Expansion Type ............................................. 136 Figure 136: Temperature Sensing: Vapour Pressure Type.............................................. 137 Figure 137: Temperature Sensing: Resistance Type ....................................................... 137 Figure 138: Temperature Sensing: Themo-Couple .......................................................... 138 Figure 139: Temperature Sensing: Radiation Pyrometry ................................................. 139 Figure 140: Turbine Gas Temperature: Probe ................................................................. 139 Figure 141: Turbine Gas Temperature: Probes in Parallel............................................... 140 Figure 142: Pressure Sensing: Principle .......................................................................... 142 Figure 143: Pressure Sensing: Diaphragm ...................................................................... 143 Figure 144 & 145: Pressure Sensing: Capsules .............................................................. 143 Figure 146: Pressure Sensing: Bellow ............................................................................. 144 Figure 147: Pressure Sensing: Bourdon Tube ................................................................. 145 Figure 148: Engine Vibration Measurement Equipment................................................... 146 Figure 149: Fuel Flow Meter ............................................................................................ 147 Figure 150: Proposal of Turbojet Maintenance System: Block Diagram .......................... 149

11

Abbreviations
a AC AE AGB AMM APU ATC BITE BPR CM DEEC DEFCS DT e.g. ECM ECT ECU EGT EPR etc. F f FADEC FCU FF FOD Hg HIDEC HMU Acceleration Alternating Current Acoustic Emission Accessory Gearbox Aircraft Maintenance Manual Auxiliary Power Unit Air Traffic Control Build In Test Equipment Bypass Ratio Condition Monitoring Digital Electronic Engine Control Digital Electronic Flight Control System Destructive Testing For Example Engine Condition Monitoring Eddy Current Testing Engine Control Unit Exhaust Gas Temperature Engine Pressure Ratio Etcetera Force, Load Frequency Full Authority Digital Engine Control Fuel Control Unit Fuel Flow Foreign Object Damage Mercury Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Hydro Mechanical Unit 12

HPC HPT HT HUMS Hz IGB ISA JPT kg kgf kHz LPC LPI LPT m mg MHz mm MPI N N1 N2 N3 NASA NDT OC p p1 p7 PDE

High Pressure Compressor High Pressure Turbine Hard Time Health & Usage Monitoring System Hertz Inlet Gearbox International Standard Atmosphere Jet Pipe Temperature Kilogram Kilogram Force Kilo Hertz Low Pressure Compressor Liquid Penetrant Inspection Low Pressure Turbine Mass, Meters Milligrams Mega Hertz Millimetres Magnetic Particle Inspection Newton Fan Speed Intermediate Spool Speed High Pressure Compressor Speed National Aeronautics and Space Administration Non-Destructive Testing On Condition Pressure Inlet Pressure Nozzle Pressure Pulse Detonation Engine 13

PPM PSI R RPM RT s sec SFC SHP SME SOAP T TEHP TGB TGT TIT UT UV v V v0 v1 W XL Z

Parts Per Million Pound per Square Inch Effective Resistance Rotations Per Minute Radiographic Testing Seconds, Thickness Second Specific Fuel Consumption Shaft Horse Power Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program Temperature, Installed Thrust Thrust Equivalent Horse Power Transfer Gearbox Turbine Gas Temperature Turbine Inlet Temperature Ultrasonic Testing Ultra Violet Velocity Volts Exit Velocity Inlet Velocity Weight, Mass of the air Inductive Reactance Impedance Efficiency

14

Introduction
This project deals with the conception of turbojet maintenance system. In it, we discuss all the different aspects concerning this subject, for example, the architecture, damages and different kinds of maintenance.

We start in the first part with a global overview of all the different kinds of engines from the basic gas generator to cutting edge models and even engines that are still in early stages of development. The first part also covers the general performance characteristics of different kinds of engines.

In this section, the general characteristics of turbojet parts and systems will be discussed, we give the general characteristic of all important parts located on a turbojet engine for example the inlet/fan, compressor. Following this is an overview of the main systems which are needed on the engine.

The third major section in this project details the most common damages that could occur in a jet engine. First we give an overview of all possible kinds of damages and afterwards we talk about them how they are related to a specific part and systems in the turbo jet engine. Methods of engine testing is covered as a precursor to the maintenance aspect of this project and is discussed in the next part. In this, all types of non-destructive and destructive tests are summarized for both generic use and specifically for aviation.

The last part of this project deals with our personal opinion on what we think is the best kind of maintenance philosophy, supported by our own proposal. After this we discuss the engine construction requirements for on-condition maintenance, for example the modular construction and the maintenance concept. We also discuss the types of engine control units that are used in modern aircraft to increase the efficiency of the engine, improve maintenance and lower costs. At the end we give a summary of all parameters used for monitoring systems.

15

1. General characteristics and performances of aircraft engines


1.1. Characteristics

There are 2 kinds of engines: Airbreathing Engines; Rocket Engines or Non-airbreathing Engines.

1.1.1. Air breathing Engines


1.1.1.1. Introduction

These propulsion systems are most widely used on aircraft that fly in the atmosphere. There are a lot of different kinds of airbreathing engines, such as the turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, turboshaft and ram-jet. Each of them has its advanatages and disadvantages especially when regarding specific cruise speeds. When designing a jet engine, thrust to weight ratio and fuel consumption are two very important preformances. Depending on the kind of aircraft, engineers select the best compromise, for an airliner it is very important to keep the fuel consumpion low, even though this means lower thrust capacity. Aircraft like Jetfighters need more thrust, so fuel consumption is increased. The compressor, combustor and turbine are the major components of the gas generator which is common in most of the different kinds of airbreathing engines. Its goal is to genarate high temperature and high pressure gas.

Figure 1: Gas Generator

16

1.1.1.2.

Turbojet

The first jet engine was called a turbojet and was nothing more than a gas generator with an inlet and a nozzle. In the beginning the performance was very poor but after research and development, the turbojet became more efficient and changed air transportation. It greatly reduced the expense of air travel and improved aircraft safety. The turbojet also allowed greater speeds than piston engines, even supersonic speeds where the rest of the structure was capable. The thrust to weight ratio was bigger than the piston engines, wich led directly to longer ranges and higher payloads. As it happened, it also has lower maintenance costs. When there is more thrust needed, an afterburner can be installed on the turbojet. Big aircraft like airliners dont use these because it is accompanied by a big fuel consumption. Small aircraft like jet fighters use them only when necessary.

Figure 2: Turbojet engine

The thrust in this engine is developed by compressing air in the inlet and compressor, mixing the air with fuel and burning the mixture in the combustor before expanding the gas stream through the turbine and nozzle. The expansion of the gas through the turbine supplies the power to turn the compressor. The thrust is created by converting the internal energy to kinetic energy. 17

One of the first and most famous jet engines is the General Electric J79. It was developed in the 1950s and intended for reliable Mach 2 performance. It is a single-spool turbojet engine with a 17stage compressor with variable stator vanes wich allows the engine to develop pressures similar to a twin-spool engine at a much lower weight. Some famous aircraft that had this type of engine were the F-104 (known as the starfighter) and the F-4.

Figure 3: General Electric J79

1.1.1.3.

Turbofan

This engine has an inlet, fan, gas generator and nozzle. In the turbofan, a portion of the turbine work is used to supply power to the fan. In general the turbofan is more economical and efficient than the turbojet engine. The turbofan is so called due to a large internal propeller. There are 2 streams of air flowing through the engine, the first is the primary stream, it travels through all of the components the same as a tubojet engine. The secondary stream is usually accelerated through the fan and a nozzle to mix with the primary exhaust stream. The ratio of airflows between these two streams is called the bypass ratio. 18

The airstream that bypasses the engine core is called the cold stream and is always higher than the primary stream that passes through the gas generator of the engine. This stream is called the hot stream because the air-fuel mixture is heated by the combustor. On modern economical high bypass engines the bypass ratio BPR is about 5:1 or more. There are several advantages to the turbofan over the jet engine and a normal piston engine. The fan is not as large as a propeller, so the increase of speeds along the blades is less. Also, by putting the fan inside a duct or cowling, the aerodynamics is better controlled. There is less flow separation at the higher speeds and less trouble with the development of shocks. Turbofan engines can fly at transonic speeds of up to mach 0.9 while the diameter of the fan is smaller than the propeller on a piston engine (for example). Because of the duct and the aerodynamic shape, more air is sucked in so the airflow is greater and produces a bigger thrust. The turbofan is designed for high-speed, subsonic, commercial aircraft because of its low fuel consumption compared to turbojet. As on a jet engine it is also possible to install an afterburner, examples of turbofan engines include the Pratt & Whitney F100 and the General Electric F110. Afterburning turbofan engines are used in the F-15 and F-16 Falcon supersonic fighter aircraft. In these turbofans, the bypass stream is mixed with the core stream before passing through a common afterburner and exhaust nozzle.

19

Figure 4: Turbofan Engine 1.1.1.4. Turboprop

A turboprop is a gas generator that drives a propeller. The expansion of the gas supplied by the combustor turns the turbine and this supplies the energy required to turn the propeller that is installed in front of the compressor. The exhaust as well as the propeller provides a thrust to the engine. A large gearbox makes it possible for the turbine to turn a large propeller at high speed, producing one part of the thrust. The speed of the propeller is limited, this means that the tips of the blades may approach supersonic speeds and this can be very dangerous. If this happens, the flow may separate and shocks may form, decreasing the air flow into the engine. Subsequently, this type of engine is still limited to slower speeds than turbojet or turbofan. This type of engine also has his advantages. For low-speed flight and short field takeoff, the propeller has a performance advantage.

20

Figure 5: Turboprop Engine 1.1.1.5. Turboshaft

This type of air breathing engine is similar to the turboprop except that power is supplied to a shaft rather than a propeller. The Turboshaft engine is used quite extensively for supplying power to helicopters. The engine is optimized to produce only shaft power and not jet thrust. A Turboshaft is used in applications which require a sustained high power output, a high reliability, small size and a light weight. As well as helicopters, these engines are also used as auxiliary power units (APUs).

Figure 6: Turboshaft Engine

21

1.1.1.6.

Ramjet

The ramjet is different from other air breathing engines. This engine consists out of an inlet, a combustion zone and a nozzle, so on this type of engine, there are no rotating parts such as compressors and turbines as on the turbojet. Air from outside enters the inlet where it is compressed and then enters the combustion zone where it is mixed with fuel and burned or ignited. Hot gas expands through the nozzle, this creates thrust. This kind of engine only works when the engine already has a certain velocity. The operation of the ramjet depends on the inlet decelerating the incoming air to raise the pressure in the combustion chamber. The pressure rise makes it possible for the ramjet to operate. The higher the velocity of the engine, the higher the pressure-ratio. This means that this engine is only used on aircraft that fly with supersonic velocities; at subsonic velocities this engine is inefficient. When the engine approaches a velocity of mach 3.5 4.0, a compressor isnt required anymore. Because it has no turbine or compressor, it has a much higher tolerance of high temperatures. The combustion process in an ordinary ramjet takes place at subsonic velocities. At high supersonic flight velocities, a very large pressure rise is developed that is more than sufficient to support operation of the ramjet. Also, if the inlet has to decelerate a supersonic high-velocity airstream to a subsonic velocity, large pressure losses can result. The deceleration process also produces a temperature rise, at a given limiting flight speed, the temperature will approach the limit set by the wall materials and cooling methods. So when the temperature increase due to deceleration reaches the limit, it may not be possible to burn fuel in the airstream. In the past few years, research and development have been done on a ramjet that has the combustion process taking place at supersonic velocities. By using a supersonic combustion process, the temperature rise and pressure loss due to deceleration in the inlet can be reduced. This ramjet with supersonic combustion is known as the scramjet or supersonic combustion ramjet.

22

Figure 7: Ramjet

1.1.1.7.

Pulsejet

A pulsejet engine is a very simple form of a jet engine. The combustion in this kind of engine is not continuous like in a turbojet. Like in a four stroke engine the combustion occurs in pulses. A pulse jet is has an inlet, combustor, and an exhaust tube or tailpipe. The work of this engine is described with the picture bellow.

Figure 8: Pulsejet

23

1.1.1.8.

Pulse Detonation Engine

A variant of the Pulsejet is the Pulse detonation engine, or PDE. This kind of engine can operate from subsonic up to hypersonic speeds. This is the engine of the future because in theory the PDE design is an engine with a very high efficiency, much higher than existing engines. Another advantage of this engine is that it doesnt have rotating parts such as a turbine, so this means that the temperatures inside the engine can be higher, which improves the combustion and increases the thrust. Unfortunately this engine is still being developed, so at the moment there are no official aircraft that fly with this kind of engine.

Figure 9: Detonation Engine

1.1.2. Rocket Engines


Rocket engines are Non-airbreathing propulsion systems. They are characterized by the fact that they carry both fuel and the oxidizer within the aerospace vehicle. Such systems can be used anywhere in space as well as in the atmosphere. The main principle is that two propellants, an oxidizer and a fuel, are pumped into the combustion chamber where they ignite. The nozzle accelerates the products of combustion to very high velocities and exhausts them to the atmosphere or space.

Figure 10: Rocket Engine

24

1.2.

Performances

1.2.1. Introduction
In order to calculate the performance level of any engine, we use specific symbols to denote the pressures and temperatures at various locations through the engine. These symbols can vary slightly from engine type to engine type.

Figure 11: Pressures and Temperatures at various locations through the engine

Thrust is obtained from the reaction derived by accelerating a mass of air backwards, thereby achieving forward thrust. This is in accordance to Newtons 3rd law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction:

F = ma
F = Force m = Mass a = Acceleration In our case the force we require is thrust so we can restate the equation as follow:

T = W (v0 v1 )
T = Thrust W = Mass of the air V0 = Exit velocity V1 = Inlet velocity

25

In the case of a turbojet running at a choked condition (the gas velocity in the nozzle reaches Mach 1) there will be the addition of pressure thrust, so we get:

T = W (v0 v1 ) + Pressure Thrust


We can measure the power of a turbojet (thrust) in two ways: P7 gauge: pressure in the nozzle of the engine; Engine Pressure Ratio EPR: ratio of nozzle pressure to inlet pressure (P7/P1).

The power output of a fan engine is shown on a gauge which measures the ratio of the integrated values of the turbine discharge pressure and the fan outlet pressure, to the compressor inlet pressure.

Figure 12: Output of an Fan Engine

The output of a turbo-propeller is measured in Shaft Horse Power (SHP) produced at the propeller shaft. The engines torque or turning moment is proportional to its Shaft Horse Power. This torque is displayed on a torque meter.

26

Figure 13: Output of a Turbo Shaft Engine

1.2.2. Thrust Equivalent Horse Power (TEHP)


TEHP is the unit of power used to describe the power output of turboprop engines, and also some turbo shaft engines. In practice there is always some jet thrust in the output of a turboprop engine. The equivalent SHP (Shaft Horse Power) of a turboprop engine is derived by adding its shaft horse power output to any horse power obtained from its jet thrust. Under static conditions one Shaft Horse Power equals approximately 1,2 kilograms of thrust.

Figure 14: TEHP

27

As seen before, thrust is proportional to the mass flow rate of air through the engine and the acceleration we can apply to the mass air flow. Both the mass flow and the acceleration are both affected by changes in altitude, temperature and airspeed. So the mass of the air and acceleration increase when: Airspeed increases; Temperature decreases; Increase of altitude.

They all have a bearing on the efficiency of the engine and therefore the gas energy available for conversion into either Thrust Horse Power or Shaft Horse Power.

1.2.3. Specific Fuel Consumption SFC


To be economical, an engine must maintain the ratio of its fuel consumption to its thrust (or Shaft Horse Power) at lowest level as possible. This ratio is called the specific fuel consumption or SFC of the engine. SFC can be measured in mg of fuel used per second, per Newton:

SFC [mg /( N . sec)]


The Specific Fuel Consumption is determined by both the engines thermal and propulsive efficiency. In this case the Specific Fuel Consumption will increase when: The thermal efficiency decreases; The propulsive efficiency decreases.

1.2.4. Variations of thrust with engine RPM


1.2.4.1. Centrifugal or Single Spool Axial Flow Engines

The amount of thrust produced by turbojet is proportional to its RPM. Engines which have either a single spool axial flow compressor, or a centrifugal flow compressor, and some engines with a combination of centrifugal and axial flow compressors have a linear relationship between their RPM and the thrust they develop.

28

This relationship is shown is the graph below:

Figure 15: Thrust of Single Spool Engine

1.2.4.2.

Twin Spool Engines

Engines that have twin spool compressors have a slightly different relationship between RPM and thrust developed. This relationship is non-linear. This is due to the fact that optimum compressor blade efficiency and compressor ratio are designed to occur at higher RPMs than are normally utilised during the cruise, where the engine spends the most of its working life.

Figure 16: Thrust of Twin Spool Engine

29

As can be seen in the graph, the highest 30% of the thrust obtained by a twin spool engine is with the RPM above 90% RPM.

The HP (High Pressure) RPM ground idle is in the order of 58-62%; The LP (Low Pressure) RPM ground idle is approximately 25%; In flight these values will be higher because of the wind milling effect caused by the forward airspeed (70-80 %).

1.2.4.3.

Triple Spool Engines

A high by-pass ratio turbofan engine running at idle power will have a fan speed, or N1 of 25% of its maximum value. The engine will generate approximately 5% of take-off thrust at this power setting.

1.2.5. Engine Power Nominations

The different levels of engine power are nominated by the following terms:

Take-off thrust: maximum thrust available from the engine, this power setting is normally time limited; Go Around Thrust: this power setting can be the same as the take-off thrust, but is normally a slightly lower value; Maximum Continuous thrust: This is the maximum level of power setting that can be used continuously; Maximum Climb thrust: this power setting is equivalent to maximum continuous thrust, and is selected to give the best angle of climb speed; Maximum Cruise Thrust: this power setting is below the value of maximum continuous thrust. Max cruise thrust can be used for example, if the aircraft has to climb more quickly than normal because of the terrain clearance requirement, or in order to respond to a request from ATC for a higher rate of climb.

30

1.2.6. Variations with altitude change


1.2.6.1. Turbojet engine

As the aircraft altitude increases, temperature, pressure and density all decrease. The thrust of a gas turbine engine depends upon accelerating a mass of air rearwards. If the mass of air is decreasing with increasing altitude, the engine thrust must also decrease as the aircraft climbs. Most modern gas turbine engines incorporate an element in the fuel control unit to reduce the fuel flow to match the reduced air mass flow in the climb. This helps maintain constant engine speed for a fixed throttle position.

Figure 17 & 18: Variations of Thrust with Altitude (Turbojet Engine)

Because of the reduction of temperature with increase of altitude, the air density does not reduce as much as it otherwise would under the influence of the pressure drop alone. This to some extent compensates for the loss of thrust caused by the reduction in pressure.

Figure 19 & 20: Variations of Thrust and SFC with Altitude (Turbojet Engine)

31

This compensation continues to have effect until the tropopause (36089 ft). At altitudes between the tropopause, the temperature remains constant at -56,5 C, thus, at these altitudes the thrust is affected by the pressure alone. Because the fuel flow reduces at about the same rate as the thrust reduces with altitude increase, the SFC remains almost constant as the aircraft climbs. 1.2.6.2. Turboprop engine

As aircraft altitude increases, and the density of the atmosphere reduces, a turboprop engine suffers a similar loss of power to that of a turbojet engine. Like we said before the output of a turboprop engine is a combination of its Shaft Horse Power and any jet thrust that the engine can produce. The following graphs shows that at a constant speed, both the Shaft Horse Power and the jet thrust of a turboprop engine reduce with increasing altitude. The result of this is that the Thrust Equivalent Horse Power, which is the combination of Shaft Horse Power and jet thrust, will also reduce with increasing altitude.

Figure 21 & 22: Variations of SHP & Jet Thrust with Altitude (Turboprop Engine)

The Specific Fuel Consumption of a turboprop engine improves as the aircraft climbs to approximately 20,000 feet, but then it increases again as the aircraft climbs towards 35,000 feet.

32

Figure 23 & 24: Variations in TEHP & SFC with Altitude (Turboprop Engine)

1.2.7. Variation of Thrust with Temperature


1.2.7.1. Above ISA

On a hot day, the air density will be lower than the international standard, and thus the thrust developed by an engine running at a given RPM will decrease below the level it would attain on an ISA (sea level: International Standard Atmosphere) day. However, because it is hot, the air is less dense, and thus, the load on the turbine, as it attempts to drive the compressor at that given RPM, is less. The engine will in this case require less fuel to maintain that RPM. Or if the fuel flow is maintained at the same level, the engine will run more quickly.

Figure 25: Variations of Thrust with Temperature (Above ISA)

33

1.2.7.2.

Below ISA

We must also consider extreme is cold. Imagine a day when the ambient temperature is below ISA, the density of the air will increase, and the thrust developed for a given engine RPM will also increase. In this case the load on the turbine will increase because of the increased density of the air passing through the compressor, so to maintain the given RPM, the fuel flow required will have to be increased, or alternatively, if the level of the fuel flow is maintained, the engine will run more slowly!

Figure 26: Variations of Thrust with Temperature (Below ISA)

In cold ambient conditions, when the air is denser than ISA, the engine will develop its required take-off thrust before the limiting compressor RPM and the turbine gas temperature are reached. However, opening the throttle any further (to take advantage of any extra thrust which may be available) will have no effect because of an element of the fuel control unit called the power limiter. The power limiter prevents the compressor output exceeding a set maximum pressure, thus safeguarding the integrity of the compressor casing.

Engines that have the ability to achieve take-off rated thrust at less than full throttle, when ambient temperatures are below ISA, are called Part Throttle or Flat Rated engines.

34

1.2.8. Variations with aircraft speed


1.2.8.1. Turbojet engine

From the simple thrust equation, it would appear that, as the aircraft flies faster, if the exit velocity remains the same with an increasing inlet velocity, the thrust will decrease (thrust without intake ram pressure). However we know that as the aircraft forward speed

increases, the ratio between the total air pressure at the airs entry to the compressor and that of static air pressure at the air intake entry increases. This increases the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of that air from the engine (thrust with intake ram pressure).

Figure 27: Variations of Thrust with Speed (Turbojet Engine)

This effect starts to make its presence felt as the aircraft speed reaches between 0,1 and 0,2 Mach.

35

1.2.8.2.

Turboprop engine

As the airspeed increases, the ram effect into the intake of a turboprop engine causes its Shaft Horse Power to increase, while its net jet thrust decreases. The following graph illustrates the overall effect of these two changes on the Thrust Equivalent Horse Power.

Figure 28, 29 & 30: Variations of SHP & Jet Thrust & TEHP with Altitude (Turboprop)

36

2. General characteristics of turbojet parts and systems


2.1. Main Parts

2.1.1. Inlet
There are many kinds of inlets, their differences defined by particular shapes, diameter or the purpose. Some are used on fast aircraft, while others are being used on slower aircraft; the two types of inlets for the two situations are totally different. The choice of the shape and diameter is mostly a compromise between the manufacturer of the aircraft and the manufacturer of the engine and depends on the type of engine and the working circumstances.

The goal of the inlet is to provide the compressor with air that is not too turbulent and has the right axial velocity and this for every phase in the flight even taxiing. There are 3 kinds of inlets: Subsonic Inlets; Supersonic Inlets; Static Inlets. 2.1.1.1. Subsonic Inlets

This inlet is meant for aircraft that fly slower than the speed of sound; most of them are big airliners. These inlets are normally, simple straight and short. What is typical about a subsonic inlet is that it is almost every time diverging when you follow the direction of the airflow into the engine. The surface inside of the inlet is smooth and streamlined. From inside to outside the inlet is curved and this we call the lip. Subsonic inlets always have a thick lip. Behind the inlet there is the fan, on this fan there is a spinner cone, this is also a part of the inlet and has a big influence of the airflow into an engine. Most of the time the inlet is flat on the bottom to prevent the engine from hitting the ground.

37

When an aircraft is flying, the airflow has a velocity almost equal to the velocity of the aircraft. This is too fast for the axial entry speed of the compressor. This is why the inlet is diverging; the velocity of the airflow will be reduced to the ideal velocity to enter the compressor. This also has the advantage that when the velocity decreases, the static pressure and the air temperature increases. In reality this is not totally ideal because theres always friction between the inlet surface and the air. The transformation of velocityenergy to pressure-energy we call Ram Recovery. This Ram Recovery depends on the flight characteristics, like the speed, the Recovery is bigger if the speed of the aircraft is higher. When speed is higher, the pressure is higher too so the velocity true the engine is bigger. This means that the engine is more effective when the velocity of flight is increasing.

Figure 31: Subsonic Inlet

2.1.1.2.

Supersonic Inlets

This inlet is used on aircraft that fly faster than the speed of sound. Like the subsonic inlet this inlet also has to slow down the airflow velocity before it enters the compressor. Here the velocity has to be lower than mach 1. The inlet of a supersonic engine has got a very sharp lip, this is to minimize the friction and performance losses from the shockwaves that occur during supersonic velocities. Most of the military supersonic engines and civil supersonic engines have the ability to change their inlet shape or have dump valves, depending on the speed to provide the best inlet velocity for the compressor. An example of civil supersonic engines is those used on the Concorde. There are 2 kinds of supersonic inlets, Rectangular like on Concorde and Axis-symmetric like on many military jetfighters. 38

Figure 32: Supersonic Inlet

2.1.1.3.

Static Inlets

These Inlets are mainly used on helicopters and also called Bell Mouth Inlets. Static Inlets have a big inlet diameter and are able to suck a lot of air from the sides without creating vortexes. To provide enough air into the inlet the airaircraft (or normally helicopter) doesnt need to have a horizontal velocity, it works perfectly when the aircraft is standing still.

Figure 33: Static Inlet

39

2.1.2. Fan
The fan is situated behind the Inlet and catches all the air that is sucked into the engine. The fan is a big wheel with a lot of blades that is primarily operated by the low pressure turbine. First, the air passes through the fan and is partially compressed by it. After it goes to the core or it bypasses the engine, the difference between this is what we call the bypass ratio. The air that goes through the core passes the compressor and the combustor. After this the 2 airflows join each other again and provide the thrust.

Figure 34: Fan

2.1.3. Compressor
A compressor is made up of a moving part (Impeller or rotor) and a stationary part (Diffuser or stator). One part of each together is called a stage. These parts create pressure by forcing the same amount of air into smaller becoming stages. Because of this, the Pressure increases and the Potential energy increases too. The compressor increases the pressure of the air to provide ideal conditions for the combustor. Its important that the pressure ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the compressor is very high.

If the compressor rate of the air is very big, the thrust after the combustion is very high too. The goal is to suck as much air is possible and compress it as high as possible, this gives the best thrust. A high compressor ratio will give low specific fuel consumption. When the velocity of flight is high, in theory there is no compressor needed because of the compressed ram air, this is how Ramjets work.

40

In the figure below a diagram shows the compression and velocity of the incoming air in an axial compressor. On this figure you can see that velocity and pressure increases after every rotor. On the other hand decreases the air because of the stator, but the pressure increases, kinetic energy is converted into dynamic pressure. A centrifugal compressor has the same principle, the impeller acts like the rotor and the diffuser like the stator.

Figure 35: Progression of Pressure and Velocity through Compressor

There are two kinds of Compressors used in Turbo jets: 2.1.3.1. Centrifugal Compressor; Axial flow Compressor. Centrifugal Compressor

This type of compressor has an Impeller that accelerates the airflow by using the centrifugal force. The Impeller turns with high velocity and blows the air in radial direction or outward to the tip of the impeller. Because of this the air is being accelerated and compressed. Behind the impeller the air reaches the diffuser where the air is being deaccelerated and where the pressure increases more. This kind of compressor has no more than two stages and has many applications in small to medium size turboprop engines or head and tail engines of helicopters.

41

The impeller is mostly made out of titanium alloy, this is very light en has the same strength as other metals like aluminium or iron that were used previously. One of the disadvantages of a Centrifugal Compressor is that it cant generate too big a pressure ratio. In a few engines there is an axial compressor installed in front of the centrifugal compressor, this increases the pressure ratio. The compressor ratio can be up to 12:1.

Figure 36 & 37: Centrifugal Compressor

2.1.3.2.

Axial flow Compressor

The Axial Flow Compressor is totally different to the Centrifugal Compressor, it has no impeller but stators and rotors. These are combined as one stage. In an axial flow compressor there can be 14 stages, which are needed to get a good pressure ratio. The Velocity of the rotor is very high. One of the disadvantages of this kind of compressor is that its length is very long and is vulnerable to stall inside of the compressor. This can occur because of too large an angle of attack between the vanes from the stator or the rotor, this is called pumping. Pumping happens when the pilot changes the throttle very fast and when the engine cannot meet this demand. The pressure ratio of this kind of compressor can be up to 40:1, this is a lot more than the one of centrifugal compressor.

42

Figure 38: Axial Flow Compressor

2.1.4. Combustor or Combustion chamber


The combustor is the part in the engine where the compressed air, created by the compressor and the injected fuel are mixed and ignited. This ignition creates an expansion of the mixture resulting in chemical energy. Because of the expansion, the gas is being accelerated and the pressure decreases but the velocity increases. This kinetic energy causes the power turbine of the engine to rotate. The figure below shows the principle of a combustion chamber. Air from the high pressure compressor is blown into the combustion chamber and is being divided into primary, secondary and tertiary airflows. The primary airflow is blown into the combustion chamber centre or also called primary zone, where it is burned and this is only 20% of the total airflow. Before this airflow enters the chamber it passes swirl vanes, these vanes reduce the velocity and cause a recirculation of the airstream. This is needed to get a stable combustion, else the flame will propagate to the back of the combustion chamber and this will cause a flame out. The other 80% of the air from the compressor is called the secondary airflow, only 20% of this is mixes in the primary zone with the primary airflow. This helps the combustion process to stabilize more because it creates a toroidal vortex. The remaining air from the HPC, about 60% called tertiary air flow is fed into the flame tube through corrugated joints and dilution air holes in the flame tube.

43

Figure 39: Working Principle of Combustor

There are 3 kinds of Combustors:

Can-type Combustors; Annular-type Combustors; Can annular-type Combustors. Can-type Combustors

2.1.4.1.

In the beginning, this type of Combustor was the most commonly used one because the inlet of the combustor and the outlet of the compressor matched perfectly. In that time most jet-engines were equipped with centrifugal compressors. The Combustion chambers of the can-type are independent but also connected with each other through cross over tubes. These interconnectors between the chambers have the function to create a good ignition in all Combustion chambers, this is necessary because ignition-plugs are not installed in every chamber. It also has the task to eliminate every difference in pressure between the chambers. In every can on this type there is a flame-holder and a fuelinjection. This type was mainly used in the past and not anymore today because of the bad efficiency.

44

Figure 40: Can-Type Combustor

2.1.4.2.

Annular-type Combustors

This Type is very efficient and creates a ring of fire. Because of the good performance its used on the most modern turbojets. This combustor-type fits perfectly on an axial compressor and his outlet fits again on the turbine section of the engine. The combustor exists out of 2 concentric circles, an outer and inner liner. In the surface of the inner liner there are big holes that provides a good ventilation to cool down the temperature of the combustion.

The combustion is created between the inner liner of the combustor this burned mixture is cooled down and mixed with the secondary air that flows between the outer liner. This creates a bigger expansion and more energy for the turbine.

Figure 41: Annular-Type Combustor

45

2.1.4.3.

Can Annular-type Combustors

This is a combination of the Can and Annular and has the advantages of the two types combined. The inner liner has the shape of the can-type with interconnectors which have the same function. The outer liner has the same shape as the annular type and provides the combustion chamber with secondary air.

Figure 42: Can Annular-type Combustor

2.1.5. Turbine
The turbine provides the torque that is necessary to drive the compressor and other systems that are connected to this like the accessory gearbox. It is located behind the combustor and that is where it gets its energy from. The turbine is operated by the hot expanding gasses from the combustor. The expansion causes a high velocity of the gas in the direction of the turbine and because of that it starts turning. Not all the energy from the combustor is used to turn the turbine, another part is used to provide thrust. The thrust is not so big, most of the time 80-90% of the energy given by the combustor is used to drive the turbine and only 10% left for the thrust.

On many new turbojet engines there are two different turbines, a Low pressure turbine and a High pressure turbine. The high pressure turbine is located the closest to the combustor, and has fewer stages than the Low pressure turbine. As it is very close to the combustion chamber the vanes or blades of the turbine are made from heat resistant material like titanium and it has to be cooled down, most of the time with air cooling.

46

The turbine has the same shape as the compressor, there are stators and rotors, the rotors are mounted on a shaft and connected with the compressor and fan, the stators or also called nozzle guide vanes are fixed to the turbine casing.

Figure 43: Turbine

2.1.6. Outlet
The nozzle or outlets have the task of converting any energy remaining in the flow after the combustor into kinetic energy by decreasing pressure and accelerating the jet-stream. This results in thrust from the exhaust of the jet engine. The nozzle design is very important because it determines the turbine entry temperature (and hence the work done by the turbine) as well as the mass flow of the engine and the exit velocity and pressure (all four of which determine thrust). The most basic nozzle consists simply of a duct. The air exiting the turbine is often travelling with higher velocity than Mach 1, unfortunately this creates high friction losses, so the flow is immediately slowed by diffusion. The whirl of the turbine exit flow is reduced by the stator guide vanes behind the turbine, which turn the flow straight. This straight, high-pressure flow is fed to a converging section, which changes the pressure back to velocity.

47

Figure 44: Basic Nozzle

Depending on the type of engine, it can have one or more exhausts. Most turbojet engines have two outlets, a cold exhaust, where the fan air passes and the hot exhaust, this is where the gas that went through the core exits the engine. The cold air stream is most of the time five to six times higher than the hot gas stream.

The main goal of an outlet is to provide an axial gas-flow from the engine without whirls. Its also very important to protect the structure of the aircraft from the hot gases of the outlet and to get a good thrust because the velocity of the gas has to be very high.

There are 3kinds of outlets: Outlets for Turbojets who are capable for speeds higher than the speed of sound; Outlets for Turbojets who are capable for speeds slower than the speed of sound; Outlets for Turbo-shafts or Turbo-props.

48

Figure 45: Subsonic & Supersonic Outlet

Turbojets with subsonic outlets are most used on airliners like B737, B747 and all airbuses. Engines with only one outlet sometimes have afterburners, this type of engine is capable for speeds higher and lower than the speed of sound. The outlet of an afterburner is called a nozzle, it is an adjustable exhaust that is used on most military aircraft. It is necessary to adjust the exhaust because of the afterburner, when its operating, the gas stream is very high so the exhaust diameter has to be bigger too.

Figure 46: Adjustable Exhaust, Nozzle

49

2.1.7. Afterburner
Afterburner is a term that is used when we are talking about military aircraft. In the civil aviation there is also something like an afterburner, this is called water injection thrust augmentation. They both have the same purpose; this is to increase the thrust of a jet engine for short periods of time, to improve the agility in critical points of flight like take off, combat or climb. An afterburner is an ideal way to increase the thrust without increasing the weight, the thrust to weight ratio is very high, sometimes in very modern aircraft up to 9:1. This is much better than using a big frontal area and the resulting higher overall fuel consumption when choosing a bigger engine to provide the same amount of thrust. An afterburner is the best choice for higher thrust for short periods of time. The afterburner is located behind the turbine downstream in the jet pipe. This gas still contains enough oxygen to create a second combustion after the turbine to increase the thrust. These combustions are created by the injection of extra fuel and the ignition of this mixture. In the jet pipe there is a flame holder, most of the time it has a V-shape, this holder creates a whirl behind it and keeps the combustion in the same place. The injection of fuel is located before the flame holder and is contains out of spray bars.

Figure 47: Principle of Afterburner

50

2.1.8. Thrust Reverser


A thrust reverser is mostly used on the ground to slow an aircraft down when it lands after a touchdown. The thrust that is normally blown out from the back is now pointed to the front. This thrust that is opposite to the motion of the aircraft will react in a braking force for the aircraft. The use of thrust reversers reduces the wear of the breaks. There are many types of thrust reversers, the type depends on the kind of engine. On small engine the thrust reversal systems is simple, it are just doors or valves behind the exhaust that block all thrust and reflect it to the front. On bigger engines it can be more complicated, the thrust reverser is a big object and consists out of many parts. The deflector panels and blocker doors create the reverse of thrust.

They are connected with a translating cowl that moves rearward when the thrust reverser is activated. This motion is accomplished with the use of electrical, hydraulic fluid or pressured air.

Figure 48A: Thrust Reverser

51

2.1.9. Accessory Gearbox


Every jet engine or turbojet has one or more accessory gearboxes. This gearbox is driven by the engine and has a lot of attachment points where other systems like lubrication and others are fixed.

Figure 48B: Accessory Gearbox

2.2.

Main Systems

2.2.1. Lubrication system


Lubrication is very important especially for the bearings, they get very hot when theyre rotating and need to be cooled down. The oil also prevents oxidation of the components in the lubrication system. Every bearing has a supply and a scavenge connection for lubrication. Because of the small quantity of friction its less important to lubricate the bearings than to cool it down.

52

There are 3 main lubrication systems:

Oil supply system; Oil scavenge system; Breathing system.

Figure 49: Lubrication System

The Oil scavenge system has the task to return the oil from the bearings back to the oil tank. Before it reaches the oil tank it goes first thru the breathing system where the air and the oil that were mixed in the bearings is separated again.

53

Figure 50 & 51: Oil Supply and Oil Scavenge System

2.2.1.1.

Oil Tank

The oil tank is a storage place for the oil in the lubrication system. This tank is installed against the outer structure of the engine and is very easy to reach. It can be refilled if necessary through a small filler cap in the engine cowling. On small turbojets the tank is replaced for some room in the accessory gearbox casing.

Figure 52: Oil Tank

54

Its very important that the oil tank is filled until the right level, if the tank is filled to much an overflow is possible because the oil expands as the temperature increases. Therefore the oil tank is never filled until the top. To check the level while filling, a dipstick is used or there is an indication on the tank itself.

Some tanks have special connections for a pressured oil service cart, this connection is situated on the tank in a kind of way that its impossible to overfill the tank. Too much oil flows directly back to the service cart. Its good to know that its important to meter the oil level on the right moment, most of the time this means not long after the shutdown of the engine. This is because the oil disappears into the bearings when the engine stands still, this is called Oil hiding. 2.2.1.2. Oil Pump

To pump the oil from the tank to the bearings you need an Oil pumps. These pumps are driven by one of the connections on the accessory gearbox.

There are three kinds of Oil pumps:


.

Gear pumps; Gerotor pumps; Rotary vane pumps.

Gear and Gerotor pumps are used to feed the oil to the bearings so they are located in the supply line of the lubrication system. There are also pumps who are used in the scavenge line of the system, these pumps suck the oil out of the bearings and pump it back to the oil tank. The pumps that are most used in this part are Gerotor and Rotary vane pumps.

A Gear pump consists out of two gears that grab into each other. The pump is driven by the Accessory gearbox and is capable to put pressure on the oil, this is needed to inject the oil into the bearings. A Rotary vane pump is not capable for high pressures, but very much used in the scavenge line of the system. Its very good because it can transport big quantities of oil where its not necessary that the pressure is very high. In a lot of cases the scavenge and supply pump are located in the same casing.

55

In most of the lubricating systems they work with the free flow principle. This means that there is no constant oil pressure, it depends on the rotational velocity of the engine or rotations per minute. The higher the rpm is the bigger the oil flow and pressure is. 2.2.1.3. Oil filter

The purpose of an oil filter is to prevent small metal particles, many times because of wear, into the fragile bearings of the lubrication system. This is why the filters are installed behind every supply pump. The filter casing consists out of a filter base and a cover on top of the filter. Inside of the casing there is a filtering unit. The filtering unit can be from different materials, sometimes paper, these filter units are replaced after a certain time or when they are clogged. Others filter units can exist out of metal, these units can be cleaned when it is needed. To check if a filter is clogged or not there is a pre-blockage indicator, when its out while the engine is running or not, the filter has to be changed or cleaned. 2.2.1.4. Magnetic Plugs or Chip Detector

On a big number of engines there are Magnetic Plugs installed in the lubrication system. These plugs exist out of magnets that are placed in the stream of the oil after pumps or places where wear can occur. When metal particles pass these plugs they get magnetically attracted and stick to them. By checking these plugs over certain periods the amount of particles on the plugs is being analyzed. When the amount of particles gets too

high, there is something wrong, in this case some components or sometimes even the engine itself has to be replaced. Most magnetic plugs are connected with the cockpit, so an indication tells the situation of the wear in the lubrication system.

56

Figure 53: Magnetic Plug Detector

Figure 54: Locations of Magnetic Plugs

57

2.2.2. Fuel system


The Fuel system is very important for the performance of the engine, it meters the right amount of fuel in a certain point of flight needed for the engine. The fuel also has to be pre-heated, this is necessary to get a good combustion in the combustors. To provide an amount of fuel to the injectors or nozzles there is a pump that gives the fuel a pressure. The fuel system also sends an amount of information to the cockpit for the pilots and maintenance personnel. This information can be just parameters or even possible errors. Summarized, the fuel system has to provide the engine nozzles with enough fuel depending on the demand of the pilots, this means the position of the throttle and the situation of the aircraft. Fuel systems contain a lot of different parts like an engine fuel pump, a fuel/oil heat exchanger, a fuel filter, a fuel metering valve, a fuel shut-off valve, a fuel flow transmitter and fuel nozzles. One of the most important parts of the engine is the part that regulates the fuel that goes to the nozzles. This is called the Hydro mechanical unit (HMU) or Fuel control unit (FCU).

This is a hydro mechanical unit that is driven by the engine. On the base of a few input signals it calculates the amount of fuel flow that is send to the injectors. In older versions of engines this was a mechanical matter, in modern engines this is replaced by electrical computers, this is more accurate. The calculated electrical signal is send to the regulator and this signal is converted in a amount of fuel flow. There are al lot of different fuel control units, like already told, these units can be hydro mechanical or electrical or sometimes even combined. One of the most used and modern regulating systems is the FADEC or full authority digital electronic control. Its an electrical computer that determines what the fuel flow is, the electrical signal is send to a HMU that converts this into a mechanical reaction like fuel pressure.

2.2.3. Internal Air system


The air for the pneumatic systems is mainly provided by the engine and when an aircraft is on the ground it is possible to collect air from a ground power unit. Sometimes there is a APU or auxiliary power unit, this is a small engine installed on some big airliners and is also capable to generate electrical energy.

58

The pressured air generated by the engine is used in many applications on an aircraft like anti-icing, air conditioning or even the starting system of the engine and many others. Not only the systems in the aircraft use the air but also the engine itself. Turbine active clearance control, thrust reverser, ventilation in and around the engine are a few of them.

Figure 55: Internal Air System

In a few stages of the compressor there are draw of spots situated. The air that goes through these channels is called bleed air. It has a pressure around 40-50psi and a temperature of around 175 C. On most engines there are two draw of points, one in the 8th stage and the other in the 15th stage of the high pressure compressor. The stages can be different, it depends on the type of engine. Most of the time the two spots are not used the same time together, in the 8th stage the pressure is high enough to feed the users or applications on the system, when there is more air needed than usual the draw of spot in the 15th stage is activated. The pressure in this stage is higher, in this cases the pressure in the system keeps constant. 59

2.2.4. Engine Start system


The start system on an turbojet engine consists out of a start engine. This engine is connected to the accessory gearbox and will drive the turbine and the compressor of the turbojet engine.

When the rotational velocity of the engine is above a certain point the start engine will retract and the engine will turn free.

There are different kinds of start engines: Electric start engines; Combined start engines/Generators; Pneumatic start engines.

The first two are mainly used on small engines like turbo shafts and props. The pneumatic one is used on small and big turbofan engines. It is driven by a small turbine, wind drives this turbine and create a high velocity. The gearbox converts the high velocity to a smaller one with a high torque. This is enough to drive the engine compressor and turbine.

2.2.5. Ignition system


At the moment the engine is being driven by the start engine the ignition system is activated. The task of the ignition system is to ignite the fuel-air mixture during start and in flight because sometimes its possible that a flame out occurs. This can happen when the aircraft is under heavy turbulence or in heavy rain. The ignition is produced by igniter plugs that sparkle very powerful,when the combustion process is begun, its not necessary anymore to keep sparkling because its an ongoing combustion process. To increase the redundancy of the system is duplicated so there are two igniter plugs and units installed.

60

Figure 56: Ignition System

2.2.5.1.

Igniter plugs

Turbine engine igniters come in many sizes and shapes depending on what their function is. The electrodes of the plugs used with high-energy ignition systems must accommodate a much higher energy current than the electrodes of conventional sparkplugs. The highenergy current causes more rapid igniter electrode erosion than in reciprocating engine sparkplugs. This is not a problem because of the relatively short time a turbine engine ignition system is in operation. This is one of the reasons for not operating the gas turbine ignition system any longer than necessary.

61

Igniter plug gaps are large in comparison with those of conventional spark plugs. The gaps are large because the operating pressure at which the plug is fired is much lower than that of a reciprocating engine. Most igniter plugs are of the annular-gap type. Constrained gaps are used in some engines. Normally, to provide an effective spark the annular-gap plug projects slightly into the combustion chamber liner. The spark of the constrained-gap plug does not closely follow the face of the plug. Instead, it tends to jump an arc which carries it beyond the face of the chamber liner. The constrained-gap plug need not project into the liner. The result is that the electrode operates at a cooler temperature than the annular-gap plug. The turbojet ignition system is designed for severe altitude conditions common to military operation. It is rarely taxed to its full capability by transport use. Flameout is much less common than it was, and flight relight is not normally required of the ignition system. Ignition problems in general are minor compared to the constant attention required by the piston engine system. Airborne ignition analysis equipment is unnecessary. Spark igniter plug replacement is greatly minimized. Only two plugs per engine are used.

Figure 57: Igniter Plug

62

2.2.6. Noise suppression


A turbojet engine produces a lot of noise. This is mainly because of the outlet. Other parts on the engine like the fan and compressor make noise to while turning but with a smaller noise factor as the outlet. In a plain nozzle without noise suppression the jet stream out of the outlet has a high temperature and velocity. Unfortunately this goes together with a to high pressure of the gas. The concentrated jet stream clashes against the surrounding cold air in the atmosphere and this produces a lot of noise. The higher the velocity of the jet stream is, the louder the noise will be.

Figure 58: Noise Suppression System

This strait jet isnt used anymore because of its bad efficiency. There are a lot of concepts for noise suppression on turbojet engines, one of the most used method is mixing the cold air from outside with the hot air from the engine before it leaves the outlet or nozzle by changing the pattern of the exhaust jet. 63

Figure 59: Corrugated Internal Mixer

2.3.

Summary

In this part we wrote short description about every main part like inlet, fan, compressor, combustor, turbine and outlet. These are just the main parts and systems on an turbojet engine. we think these are the most important ones. Every part of the engine is very important because it has its own particular task on the engine. Together they provide the task to create thrust and make the aircraft fly. When One of these parts is not working, its possible that the engine doesnt work properly. Not only parts are important, systems are too. These systems like lubrication for instance cool turning parts down like bearings and reduce wear to a minimum amount. Without this system the performance of the engine would decrease enormously. The big difference about systems and the parts are that most of the times the systems are doubled. Like the ignition system have 2 ignition plugs. For the main parts you dont have backup.

64

3. Typical Damages in Turbojet engine


3.1. Sorts of damages in turbojet engine

3.1.1. Bending
This kind of damage occurs when blades touch or rub against the stator casing of the engine. Because of this one or more blades bend. Bending can also occur because of FOD, this means that an object from outside crashes with high velocity against the blades. This type of damage acts in the fan, in the LPC and HPC and even in the turbine.

Figure 60: Typical Damages: Bending

3.1.2. Curled
Curled Blade tips are almost the same as bended blades and occur when the blade rubs the stator casing of the engine. This can act in the compressor and turbine

Figure 61: Typical Damages: Curled

65

3.1.3. Cracked
Cracks can occur on the surface of blades, this is very dangerous because it can cause the blade to breaking. In the AMM there are restrictions about how big a crack can be on each point of the blade. The crack is being checked frequently and when it gets to big the blade is being changed. This type of damage is occurs in the compressor and turbine section of the engine.

Figure 62: Typical Damages: Cracked

3.1.4. Gouged
Harsh scrapes arise when objects scour along the surface of the blade. The material from inside the scrapes is pushed out and piled up next to it. The cause of this damage can be FOD. This kind of damage is also often seen in the compressor and turbine.

Figure 63: Typical Damages: Gouged

66

3.1.5. Broken Blades


This is an extreme example of cracks. When cracks are not noticed during maintenance it gets bigger and very dangerous. Because of the rotation of the engine the whole blade undergoes a high tension. When there is a crack the tensions is automatically concentrated to this point. The consequence of this is that the crack gets bigger until a point that the area of the blade will not be big enough anymore to sustain the force. On this moment the blade will break off. The cause can also be FOD, the worst part of this damage is that the broken blade will make more damage in the next parts of the engine like the compressor or the turbine.

Figure 64: Typical Damages: Broken Blades

3.1.6. Dents
Stones, sand or other hard particles from outside can be sucked into the engine. These particles can cause dents on the blades of the fan, compressor or turbine. The dents are analyzed. If they are not too big, its not necessary to replace or repair it.

Figure 65: Typical Damages: Dents

67

3.1.7. Nicks
If a blade is hit by a hard object, its possible that it creates nicks. Nicks occur on the surface or on the leading edge of the blade. This kind of damage is very dangerous because it can be an origin of cracks. When this kind of damage is found on a blade in the engine, almost every time it means that the blade has to be replaced. Again this type of damage occurs in the turbine or compressor section of the engine.

Figure 66: Typical Damages: Nicks

3.1.8. Deposits
This occurs in the turbine section. Combustion deposits created by the Combustor pile up on the surface of the turbine. Every ones and a while the engine is washed and these deposits are removed.

Figure 67: Typical Damages: Deposits

68

3.1.9. Overheating
Its very important to limit the inlet turbine temperature because otherwise it is possible that the metal of the turbine will lose its straight. The metal will melt almost and even lose its shape. This kind of damage is very important and has a consequence on the performance of the engine. When this damage occurs, the turbine has to be replaced.

Figure 68: Typical Damages: Overheating

69

3.2.

Specific damages in Parts

3.2.1. Typical damages in Fan/Inlet


The most frequent inlet/fan damage is FOD or Foreign Object Damage happen when particles are sucked in or just fly into the inlet of the engine. These objects can be animals, tools, stones and many others. Depending on the size of the objects the damage is bigger or smaller. If its a large object it can deform the fan or inlet casing very dramatically. Everywhere an aircraft is situated, in flight or on the ground FOD is possible. When a aircraft is on the ground waiting to taxi or to take off, it is creating vortices on the ground. All kinds of particles can be sucked in. One of the most famous ones is a heavy giant container. Other reasons for FOD can occur during operations for example installing the gate or during push back. Carelessness can result to a lot of problems. In flight the most frequent FOD are bird strikes. Although engines are being tested for this, its very dangerous. Ice is also one of the particles that can damage the fan, thats why its very important that anti icing is installed and switched on during climbing or decreasing.

Figure 69: Typical Damages in Parts: Fan/Inlet

70

3.2.2. Typical damages in Compressor


It is highly probable that the compressor is damaged when the engine had a bird strike. A lot of types of damages can occur in the compressor like dents and cracks. Compressor blades can also have nicks caused by really hard FODs. When the damage on the compressor is very dramatic, this can cause serious problems. This means that a compressor blade can break off, or a malfunction of the compressor takes place. The surface of the compressor blades can influence the efficiency of the compressor too, damages on the surface sometimes create compressor stall. When an FOD takes place the engine will go to maintenance to check what the caused damage is. If the damage on the fan is really small or even invisible, the rest of the engine is not checked and the engine goes back in service. If there is damage, then its important to check the stator and rotor vanes of the compressor. The vanes are checked with a boroscope inspection. With special tools and boroscopic holes it is possible to check every stage of the compressor.

Figure 70: Typical Damages in Parts: Compressor

71

3.2.3. Typical damages in Combustor


In the combustion section of the engine the temperature reaches very high numbers. On top of that the temperature fluctuates very strongly, this is not ideal for the material that the combustor is made of. The temperature creates tensions in the materials and this can cause cracks. Other damages than cracks can be discolorations, burning, erosion and others. As in the compressor section there are a lot of boroscopic holes too. This makes it possible to check the whole combustor for cracks and other damages. Some places in the combustor are hard to reach, these places are checked with flexible boroscopic tubes. Depending on the maintenance manual (AMM) the damage is analyzed and is decided if the damage is inside the safety precautions. Because of the large amount of holes in the surface of the inner liner of the combustor, needed for mixing of the gases, and the fluctuation of the temperature, cracks are very often situated between these holes.

Figure 71: Typical Damages in Parts: Combustor

72

3.2.4. Typical damages in turbine


The turbine is faced with a lot of thermal and mechanical forces. Directly behind the combustor, the Nozzle guide vanes are situated. These vanes are the first parts of the turbine section that meet with the high temperature gases. Because of this, these vanes are most vulnerable. Again damages are searched for with a boroscope. The first stages, like the Nozzle guide vanes and the turbine, can be checked by using the holes of the igniter plugs. With a flexible boroscopic tube you can check every vane of the turbine by turning it very slowly. The most frequent damages on the turbine are burning, cracks, scratches, dents, broken blades and overheating. 3.3. Specific Damages in Systems

3.3.1. Typical damages in the fuel system


The most of the damages in the fuel system are leaks. These leaks are usually the result of improper fitting installation, failed or damaged sealant, improperly installed or damaged O-rings, Loose fasteners, and electrical or equipment installations that pass through tank boundaries not being properly installed. Fuel leakage from a tank is divided into four groups to provide a means of evaluating the safety of flying the aircraft with fuel leaks present. The four groups are stain, seep heavy seep and running leak. The difference between these leaks is the flow rate of the fuel through this leak in an amount of time. Limits of this fuel flow are found in the aircraft maintenance manual.

73

3.3.2. Typical damages in the Ignition system


In the Ignition systems there are a lot of different kinds of damages such as, parts missing, connections and wiring can be loose and not in good condition. Its very important that all parts of the ignition system are covered, because of the high voltages that are used through the wiring during activity of the system, coming in contact with this is deathly. During checks this is the first thing to do, this means examining the ignition wiring for chafing, breaks, wear and security. Igniter plugs are also examined for connector threads and shell threads. On either end the ceramic of the plug is examined for cracks. Any cracks in ceramic are cause for rejection on igniter plug. Internal ceramic breaks or cracks are detected by shaking the plug and listening for rattle.

Figure 72: Typical Damages in Systems: Ignition System

74

3.3.3. Typical damages in the thrust reversing system


In this system damage limits are given for the thrust reverser frame, actuators and linkages. Also major thrust reverser assembly components such as deflector doors or cascade vane deflectors, etc have damage limits, these limits are found in their respective maintenance practices sections. These damages can be cracks in the longitudinal braces and stiffeners for hinge support fitting, blocker skins and other parts on the system. These cracks have their own limits, this limit is given in the service repair manual.

Figure 73 & 74: Typical Damages in Systems: Thrust Reversing System

3.3.4. Typical damages in the internal air system


This system needs to be checked periodically. Engine compartment cleanliness is important because the extensive mass air flow tends draw foreign objects into the engine. Its important that compartments are free of dirt, oil and grease and other particles that can cause damages. The main kind of damage in this system is leaks.

75

3.3.5. Typical damages in the oil system


The Engine scavenge system is furnished with magnetic chip detector plugs which will hold ferrous metal particles. These magnetic plugs are installed at four locations behind parts in the system that are important to check because they are vulnerable for damages. These parts are pumps, bearings gearboxes and others where a mechanical activity takes place. Routine inspections of magnetic plugs will give an indication of the deteriorating portion of engine bearings, scavenge pumps, and gearbox. These particles are the cause of wear in these parts.

3.4.

Summary

In this part we discussed about the most frequent damages in systems like lubrication or oil, internal air, thrust reversing and ignition. We also covered the main parts of the turbo jet engine like the inlet, fan, compressor and turbine. In systems, most damages are in the form of leakages, this because of the liquids like fuels or oil but also air. On the main parts most of the damages are caused by FODs. Because of the big inlet of the jet engine it is very common that FODs occur. These Foreign object damages can be very harmful for the rest of the parts in an engine. Engines are not equipped against this so its very dangerous when it happens. Because its very common, engines are tested for these things so if it should happen, the engine can withstand it. When the engine is built there are precaution taken so that the damage will not harm the rest of the aircraft. For example if a blade brakes, it is suppose to stay in the cowling of the engine. Of course it will create vibrations and the engine will be shut down. When this happens on an airliner, there is no problem because normally it has more than one engine. If it happens on a jetfighter, it is recommended to land as soon as possible because sometimes it has only one engine and it needs its thrust to fly, the wings are not designed to glide. Maintenance is very important on every part on an aircraft, such as the structure or in this case the engine. It is therefore checked every number of flight hours, this depends on the restrictions given by the manufacturer. Checks have to be done very accurately because a small damage that is unnoticed can cause a big disaster.

76

4. Methods of engine testing


4.1. Universal Methods of Testing

In general every material has to be tested before and during its use. This is because of the fact that we produce these materials for making objects expecting given properties. If these properties do not conform to our expectations it can be dangerous. We categorise two major kinds of Testing: Non-destructive testing and Destructive testing.

4.1.1. Non-destructive Testing NDT


Non-destructive testing is used for in-service inspection and for condition monitoring of operating plant. It is also used for measurement of components and spacing and for the measurement of physical properties such as hardness and internal stress. With NDT we compare a known input to a measured output and compare this result with a known model. These flaws may be cracks or inclusions in weld and castings, or variations in structural properties which can lead to loss of strength or failure in service. The advantage of this kind of testing is that we dont have to sacrifice or damage the material, such a technique is commonly used because we save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research. So if the results stay between limits, the material can stay in service. Basically NDT is a common used method for maintenance operations. 4.1.1.1. Visual Inspection

Visual inspection is the most used and probably the fastest way of inspection, because normally we dont need any extra equipment to perform a visual inspection. By looking closely to the surface of a component we can basically detect major faults in the surface. In combination with the aircraft maintenance manual (AMM) the analysis of the different kind of flaws can be obtained. In this manner we can decide if the damage is tolerated for this particular part of the material. The efficiency of a visual inspection is based on the visual capability, the skills and the knowledge of the technician (inspector). If we want to inspect areas that are difficult to reach we can make use of a boroscope or a magnifying glass. If a permanent record is required, a photograph or videotape or reports can be kept.

77

4.1.1.2.

Liquid Penetrant Inspection

Liquid (or dye) penetrant inspection is a low-cost extension of visual inspection of all nonporous materials, such as metals, plastics or ceramics. Penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is preferred (see 1.1.7). LPI is used to detect casting and forging defects, surface-breaking flaws (such as cracks, laps and folds) and leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components. It is only used for components which can be disassembled from the aircraft.

The basic stages of liquid penetrant inspection are shown in figure 75. Firstly, the surface to be inspected is cleaned thoroughly to remove all traces of dirt and grease (precleaning). A brightly coloured or fluorescent liquid is then applied to the component surface and allowed to penetrate any surface-breaking cracks or cavities. The time the liquid is allowed to soak into the material's surface is normally about 20 minutes; this is called the dwell. After soaking, the excess liquid penetrant is wiped from the surface and a developer applied. The developer, which works as a blotter, is usually a dry white powder. It draws penetrant out of any cracks by reverse capillary action to produce indications on the surface. These (coloured) indications are broader than the actual flaw and are therefore more easily visible for inspection.

Figure 75: NDT: Liquid Penetrant Inspection

78

Because of the fact that not all penetrant materials are developed to perform the same and are designed for different applications, we can distinguish two types: Fluorescent penetrants and visible penetrants.

Fluorescent penetrants are normally used when the maximum flaw sensitivity is required. However, these penetrants must be viewed under darkened conditions with a UV lamp, which may not be practical. Solvent penetrants dont need a darkened area and an ultraviolet light in order to inspect the materials.

On top of that the penetrants can also be classified as to how to remove the excess penetrants. The most commonly used systems are solvent removable, or water washable, red dye systems, which typically comprise three main parts: Cleaning fluid; Penetrant; Developer.

These systems are often used to check weld quality during fabrication.

Despite being one of the popular NDT methods, liquid penetrant testing is often misused. Test surfaces are not cleaned adequately, the contact time between the penetrant and the test surface is too short, or the excess penetrant is removed carelessly. For these reasons, it is important that personnel carrying out liquid penetrant inspection are properly trained and qualified. 4.1.1.3. Eddy Current Testing

Eddy Current Testing is actually one of the inspections in a wide range of electromagnetic testing. Electromagnetic testing can be seen as the process of inducing electric currents or magnetic fields or both inside a test object and observing the electromagnetic response. Eddy Current testing uses the electromagnetic induction to detect cracks, pits, subsurface cracks, corrosion on inner surface and the detection of alloy heat-threat condition of conductive materials. This method is very often used because it can give you a very early warning about flaws, so just a little repair is necessary to keep the component in service.

79

When a high frequency AC current flows in a coil in close proximity to a conducting surface the magnetic field of the coil will induce circulating (eddy) currents in that surface. This eddy current flow induces a second magnetic field and this field affects the first field in the coil. The changes in magnitude and phase of the eddy currents will affect the loading on the coil and thus its impedance, because of equation:

2 Z = (X L + R2 )

With: Z = Impedance

X L = Inductive Reactance
R = Effective Resistance
Figure 76: NDT: Eddy Current Testing

As an example, assume that there is a deep crack in the surface immediately underneath the coil. This will interrupt or reduce the eddy current flow, thus decreasing the loading on the coil and increasing its effective impedance that will be seen on a display.

Figure 77 & 78: NDT: Eddy Current Testing

80

Although Eddy current testing is very often used, there are some limitations: Only conductive materials can be tested; Surface of the material must be accessible; The finish of the material may cause bad readings; The depth of penetration into the material is limited; The depth of the penetration depends on the material and frequency. The penetration will be lower if the frequency and/or conductivity is higher. Flaws that lie parallel to the probe may be undetectable; High degree of skill is needed. Radiographic Testing

4.1.1.4.

By radiographic testing we can inspect materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation (high energy photons) to penetrate into the material. The source of these photons can be either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source. The X-ray or Gamma radiation passes through the material and is captured by a photo-sensitive film at the other side. The flaws or defects are indicated as dark areas on the film because they absorb less radiation than the material itself.

Although the results of X-ray testing are very reliable this method of testing is barely used, because of the following facts: RT is expensive due to the costly equipment, film and processing; Specialized safety equipment and procedures are necessary; Complex shapes require examination from different angles.

81

Figure 79: NDT: Radiographic Testing

Due to the disadvantage of high costs this technique is generally used during product development and in laboratory. Other techniques for detecting internal flaws are easier to carry out or less expensive. In the medical sector this technique is better known, they use X-ray for making pictures of the human body (especially for bone fractures). 4.1.1.5. Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. The general inspection principle, a typical pulse/echo inspection configuration is illustrated below:

Figure 80: NDT: Ultrasonic Testing

82

A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the pulser/receiver, transducer, and display devices. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulses. Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal (echo) is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. The reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to when an echo was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal travelled. From that signal we can gain information about the flaw location, size and orientation. We can also use this method for wall thickness measurements, when there is for example hidden corrosion inside a material.

Figure 81: NDT: Wall thickness Measurement with Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Inspection is an often used NDT method. Some of his advantages are listed below: It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities; The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods; Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used; It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape; Minimal part preparation is required; 83

Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results; Detailed images can be produced with automated systems; It has other uses, such as thickness measurement, in addition to flaw detection.

Like every NDT method UT has also limitations: Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound; Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods; It normally requires a coupling medium to promote the transfer of sound energy into the test specimen; Materials that are rough, irregular in shape, very small, exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect; Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise; Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected; Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration and the characterization of flaws. 4.1.1.6. Thermography

Infrared Thermography is the technique that uses an infrared imaging and measurement camera to "see" and "measure" invisible infrared energy being emitted from an object.

Thermal, or infrared energy, is energy that is not visible because its wavelength is too long for the sensors in our eyes to detect. It is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we perceive as heat. Unlike visible light, in the infrared spectrum, everything with a temperature above absolute zero emits infrared electromagnetic energy. Even cold objects

such as ice cubes, emit infrared radiation. The higher the temperature of the object, the greater the infrared radiation emitted (wavelength gets shorter). But if the temperature of an object gets hot enough (around 525 C) it is poss ible to see that radiation. The wavelength gets that short that it will be in the visible spectrum. But mostly we use Infrared cameras to allow us to see what our eyes cannot! The Infrared camera can detect infrared energy well before we can see it with our eyes. Most cameras can image temperatures from -20 to 500 C, and can be extended down to -40 C, and up to 2000 C. 84

The camera converts this invisible infrared energy into a two-dimensional visual image and displays this on a standard TV monitor.

Figure 82: NDT: Thermography

Infrared Thermography is a powerful inspection method to assist in the reduction of maintenance costs on mechanical equipment and is therefore a critical factor in the operational reliability of industrial or commercial facilities. All electrical and mechanical equipment have an allowable operating temperature limit. Infrared Thermography allows for the remote monitoring of temperature patterns while the materials are in service. Unlike many other test methods, infrared can be used on a wide variety of equipment including electrical systems, pumps, motors, bearings, and most process equipment. One of the major troubles in mechanical systems is excessive temperature.

Some of the advantages are: It shows a visual picture so temperatures over a large area can be compared; It is capable of catching moving targets in real time; It is able to find deteriorating (i.e. at higher temperature) components prior to their failure; It can be used to measure or observe in areas inaccessible or hazardous for other methods.

85

Its limitations are: Due to the low volume of thermal cameras, quality cameras often have a high price range (often 6,000 or higher); Images can be hard to interpret accurately even with experience; Accurate temperature measurements are hindered by differing emissivities and reflections from other surfaces; Most cameras have 2% accuracy or worse and are not as accurate as contact methods; Only able to directly detect surface temperatures. Magnetic Particle Inspection

4.1.1.7.

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is used for the detection of surface and near-surface flaws in ferromagnetic materials. It cannot, however, be used to detect deeply embedded flaws, nor can it be used on non-ferromagnetic materials, such as aluminium, copper or austenitic stainless steel.

A magnetic field is applied to the specimen, either locally or overall, using a permanent magnet, electromagnet, flexible cables or hand-held prods. If the material is sound, most of the magnetic flux is concentrated below the material's surface. However, if a flaw is present, such that it interacts with the magnetic field, the flux is distorted locally and 'leaks' from the surface of the specimen in the region of the flaw.

Fine magnetic particles, applied to the surface of the specimen, are attracted to the area of flux leakage, creating a visible indication of the flaw. The materials commonly used for this purpose are black iron particles and red or yellow iron oxides. In some cases, the iron particles are coated with a fluorescent material enabling them to be viewed under a UV lamp in darkened conditions.

86

Figure 83 & 84: NDT: Magnetic Particle Inspection

Magnetic particles are usually applied as a suspension in water or paraffin. This enables the particles to flow over the surface and to migrate to any flaws. On hot surfaces, or where contamination is a concern, dry powders may be used as an alternative to wet inks. On dark surfaces, a thin layer of white paint is usually applied, to increase the contrast between the background and the black magnetic particles. The most sensitive technique, however, is to use fluorescent particles viewed under UV (black) light.

MPI is particularly sensitive to surface-breaking or near-surface cracks, even if the crack opening is very narrow. However, if the crack runs parallel to the magnetic field, there is little disturbance to the magnetic field and it is unlikely that the crack will be detected. For this reason it is recommended that the inspection surface is magnetised in two directions at 90 to each other. Alternatively, techniques usi ng swinging or rotating magnetic fields can be used to ensure that all orientations of crack are detectable. 4.1.1.8. Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program - SOAP

SOAP measures concentrations of the shear mixed layer wear particles present in the oil. Trendline analysis of this data detects subtle changes to wear modes in the system, usually long before any significant wear to those components occurs. Spectrometric analysis methods are based on the principles of atomic physics whereby an atom emits or absorbs light of a certain wavelength within the ultraviolet and visible region of the energy spectrum when there is an upset in the energy balance within its atomic structure.

87

Spectrometric oil analysis procedure based maintenance is implemented through the following steps: Oil sampling; Spectrometric analysis; Diagnosis data analysis; Validation of the diagnosis.

This inspection method is to prevent catastrophic failure in the lubrication system. It consists of: Spectrometric analysing of oil from the engine for contamination of metal particles; Inspect the oil filter for contamination.

This research is performed by a special authorized laboratory. A SOAP-set consists of special sample tubes with oil samples taken from the oil tank. Generally oil is taken from the oil tank soon after the engine had been operated. Important is that there is no extra contamination in the oil while oil samples are taken. Otherwise there will be a wrong interpretation of the health of the engine.

Figure 85: NDT: Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program

With normal operation of the engine, there will be a small increment of metal particles relative to the operating hours of the engine. The amount of dissolved metal particles which are not visible for human eye is expressed in PPM or Parts Per Million (this is 1 milligram metal per 1 kilogram of oil). 88

Via spectrometric analysing the amount of metal particles are recorded in a record. But whats most important is the amount of increment of metal particles in the oil. An announcement of a failure is indicated with a suddenly increasing increment of metal particles. This suddenly increment doesnt mean the engine is defect. But by detecting this precaution, serious damages, failure or even totally defect of the engine can be prevented. As soon as there is a detection of increment, actions are taken like unscheduled inspection of the engine.

Also the oil filter is checked for contamination for detection of bigger metal particles and other wear particles. The size of the particles are 20 microns or bigger. Analyse of both oil and oil filter give a good image of the wear of the bearings, cog wheels and labyrinth seals in the engine. Regular inspection with this method together with inspection of the oil filter and magnetic chip detectors is needed for a prediction of failures. 4.1.1.9. Vibration Measurements

Jet engine rotors are highly symmetric about their operating axis. They are subject to highly symmetric stress, and so their expansion in response to the stress (strain) is also symmetric and the part remains well-balanced despite very significant changes in its dimensions. When a crack is introduced into the disk, the symmetry is broken, and the strain is no longer uniform. This dimensional asymmetry is reflected in the mass distribution of the disk, creating an immeasurable unbalance, which in turn causes vibration that can be measured. In the spin pit this vibration measurement has been used for many years as a diagnostic tool, but it has often been ineffective. Spin pit operators routinely measure part vibration, but often report that there was no vibration increase prior to burst.

89

Figure 86: NDT: Vibration Measurements

In the spin pit, the system uses an eddy-current proximity probe to measure the instantaneous position of the shaft on which the test rotor is mounted. Because the spin pit drive uses a flexible shaft running above its first resonance, the part runs about its principal mass axis (axis of balance). The deviation of that axis from the geometric axis of the shaft is a direct measure of the unbalance of the rotor. The spindle vibration signal is processed through the proprietary tracking filter, and the synchronous amplitude and synchronous phase angle are measured. A signal for each revolution is generated by a reluctance pickup or an optical probe, and used as the zero phase reference. The filter provides amplitude and phase fidelity despite the rapidly changing rate of speed and rate of acceleration. Most commonly, the system is set up to record amplitude and phase at a specific speed point during acceleration of the rotor. The amplitude and phase values measured during the early period of the test, when the rotor can be assumed to be uncracked, are taken as the baseline unbalance of the system. Subsequent amplitude and phase data are combined and a vector subtraction is performed to compute a change vector. Both amplitude and phase of the change vector are plotted and displayed in real time, allowing the test engineer to observe the unbalanced change. Monitoring the rate of growth is particularly important in determining the point at which the test must be halted to prevent burst.

90

4.1.1.10.

Acoustic Emission Testing

Acoustic Emission (AE) is the class of phenomena whereby an elastic wave, in the range of ultrasound usually between 20 kHz and 1 MHz, is generated by the rapid release of energy from the source within a material. The elastic wave propagates through the solid to the surface, where it can be recorded by one or more sensors. The sensor is a transducer that converts the mechanical wave into an electrical signal. In this way information about the existence and location of possible sources is obtained. The basis for quantitative methods is a localization technique to extract the source coordinates of the acoustic emission events as accurately as possible. Acoustic emission differs from ultrasonic testing, which actively probes the structure; acoustic emission listens for emissions from active defects and is very sensitive to defect activity when a structure is loaded beyond its service load in a proof test. Acoustic emission analysis is a useful method for the investigation of local damage in materials. One of the advantages compared to other NDT techniques is the possibility to observe damage processes during the entire load history without any disturbance to the specimen.

Acoustic emission analysis is used successfully in a wide range of applications including: detecting and locating faults in pressure vessels or leakage in storage tanks or pipe systems, monitoring welding applications, corrosion processes, partial discharges from components subjected to high voltage and the removal of protective coatings. Areas where research and development of acoustic emission applications is currently being pursued, among others, are process monitoring and global or local long-term monitoring of civilengineering structures (e.g., bridges, pipelines, off-shore platforms, etc.). Another area where numerous acoustic emission applications have been published is fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites, in particular glass-fibre reinforced parts or structures. Acoustic emission systems also have the capability of detecting acoustic signals created by leaks.

91

Figure 87 & 88: NDT: Acoustic Emission Testing

The disadvantage of acoustic emission is that commercial acoustic emission systems can only estimate qualitatively how much damage is in the material and approximately how long the components will last. So, other NDT methods are still needed to do more thorough examinations and provide quantitative results. Moreover, service environments are generally very noisy, and the acoustic emission signals are usually very weak. Thus, signal discrimination and noise reduction are very difficult, yet extremely important for successful acoustic emission applications.

92

4.1.2. Destructive Testing - DT


In destructive testing, tests are carried out to the specimen's failure, in order to understand a specimen's structural performance or material behavior under different loads. These tests are generally much easier to carry out, yield more information, and are easier to interpret than nondestructive testing. Destructive testing is most suitable, and economic, for objects which will be mass produced, as the cost of destroying a small number of specimens is negligible. It is usually not economic to do destructive testing where only one or very few items are to be produced. 4.1.2.1. Stress Test

Every material used for constructions is subjected to stress. Strength is the resistance against stress. Stress is measured in unit of force per unit of area [N/mm]. Stress does not only occur mechanically but it can also caused by heat, for example if components do not heat up simultaneously. To know the strength of the material, stress tests are carried out (on for example wing constructions). Because wings are subjected to the lift of the aircraft, they must resist the stress. The wings are installed on a test bench and are subjected to stress until they break. For construction, stress tests are important because in aviation two main things are important for construction - as light as possible and as strong as possible. The construction must sustain the load it has to carry and thats why in aviation this is the basic test which the fuselage and the wing structure must withstand.

Figure 89: DT: Stress Test

93

4.1.2.2.

Crash Test

Since the first aircraft went up in the sky, crashes have happened, especially in the early years of aviation and world wars. Because an aircraft crash can not be prevented in 100% of cases, engineers are searching for solutions to protect passengers and crew from impact. To research how a crash can develop, NASA did many simulations of crashes. Each aircraft carried various instruments to record temperatures, fire location, and distribution of combustible mixtures, and times at which various failures occurred. These instruments converted the data into electric signals recorded on meters located in a fireproof, insulated box on the aircraft. Additional motion-picture camera stands were located at various points near the runway. The program's goal was to uncover the mechanism of the crash fire and the exact nature of the structural breakup of the aircraft. We ask our self the following questions: What were the rate, pattern, and area over which the liquid fuel spread? Did it form into a spray? Can we do something to prevent it?

One by one the old myths tumbled before the facts: the mistaken idea of pilots that turning off the ignition before a crash prevented fire; the belief that fuels with low volatility was safer than conventional gasoline. Crash tests are as important to aviations as to cars. It can be the difference between death or alive. Examinations in crash dynamics are important in aviation because the structure can be designed that way it absorbs a part of the impact energy and safe some lives. Not only structure can be adjusted. Also systems and components can be adjusted so they are no hazard to passengers and crew.

Figure 90: DT: Crash Test

94

4.1.2.3.

Fatigue Test

Fatigue is a phenomenon where material gives way due to alternating stress in the material. Because of this alternating stress, flaws can be caused, even if the stress stays far below the maximum value the material can sustain. The alternation of the stress can be low cycle (<10000) or high cycle (>10000). Fatigue tests are made with the aim of determining the relationship between the stress range and the number of times it can be applied before causing failure. Testing machines are used for applying cyclically varying stresses and cover tension, compression, torsion and bending or a combination of these stresses.

Figure 91: DT: Fatigue Test

For example the crash of the Havilland Comet was caused by fatigue in the fuselage due to pressurization and depressurization. All Comets then in service or under construction were either scrapped or modified with rounded-corner windows to correct the fatigue problem. Fatigue tests had improved the strength of aircraft constructions. The problems on highly stressed spots on the aircraft are solved with rounded-corners. But the use of new kind of materials may solve the whole problem like fibres because they resist fatigue better.

95

4.1.2.4.

Hardness Test

Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration. However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting. Brinell hardness test The Brinell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected to a load of 3000 kg. For softer materials the load can be reduced to 1500 kg or 500 kg to avoid excessive indentation. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds in the case of iron and steel and for at least 30 seconds in the case of other metals. The diameter of the indentation left in the test material is measured with a low powered microscope. The Brinell harness number is calculated by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation.

Figure 92: DT: Brinell Hardness Test

Vickers hardness test The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds. The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface of the material after removal of the load are measured using a microscope and their average calculated. The area of the sloping surface of the indentation is calculated. The Vickers hardness is the quotient obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation. 96

Figure 93: DT: Vickers Hardness Test

Rockwell hardness test The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (Fig. 1A) usually 10 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device, which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter, is set to a datum position. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. 1B). When equilibrium has again been reached, the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery, so reducing the depth of penetration (Fig. 1C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell hardness number.

Figure 94: DT: Rockwell Hardness Test

97

4.1.2.5.

Metallographic Tests

Metallography is the study of the structure of metals and of metal alloys through the examination of specimens with a metallurgical microscope. The structures observed in the microscope are often recorded photographically. We prepare the metal surface for analysis by grinding, polishing, and etching to reveal microstructual constituents. After preparation, the sample can easily be analyzed using optical or electron microscopy. A skilled technician is able to identify alloys and predict material properties, as well as processing conditions by metallography alone.

Ceramic and polymeric materials may also be prepared using metallographic techniques, hence the terms ceramography, plastography and, collectively, materialography. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: Sectioning; Mounting (optional); Grinding; Polishing; Etching.

Figure 95 & 96: DT: Metallographic Testing

98

4.2.

Methods on (Engine) Aviation Testing

NDT plays a major role in all life phases of an aircraft structure in order to ensure the high quality level in components production and also of structural integrity in the service phase. Even the requirement of increasing economic efficiency in the operation of commercial aircraft at an acceptable price level for a new acquisition can be met by means of specially developed NDT inspection procedures.

The main task of using all kind of testing is to secure the operational safety of old aircraft and the manufacture of larger and larger aircraft. This can only be realized by using selected and appropriate inspection techniques. In order to maintain these aircraft defects free and ensure a high degree of quality and reliability and as a part of inspection programme, usually following NDT methods are applied: Visual inspection; Liquid penetrant inspection; Eddy current testing; Ultrasonic testing; Thermography; Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program; Vibration measurements; Acoustic emission testing; X-Ray.

As we know you have to consider that preparation is needed for every test. For example if we need to examine the fuel tank, we probably need to defuel the aircraft. Safety cautions for X-ray is needed because of the radiation hazard. Sometimes we need to open access doors or we need to clean the surface before we can start testing. We need to take all these arguments into consideration when we choose the proper method of testing.

In this chapter we dont mention Destructive Testing methods. This is because these tests are not used in the maintenance programme. Destructive testing is typically for the early stages of development, design and initial testing of the safety of a new aircraft or materials. 99

4.2.1. Visual inspection


Visual inspections (in means of walk around by the pilot or boroscopic testing by technician) are used in aviation for inspect the construction for visual damages. This easy to perform and not expensive method is mostly used to detect visual damages are FOD, but also damages like lost rivets, deformation and discoloration can occur.

Figure 97 & 98: Visual Inspection FOD + Boroscope

Foreign Object Damage (FOD) can be seen as the damage that has been made to aircraft, engines or people by objects near the aircraft that were not allowed to be there. Because of the fact that every small object (even rivets or little stones) can cause fatal damage to the engine, it is important that we give extra attention to FOD on runway or in inlet of engine. In most cases the control of inlet and outlet of the engine is a part of the walk around- inspection before taxi. We give the walk around of a small Cessna 152 as an example so we can see the purpose and importance of it. The walk around is different for every aircraft but the main goal remains the same: searching for FOD and loose rivets.

100

Figure 99: Visual Inspection: Walk Around

1. Cabin Pilots operating Handbook AVAILABLE IN THE AIRAIRCRAFT; Control Wheel lock REMOVE; Ignition Switch OFF; Master Switch ON; Fuel Quantity Indicators CHECK QUANTITY; Master Switch OFF; Fuel Shutoff Valve ON.

2. Empennage Rudder Gust Lock REMOVE; Tail Tie Down DISCONNECTED; Control Surfaces CHECK freedom of movement and security.

3. Right Wing Trailing Edge Aileron CHECK freedom of movement and security.

4. Right Wing Wing Tie Down DISCONNECT; Main Wheel Tire CHECK for proper inflation; Before First flight of the day and refueling DRAIN; Fuel Quantity CHECK VISUALLY for desired level; Fuel Filler Cap SECURE.

101

5. Nose Engine Oil Level CHECK for 6 quarts; Propeller and Spinner CHECK for nicks and security; Carburetor Air Filter CHECK for restrictions by dus tor other foreign matter; Landing Lights CHECK condition and cleanliness; Nose Wheel Strut and Tire CHECK inflation; Nose Tie Down DISCONNECT; Static Source Opening CHECK for stoppage.

6. Left Wing Main Wheel Tire CHECK inflation; Before First flight of the day and refueling DRAIN; Fuel Quantity CHECK VISUALLY for desired level; Fuel Filler Cap SECURE.

7. Left Wing Leading Edge Pitot Tube Cover REMOVE and check for stoppage; Stall Warning Opening CHECK for stoppage; Fuel Tank Vent Opening CHECK for stoppage; Wing Tie Down DISCONNECT.

8. Left Wing Trailing Edge Aileron CHECK freedom of movement and security.

We choose the Cessna 152 because its walk around is a basic for all other more complicated aircraft. When doing the walk around the pilot (or technician) must watch out for extra damages on the structure and especially the engine. This very important inspection can prevent a lot of accidents. In the past the crash with the Concorde was caused by a FOD on the runway, so you can imagine the Concorde still flying today if there was a proper inspection of the runway?

102

4.2.2. Liquid penetrant inspection


Liquid penetrant inspection is used in aviation for detecting very tiny damages and flaws which are not visible. This test method is for example used to detect hairline cracks on propeller blades. It is only used for components which can be disassembled from the aircraft and is unable to detect sub-surface cracks.

Example The title of a service bulletin of SME engine is Engine casing dye penetrant inspection. At the left-hand side half casing, near the propeller, minor cracking has been more often found than expected. Every 100 engine operating hours a penetrant inspection has to be performed (visible dye under white light) and a developer (dry powder) has to be formed on the front part of the engines left-hand side half casing to search for cracks.

Figure 100: Liquid Penetration: Engine Casing

4.2.3. Eddy current testing


Eddy current is a very often used method in aviation. With this method we are looking for surface hairline cracks and corrosion on individual places who are not normally visible. (on for example turbine and compressor blades). These slightly unimportant cracks could lead to a later fatigue fracture, so it is important to detect these small cracks in an early stage of development.

103

Example We can use Eddy current testing for inspection of surface cracks on: Cone bolt lugs of the forward engine Mount (left image); Hanger fittings and link assemblies of the aft engine Mount (right image).

For this test we need an impedance aircraft display and a 90 degrees pencil probe. Like we said before it is possible to do multiple methods at the same time to get a result as good as possible. For this example we can do an additional fluorescent dye penetrant inspection of the thread run out area of the forward and aft cone bolts.

Figure 101 & 102: Eddy Current Testing: Engine Mounts

The marked area (

) indicates the area that have to be inspected. The red circle (left

image of the forward engine Mount) indicates the place where the additional penetrant inspection has to be done.

4.2.4. Ultrasonic testing


Ultrasonic testing is used in aviation because it can be used on different kind of materials, not only metal. Also this method can detect faults through the whole specimen in comparison with eddy current testing which only inspects the surface and area near to the surface. This method is used for detecting faults more deep in the specimen on individual components where the flaws are not normally visible.

104

Example We search with an ultrasonic bondtester in the inner wall of the thrust reverser for: Disbondage between skin and the honeycomb core; Interply Delamination.

For this test we need to prepare the work first: The thrust reverser has to be opened first and the instrument has to be calibrated.

Figure 103: Ultrasonic Testing: Inner Wall Thrust Reverser

4.2.5. Thermography
Thermography is useful in aviation to detect hot spots and water infiltration. As we know hotspots are hazards to ignite unwanted fires. It also be can used to detect leakage of the pressurization system, because the pressurised air is hot. Water infiltration can cause damage to for example composite materials. When there is water between the layers of the honeycomb structure it is possible it can freeze (high altitudes) and so it can lead to delamination.

105

Example A thermographic inspection can be useful for detection of water in non-metallic honeycomb structure on a trailing edge flap. In this example we use liquid crystal sheets that are sensitive to temperature differences in a vacuum environment (for example a bag). The liquid crystal sheets are used as a cheaper alternative to an electronic thermography camera. Although it is necessary to heat the part, but there is no limit to the number of heat cycles if the heat is applied frequently to the part through the liquid crystal sheet. We can only use this kind of method when the specimen has a temperature between 4 C and 32 C before inspection.

Figure 104 & 105: Thermography: Water in honeycomb structure

106

4.2.6. Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program


This inspection method is very useful in aviation. It is used for inspect the lubrication system on the engine. This method gives information about the health and wear of the engine and helps predicting a failure. The Oil Analysis Program is not a cure-all, as normal maintenance practices must still be followed. Analysis of oil samples after a maintenance action has been accomplished can be used as a quality control tool by maintenance. An analysis which continues to show abnormal concentrations of wear metals present in the system would be positive proof that maintenance had not corrected the discrepancy and further trouble shooting techniques must be employed.

Example

Figure 106: Spectrometric Oil Analysis System

107

4.2.7. Vibration measurements


This method is very useful for flaw detection in turbine wheel. Because the turbine wheel is balanced very accurately, the slightest deformation due to a crack is detected. The turbine must resist heavy mechanical and thermal loads which causes stresses in the turbine wheel. These stresses causes cracks.

Example In jet engine testing we use Scanning Vibrometry to visualize localization effects of a jet engine compressor blisk. The non-contact measurements by the Vibrometer are essential for precise vibration mode visualization and discrimination between acceptable and unacceptable localized vibration amplitudes. With this method we can localize the effects at mistuned (manufacture imperfections) compressor blades. The knowledge of such phenomena is essential with regard to the evaluation of lifetime.

Figure107 & 108: Vibration Measurements: Compressor Blisk

108

4.2.8. Acoustic emission testing


Acoustic emission monitoring can be used for crack growth inside material. However the acoustic emission signals are weak and can interfere with noise produced by the engine itself. It can be used for simulation of fatigue on engine structure to determine crack growth in the structure. This is useful for designing structures. Signal discrimination and noise reduction are very difficult while engine operation, yet extremely important for successful acoustic emission applications.

Example AE is often used as application in monitoring the health of aerospace structures because sensors can be attached in easily accessed areas that are remotely located from damage prone sites. AE has been used in laboratory structural tests, as well as in flight test applications. NASA developed Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System that is based on the Acoustic Emission Technology. This technology is for example used in the Space Shuttle Discovery wing structure.

Figure 109 & 110: Acoustic Emission: Space Shuttle

109

4.2.9. X-ray
Mostly X-ray is used on places to examine hidden areas where it is very expensive and time consuming to disassembly it from the aircraft for visual inspection.

Example We search for fatigue cracking of the forward frame member in the engine nose cowl. These cracks are large and may occur in the frame web and generally are located in the lower portion of the cowl. Like we said before there is no need for removals in X-Ray testing.

Figure 111: X-Ray: Engine Nose Cowl

We have to place a film on the outside of the cowl in position to allow for projection of the X-ray image of the frame.

110

Like we said before it is very important to choose the good method while testing. Every NDT-testing method has theirown advantages and disadvantages. A little summary of these factors, for three important methods, is given in the following table:

Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of most important NDT-methods

111

4.3.

Summary

For aircraft maintenance it is important to inspect the mechanical damage and assess the extent of the repair work. The problem of schedule maintenance is that it is difficult to find the defects fast and efficient. An aircraft is made to fly (only way to make profit), so the ground time has to be reduced. During aircraft maintenance NDT is the most economical way of performing inspection and this is the only way of discovering defects. We can detect cracks or any other irregularities in the engine or aircraft components which are obviously not visible to the naked eye. Structures and different assemblies of aircraft are made from various materials, such as aluminium alloy, steel, titanium and composite materials. To dismantle the aircraft in pieces and then examine each component would take a long time, so the NDT method and equipment selection must be fast and effective. The following table gives for every kind of NDT method the main errors it can detect. Because it is important to choose the right method on the right time, we have to consider a couple of conditions before going to action, test: What kind of error we want to detect? How accurate must be the result? How much time we have to do the tests? What is the price-limit? In what stage of maintenance program are we? Etc

Table 2: Summary of NDT-Methods

112

5. The conception of turbojet maintenance systems


5.1. General requirements for maintenance system

5.1.1. Maintenance philosophies


5.1.1.1. Introduction

The maintenance programs that are currently used in commercial aviation were developed by the industry using two basic approaches: the process-orientated approach and the taskorientated approach. The differences in these two methods are twofold: (1) the attitude towards maintenance actions and (2) the manner in which maintenance actions are determined and assigned to components and systems. Although the commercial aviation industry has recently gone to the task-orientated approach for the most modern aircraft, there are many older aircraft still in service whose maintenance programs were developed by the process-oriented approach. In recent years, McDonnell-Douglas and Boeing have developed new task-orientated maintenance programs for some of these older model aircraft. The operators or airliners can purchase these new programs from the manufacturer.

The process-oriented approach to maintenance uses three primary maintenance philosophies to accomplish the maintenance actions: Hard time (HT); On condition (OC); Condition Monitoring (CM). Hard time

5.1.1.2.

This maintenance philosophy is a failure preventive process which requires that the specific part is removerd from the aircraft and either completely overhauled, partially overhauled (restored), or discarded (trown away) before exeeding its specified life limit. The life limit or the hard time interval may be specified by calendar time, by engine or aircraft check interval, by landing or operating cycles, by flight hours, by block hours, by specified flights, or in conjunction with another process (OC for instance).

113

Figure 112: Hard Time Maintenance

Small overhaul; Inspection; Replacment of parts in engine; Main overhaul.

The component overhaul or restoration will restore the component to a condition that will give seasonable assurance of satisfactory operation until the next scheduled removal. Ideally, hard time would be applied to a component that always fails a X hours of operation. This component would then be replaced at the last scheduled maintenance period prior to the accumulation of X hours. Then the operator would get maximum hours out of the component and the component would never fail in service, ofcource this is the idial condition and is no reference to real conditions. Hard time is also applied to parts that have a direct effect on the safety of the aircraft, and parts subject to reliability degradation with age but having no possible maintenance check for that condition. Components like rubber products, do not lend themselves to any periodic check for condition and have no OC check to determine how much serviceability is remaining.

114

As an example, structural inspection, landing gear overhaul, and replacement of life-limited engine parts are all controlled by hard time. Frequently, mechanical linkages and actuators, hydraulic pumps and motors, electric motors and generators, and similar parts subject to a define wear-out periods, hard time is probably the most economical process or maintenance philosophy. Depending on the operator, these parts can also be OC or CM, as long as they are not safety related.

Other examples are inflateable slides or heat exchangers, both have to be checked after period of time to check for leakages. Equipment like Fire extingguisher bottles or life vests have a life limit to so have to be checked and approved before use. Filters in all kind of systems like oil and fuel are very important HT parts, they have big influence on the functioning of the systems.

Figure 113 & 114: Examples of Hard Time Maintenance

5.1.1.3.

On condition

This is also a failure preventive philosophy that requires that the part is periodically inspected or tested against some appropriate physical standards (wear or deterioration limits) to determine whether or not the item can continue in service. After failing an on condition test, the component must be overhauled or restored to the extent of at least replacing out-of-tolerance parts. An overhaul or repair must restore the unit to a condition that will give reasonable assurance of satisfactory operation for at least one additional OC check interval. If the item cannot be overhauled or restored, or if it cannot be restored to a condition where it can operate one more OC check period, then it should be discarded.

115

Figure 115: On Condition Maintenance

Replacement of parts in engine.

On condition must be restricted to components, equipment, or systems on which a determination of continued airworthiness may be made by measurements, tests, or other means without doing a tear-down inspection. These on-condition checks are to be performed within the time limits prescribed for each OC check. On condition determination of continued airworthiness is a quantifying check with specified tolerances and/or wear limits which must be set forth in the operators maintenance manuals. The periodically scheduled OC checks must constitute meaningful determination of suitability for continued operation for another scheduled OC check interval. If the check performed provides enough information regarding the condition and failure resistance of the item to give reasonable assurance of its continued airworthiness during the next check period, the item is properly categorized as on condition. If a check consists out of a maintenance task containing servicing, adjustment, or a go/no-go determination and its not making a meaningful disclosure of actual condition, the part is, in fact operating as a condition monitoring item and should be classified as a CM and not OC. On condition checks must measure or evaluate the wear and/or deterioration condition of the specific part. The on condition process also provides periodic collection of data that will reveal the physical condition of a component, system or even the whole engine. Through analysis and evaluation, OC data must be able to ascertain continued airworthiness and/or deterioration of failure resistance and threat of failure.

116

There are different kinds of on condition tests: Visual Inspection An example of a visual inspection is a Boroscope inspection. This kind of inspection is specially used on the engine. All parts on the engine can be inspected like the engines air intake is checked for damages caused by FODs. This causes damages on vanes like dents, cracks or sometimes even broken blades.

Figure 116: On Condition Maintenance: Visual Inspection

Engine Oil Analysis Or Chip Detector Analysis Chip detectors are installed in the scavenge lines of the fuel and oil system. These chip detectors have magnetic plugs and pick up small particles of wear from damaged bearings or pumps in the system.

Figure 117: On Condition Maintenance: Chip Detector

117

Spectrographic Oil Analysis Program (SOAP) This kind of on condition inspection consists of the periodic analysis of oil samples taken from an aircraft engine lubrication system. Spectrometric oil analysis programs are capable to detect and alarm in early stages if abnormal wear occurs. The wear consists out of small particles which are invisible for the naked eye. The number of particles are expressed in parts per million. A sudden increase of particles indicates a failure in the system.

Figure 118: On Condition Maintenance: SOAP

A SOAP-diagram is a graph that shows the parts per million in function the date of the check. This diagram visualizes the trend of the measurements in function of time. When measurements are higher than limits alarm 1 and 2, there is a problem. With SOAP it is possible to plot diagrams of every different kind of metal located in the lubrication system. This makes it easier to find the origin of the wear.

118

Vibration Survey With vibration survey we can detect damages on rotating parts like for example the turbine, compressor and bearings. Damaged blades on the fan for example can be replaced, unbalanced rotating parts can be balanced with correction weights.

Figure 119: On Condition Maintenance: Vibration Survey

Trend monitoring Trend monitoring uses engine operational data to find signs of damages, extraordinary wear and detritions. Trend monitoring software makes it possible to capture a lot of engine data points during flight and tests on the ground. These data parameters can be put into a graph. This graph shows a trend, by keeping track of this trend, potential problems can be found before they cause a failure. For trend monitoring you need two components (1) the data taken from the engine during operation supplied by the ECU or engine control unit, (2) and trend monitoring software. These data or parameters are obtained from temperature and pressure probes and flow meters situated in the engine. Most of these parameters are recorded during flight, engine startup and engine shutdown. Next to situation parameters like temperatures, also other parameters are recorded like flight hours and cycles. 119

These parameters are very important maintenance planning of checks for certain engine part or replacing life limited parts like for example filters or bearings.

Figure 120: On Condition Maintenance: Trend Monitoring

Every on condition check like these examples can measure degradation and determine, from established norms, how much life or serviceability remains. On condition process is very important in the development of maintenance programs for aircraft. A lot of commercial aircraft operators use the on condition process to control engine overhauls.

120

The collected engine data by an ECM program shows the performance degradation of the engine. Fuel and oil consumption, boroscope inspection results, trends in recorded in flight instrument reading, oil analysis and many others are compared to standards to predict decreasing engine reliability and failure threats. Engine data programs attempt to provide data to indicate the need to remove engines before an in flight shutdown occurs. 5.1.1.4. Condition monitoring

When neither hard time and on condition can be applied, condition monitoring is applied. Condition monitoring philosophy involves the monitoring of the failure rate, removals of individual parts or systems on an aircraft that are not life-limited defined. These parts have no noticeable wear-out period. Condition monitoring is no failure preventive process, there is no maintenance task suitable for evaluating the life expectancy of this part. These parts operate until a failure occurs, after this the part is being changed. During a failure of this kind of part, the safety of the aircraft is not harmed. Parts that are suitable for condition monitoring are for example bulbs (lamps or lights), navigation and communication equipment, instruments and others. Most of these parts are doubled and have no direct reaction on the safety or airworthiness of the aircraft. It is only necessary to monitor them and replace them when they fail.

5.1.2. Engine construction requirements for on condition maintenance system


5.1.2.1. Introduction

Nowadays jet engines are designed in a way to minimize maintenance costs and out of service time. Therefore it is important that each maintenance action requires as few man hours as possible. Modular engine construction is one of the requirements that make maintenance more efficient.

The tree most important construction requirements are: Modular Construction; Inspection Holes; Monitoring and Diagnostic Systems.

121

5.1.2.2.

Modular Construction

The use of larger and larger aircraft has meant that there travel has become less and less expensive. This concept works well, as long as the aircraft themselves remain serviceable. But if one restricting component, such as the engine, becomes unserviceable on a large aircraft, then the expense involved in keeping three or four hundred passenger fed, accommodated and happy becomes exorbitant.

Engine manufacturers, in an attempt to minimise the financial burden imposed upon the users of their equipment in the event of its failure, have started to use Modular Construction Methods which facilitate changing sections of an engine rather than the whole engine. Most Turbofan engines can be separated in three major modules, these modules are themselves also divided in a number of small modules, depending on the kind of engine. When a failure occurs, the module where the damage is situated can be replaced with a new one. The broken module is send to the shop and repaired. The replacement of the module doesnt take that long time in comparison with changing the broken peace in the engine. Not only for failures but also replacement of life limited parts and modifications is module construction very interesting, the parts can be changed very easily.

The three major modules are: Fan major Module; Core Major Module; Low pressure turbine Major Module.

122

Figure 121: Modular Construction

To show how the modular construction of a jet engine is build up we use the CFM56-3 turbojet engine as example. Like most engine this CFM56-2 has 3 modules: Fan Major Module Fan and booster; No. 1 and No. 2 Bearing Support; IGB and No. 3 Bearing; TGB; AGB. Core Major Module HPC Rotor, Forward Stator, AFT Stator; Combustion Case; Combustion Chamber; HPT Nozzle, Rotor, Shroud and Stage 1 LPT Nozzle. LPT Major Module LPT Shaft, Rotor and Stator; Turbine Frame.

123

5.1.2.3.

Modular Maintenance Concept

All Modern turbojet engines have a modular maintenance concept with three levels of maintenance procedures that has to be preformed. Line Maintenance This kind of maintenance is performed on the flight line with the engine installed on the aircraft. Examples of maintenance tasks are: Line Replaceable Units; Servicing and checks; Light repair work; Troubleshooting ; Engine replacement. Modular Maintenance This kind of maintenance is performed in facilities that dont have the capability and the competence to do repair on engines. Modular maintenance is only concerned with the replacement of modules, assemblies and parts only. Repair on parts, balancing or machining operations that require the use of manufacturing type tooling are not performed in a modular maintenance facility. Shop Maintenance This kind of maintenance is performed by a facility that has the qualification to perform engine teardown, inspection, repair and assembly capabilities. 5.1.2.4. Inspection Holes

Inspection holes are also made to make maintenance easier and faster. These holes are situated in strategic places to it possible to do a internal visual inspection with a boroscope. The holes are situated before every stage of low and high pressure compressor and turbine. Inspection holes make it possible to search for damages like cracks on the blades. The biggest advantage of these holes is that the engine does not have to be disassembled to check its internal condition.

124

5.1.2.5.

Monitoring and Diagnostic Systems

Engines parameters have limits that cant be exceeded, this is for example the rotation speed and temperature of the engine or even the fuel flow. The engine has to be provided with the right inputs in every situation in flight or on the ground.

Systems are developed to control the engine in a kind of way that its life and time between failures is extended to a maximum. Examples of these systems are FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control), HIDEC(Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) and HUMS(Health & Usage Monitoring System). This topic will be discussed in more detail in the next paragraph.

5.1.3. Engine Monitoring and Diagnostic Systems (ECU)


5.1.3.1. General

In modern aviation ECUs (Engine Control Units) are used to manage the engine. This computer controls all kinds of different aspects of the combustion process of the engine and prevents that parameter from exceeding their limit. There are lots of different Engine controls, they differ in the amount of influence the have on the operation of the engine. Some typical aspects are ignition timing, variable valve timing. This computer also

determines the quantity of fuel given to the engine igniters and its timing during every part of flight by monitoring the engine through sensors. Examples of sensors located in the engine are air-temperature, air-mass or pressure sensors. Other inputs for the ECU are demands given by the pilot like the throttle position and other controls. The main goal of this system is to provide an efficient combustion process of the engine and to help extend engine life. There are lots of different kinds of engine electrical controls. The most imported ones are FADEC, HIDEC and HUMS.

125

Figure 122: Principle of ECUs

5.1.3.2.

FADEC

This engine control consists out of a digital computer that controls all aspects of the engine to increase the performance to provide a maximum efficiency for a given condition. The full authority digital engine control can be used on both piston and jet engines. The difference without an electrical computer is that the engine is controlled directly by the pilot, this means that the throttle would control the engines thrust independently of the situation of the aircraft. With a FADEC system, analog electronic control varies an electrical signal in proportion to the desired input of the pilot. FADEC works by collecting a lot of engine parameters of the current flight condition like the position of the throttle lever, engine temperatures and pressures. These inputs are analyzed very frequently (up to 70 times a second). After analyzing, the electrical computer computes the engine operating parameters such as the fuel flow, the stator vane and bleed valve position. A few advantages of this engine control system are: More efficient; Protection against out of tolerance operations; Reduces the number of parameters to be monitored by the flight crew; The system is equipped with BITE or Build in test equipment.

126

Figure 123: FADEC

5.1.3.3.

HIDEC

HIDEC or Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control is a system developed by NASA and is used on military aircraft. The HIDEC project studied the integration of aircraft engine operations with air data and flight control systems to improve engine performance.

Researches efforts by NASA led to the development of several control modes that guarantee extended engine life, lower fuel consumption and increased engine thrust. The major elements of the HIDEC are: The Digital Electronic flight control system (DEFCS); The engine mounted Digital electronic engine controls (DEECs); An on-board general-purpose computer; An integrated architecture that allows all components to communicate with each other. The integration of this digital flight control system on both military and commercial aircraft could lead to very significant savings in fuel, maintenance, and operational costs. The advantages of this engine control system are: An extended engine life; Enhanced engine and flight performance; A greater safety margin.

127

5.1.3.4.

HUMS

HUMS or Health and Usage Monitoring System is a useful system that predicts failures. This effective predictive maintenance strategy is used on helicopters and some fixed wing aircraft. Nevertheless the big amount of other safety system already situated on helicopters, HUMS is very useful to detect and prevent catastrophic mechanical failures. Since its introduction into avionics, HUMS has evolved into a front-line strategy for reduction of aircraft maintenance costs. A few of its advantages are: An increase of the safety (because of the alerting maintenance parameters); Economic (prevents superfluous inspections and false removals).

5.1.4. Engine parameters for monitoring system


5.1.4.1. Introduction

Like it would impossible to fly a large modern aircraft safely without the fight instruments, it would be also impossible to fly without the engine system instruments. The engine instruments are divided into two categories: Performance Indicators: thrust indicating instruments, such as Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) or Fan Speed (N1) gauge; Engine Condition Indicators: Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT), Compressor Speed, Oil Pressure and Oil Temperature gauges.

The following pictures give an overview of some major parameters that we mentioned above, and the position of the sensors that are required to measure them.

128

Figure 124: Overview of Engine Parameters

5.1.4.2.

Thrust and Power Measuring Instruments

Thrust measuring instruments are of two basic types: The type that measures the jet pipe pressure, the P7 gauge; The type that measures the ratio of two parameters, the jet pipe pressure and the engine intake pressure, the EPR gauge.

Turbo-propeller aircraft measure and indicate engine torque, which is used to give an indication of engine power. Older low ratio by-pass engines used the jet pipe pressure (P7) as an indication of engine power.

High ratio by-pass engines use the engine pressure ratio (EPR) as an indication of engine power output. The ratio is that between the exhaust pressure and the engine intake pressure. On some large turbo-fan engines the values of the turbine discharge pressure and the fan outlet pressure are integrated. The figure thus obtained is then compared to the compressor inlet pressure, to produce what is called integrated EPR. Suitable positioned pitot tubes sense the pressures which are required to work the system. The tubes can either be connected directly to the indicator in the cockpit or to a pressure transmitter which is electrically connected to the indicator.

129

Figure 125 & 126: Thrust and Power Measuring Instruments

5.1.4.3.

Engine Torque

Turboprops and Turboshaft engines develop their power by producing torque, to turn the propeller, rather than pure thrust from their jet efflux. The definition of torque can be seen as A force applied at a distance to a turning point. The torque meter system measures the power being produced by the engine, and the indicator displays that power. There are two main methods of measuring the torque of the engine. One uses oil pressure, and the second is an electronic device. Helical Gear Torquemeter System Engine torque is proportional to the horse power being produced by the engine, and this is transmitted through the propeller reduction gear. The helical gear torque meter system depends upon the axial thrust developed when helically cut gears are used in the propeller reduction gear. The shafts of the gears rotate within cylinders, and the axial thrust they develop is balanced by oil pressure trapped inside the cylinders. The torque meter oil pressure is then transmitted to a gauge in the cockpit. The system oil pressure, which in some systems can have a high value, is generated by a torque meter oil pump. There is also an oil pressure bleed hole within each cylinder. When the thrust developed by the helically cut gear is balanced by torque meter oil pressure the shaft of each helical gear takes up a sensitive position partially covering the bleed hole.

130

If engine power output increases, the axial thrust being transmitted by each gear increases, forcing it shaft further into its retaining cylinder where it blocks the bleed hole. Unable to escape, the torque meter oil pressure now builds up to a new higher value, until it is able to force the gear shaft back into the sensitive position, where once again it is able to balance the axial thrust being developed by the helical gear.

Figure 127: Helical Gear Torquemeter

If the engine power output decreases, the axial thrust being transmitted by each gear also decreases. This allows its shaft to move slightly out the retaining cylinder, thus uncovering the bleed hole. The torque meter oil pressure now falls to a new lower value, until the lower axial thrust being developed by the engine can overcome it and force the gear shaft back into the sensitive position. Axial thrust is again balanced by oil pressure in the cylinder, but now it is balanced by a lower torque meter value. In addition to giving an indication of engine power output, the torque meter system can also be utilised to send signals to the auto-feather systems. When an engine fails, the system will automatically feather the propellers, this is important in particular during take-off.

131

Electronic Torque meter The electronic system comprises two concentric shafts. The first shaft, which is called the torque shaft, connects the engine to the propeller reduction gear box. The second shaft, reference shaft, is connected only to the engine. An exciter wheel is fitted to the forward end of each shaft. The exciter wheels rotate past an electromagnetic pick-up and produce an AC voltage. While the engine is stationary the exciter wheels are aligned, but as power is increased the torque shaft twists, this changes the phase relationship of the voltage produced. The change in phase relationship, which is used to drive an indicator trough an amplifier, is proportional to the change in power.

Figure 128: Electronic Torquemeter

5.1.4.4.

Engine RPM

The RPM indicator is called a Tachometer. There are three methods of measuring engine rotational speeds: Mechanical (magnetic) tachometer; Electrical generator system; Inductive probe system

132

Mechanical Tachometer

The measurement of engine speed is of vital importance if accurate control and monitoring of the engine can be achieved. The usual method of measuring engine rotational speed on piston engines is the Mechanical tachometer. This tachometer consists of a flexible drive shaft and an indicator which are connected together. The other end of the drive shaft is connected with the accessory drive casing on the engine where is driven through gears from the crankshaft. The input drive rotates a magnet inside a drag cup which induces eddy currents in it. The eddy currents generate a magnetic field which interacts with the magnetic field of the magnet. This interaction turns the drag-cup, which is connected to a pointer in the same direction as the permanent magnet.

Figure 129: RPM meter: Mechanical Tachometer

The Electrical Generator System The Electrical Generator System is the oldest system of measuring RPM still in use on large commercial aircraft. This tacho-generator system, utilises a small three phase generator, driven by the appropriate spool shaft. The output of this generator powers an indicator in the cockpit. The indicator is a synchronous squirrel cage motor that turns a drag assembly. The drag cup moves a pointer over a scale in a similar manner to that used in the mechanical system.

133

Figure 130: RPM meter: Electrical Generator System

In a triple spool engine, the speed of the low pressure compressor, the fan, would be displayed as N1, the intermediate spool speed would be shown as N2, and the high pressure compressor rotational speed would be N3. Inductive Probe System If it is not possible to make provision of driving a tacho-generator through an external gearbox, which is driven by the HPC shaft, a speed probe could be used. There are two ways that the speed probe generates the pulses required to feed the system: Fan blades excite the magnetic field of the sensor head of the speed probe as they pass it. This generates a waveform with a frequency proportional to the rotational speed of the fan; The teeth of a phonic wheel pass through the magnetic field of the sensor and generate pulses at a frequency proportional to the rotational speed of the shaft. The output of the sensor is amplified before being sent to the gauge.

134

Figure 131 & 132: RPM meter: Inductive Probe System

The advantages of the speed probe system are: The reduction in the number of moving parts required in the engine; A number of separate electrical outputs, additional to those required for speed indications, can be provided. Synchroscope Many multi-engine aircraft have a visual indicator called a synchroscope, which indicates the RPM differences between the slave engines and the master. The presentation consists of miniature propellers which rotate to show when an RPM difference exists, and whether the slave is faster or slower than the master.

Figure 133: Synchroscope

135

5.1.4.5.

Temperature Sensing Equipment

Gas turbine engines are heat engines. The power gas turbine engines produce is directly proportional to the heat released during the combustion of the fuel. If the temperature limits of engine components are exceeded they will fail. To allow safe operation the engine temperatures must be monitored. The following temperatures are monitored on gas turbine engines: Engine air inlet temperature; Exhaust gas temperature (EGT); Engine oil temperature; Fuel temperature; Internal air system temperature.

The temperatures monitored may range from -56 C to +1200 C. Different sensors are used depending on the range to be monitored. These are the major types of temperature measuring device: Expansion Type; Vapour Pressure Type; Resistance Type (electrical bulb); Thermo-Couple; Radiation Pyrometry.

Expansion Type The expansion type relies on the principle that most solids, liquids and gases expand and contract with temperature changes. Two examples of the expansion type of device are the mercury (Hg) thermometer and the bi-metallic strip.

Figure 134 & 135: Temperature Sensing: Expansion Type

136

Vapour Pressure Type The vapour pressure type of device uses the principle that liquids, when subjected to a rise in temperature change their state from liquid to vapour. By measuring the pressure of the vapour an indication of temperature can be gained.

Figure 136: Temperature Sensing: Vapour Pressure Type

Resistance Type A change in temperature of some electrical conductors (for example platinum) will cause a change in the electrical resistance of that conductor. Measuring the change in resistance of the conductor will indicate its temperature. This method is commonly used for measuring the oil- and fuel temperatures.

Figure 137: Temperature Sensing: Resistance Type

137

Thermo-Couple Heating the junction of two dissimilar metals will produce an electrical potential that is a function of temperature. If the junction is contained within a closed loop, the value of the potential will be dependent on the difference in temperature between the junction where the heat is applied (the hot junction) and the other end of the loop (the cold junction).

Figure 138: Temperature Sensing: Themo-Couple

Examples of the use of thermocouples include the measurement of cylinder head temperature and turbine gas temperature (TGT). Radiation Pyrometry A radiation pyrometer is a device which can convert radiated energy into electrical energy. It consists of o photo-voltaic cell and a lens which focuses the radiated energy onto the cell. The pyrometer is positioned so that the lens can be focussed directly onto the heat source (for example turbine blades). The photo-voltaic cell concerts the radiated energy emitted by blades into electrical energy which is passed through an amplifier to an instrument (for example EGT).

138

Figure 139: Temperature Sensing: Radiation Pyrometry

5.1.4.6.

Turbine Gas Temperature

The temperature of the gas passing the turbine is the most critical parameter. Operation of the engine beyond the limits of turbine temperature, even for only a moment, is liable to cause excessive turbine blade creep. This can be catastrophic when the rotating blades tough the casing of the engine.

Figure 140: Turbine Gas Temperature: Probe

139

The gas temperature must be monitored closely and automatic temperature limiting equipment is fitted to most gas turbine engines. To enable this monitoring to be achieved temperature probes are inserted in the gas stream. Temperature probes are formed from junction of two dissimilar metals, which generate a potential which is proportional to the temperature applied to the junction (thermo-couple). The output from the probes (hot junctions) is sent to the cockpit engine instrument (cold junction). Here the potential is displayed on a very sensitive milli-voltmeter calibrated to show the engine gas temperature.

A single probe would not supply enough information to accurately tell the pilot what was going on in the turbine. It could only inform him a small part of the turbine. Additionally, a failure of that single probe would rob the pilot of his knowledge of the most important of the engine parameters. To gain a full result of the TGT, a number of probers are connected electrically in parallel around the periphery of the turbine or the exhaust system. The output of the probes is thus the average of all the probes. Connecting the probes in parallel has the added advantage that if one probe is damaged, their electrical output, and therefore the temperature reading on the gauge, is virtually unaffected.

Figure 141: Turbine Gas Temperature: Probes in Parallel

140

If the temperature of the gas within the turbine is too high for the metal of the probes to stand it, the probes may be positioned after the turbine, and the gauge calibrated to read Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT). It may be found convenient on other engines to combine the temperature probes with the pitot probes which measure exhaust gas pressure (P7), in this case the gauges will read Jet Pipe Temperature (JPT). It would be ideal if the temperature could be sampled either before the turbine, when it would be called Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT). Alternatively the gas temperature could be sampled inside the turbine, in this case it would call Turbine Gas Temperature (TGT). 5.1.4.7. Pressure Sensing Equipment

Pressure can be defined as force per unit area. In engine instruments pressure is normally indicated either as Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI) or Inches of Mercury (Hg). When discussing pressure measurement we must make a distinguish between Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure. Absolute pressure is measured relative to absolute zero pressure the pressure that would occur at absolute vacuum, thus the absolute pressure on the Earths surface at sea level is the atmospheric pressure, which is 14,7 PSI. the most useable pressure is called the gauge pressure. Gauge pressure reflects an adjusted pressure that reads zero at the Earths surface.

Elastic pressure sensing elements are used to measure pressure. Forces are produced within the elements by applied pressures and these forces are converted to mechanical movement. The mechanical movement, produced by liquids and gases, is then used to operate either a Direct Reading Gauge or an electrical transmitter (Remote Indicating).

141

Figure 142: Pressure Sensing: Principle

Remote indicating uses a separate sensing element at some remote point and the information required is transmitted electrically to the instrument in the cockpit. Direct Reading describes when the fluid being sampled is fed directly to the instrument in the cockpit. For example a direct reading engine oil pressure gauge will be connected via an oil pressure pipe line directly to the engine to the point where the oil pressure is to be measured.

The sensing elements that are most commonly used are: Diaphragms; Capsules; Bellows; Bourdon tubes.

Diaphragms A diaphragm is a sheet of semi-flexible material, anchored at its periphery, which usually serves as a barrier between two chambers, moving slightly into one chamber or the other depending on differences in pressure. Diaphragms are used to measure low pressures.

142

Figure 143: Pressure Sensing: Diaphragm

Capsules Capsules are made up of two diaphragms placed together and joined at their edges to form a chamber. The chamber may be sealed, in which case the device is called an aneroid capsule, or it may be joined to a pressure source, in which case it is called a pressure capsule. Capsules measure also low pressures, but they are more sensitive to small pressure changes.

Figure 144 & 145: Pressure Sensing: Capsules

143

Bellows The bellows element is an extension of the diaphragm principle. It may be used for high, low or differential pressure measurement. Typically the bellow element is used to measure pressures like the output of an aircraft low pressure fuel booster pump.

Figure 146: Pressure Sensing: Bellow

Bourdon tubes The bourdon tube is the oldest version f device used for measuring pressure. The element is actually a lent of metal tube with an elliptical cross section and shaped into a letter C. one end of the tube is sealed, the other end is connected to the pressure source. When pressure is applied the tube tries to straightened. This movement is magnified to drive an indicating pointer. The bourdon tube can be manufactured to indicate high or low pressures, but is normally associated with higher pressures such as engine oil pressure.

144

Figure 147: Pressure Sensing: Bourdon Tube

5.1.4.8.

Engine Vibration

Vibration equipment is fitted to almost all jet engine aircraft. Although gas turbine engines have an extremely low vibration level, any change in that level is usually indicative of damage which may lead to failure. Warnings will be given in the cockpit if vibration levels are exceeded and some systems have a continuous readout of vibration levels. Modern engines have the facility whereby the vibration level of each rotating assembly can be monitored so that the source of any vibration can be pin-pointed.

The principle upon which vibration monitoring equipment works requires an input from a detector, which can be either a Piezo-electric crystal mounted strategically on the engine or a fixed coil carrying 115 Volts at 400 Hz. The output of which will be affected by the movement of a magnet within it, which is mounted on springs. In either case, the frequency of the incoming vibrations will be amplified, and then filtered so that only those frequencies that are indicative of damage occurring to the engine will affect the output. The output detector will affect the current flowing through the coil into the amplifier and filter. The filter will erase any output which is normal to the engine, but allow through to the amplifier any frequency that is considered to be harmful to the engine. 145

The result of the amplifier is sent to the instrument via the rectifier and warning circuit. The needle will show the appropriate deflection for the amount of vibration being suffered by the engine al that time. If the level of vibration exceeds a predetermined amount, a warning light on the instrument illuminates.

Figure 148: Engine Vibration Measurement Equipment

5.1.4.9.

Fuel Flow meter

A fuel pressure gauge can be adapted to be used as a simple flow meter. This system is used on many light piston engine injection systems.

Most gas turbine engines use an electrical sensor, which utilises the change in either the torque output, or the rotational speed, of an impeller situated in the high pressure fuel line to the fuel spray nozzles. This type of fuel flow meter consists of cylindrical casting, within which are guide vanes that support the shaft of a helical impeller. The impeller has a magnet embedded in it. Electrical pick off coils are located in the wall of the cylinder casting. When the fuel flow rotates the impeller, a sinusoidal signal in induced in the pick off coils. The frequency is proportional to the speed of the rotor, which in turn is proportional to the rate of flow. 146

Figure 149: Fuel Flow Meter

The total consumption is obtained by integrating the rate of fuel consumption over time. A flow meter that displays fuel consumed as well as fuel flow is called an Integrated Flow Meter.

147

5.2.

Proposal for Turbojet Maintenance System

5.2.1. Introduction
While performing this final project our opinion is that on-conditioning is the best maintenance philosophy to maintain an engine and its parts. This doesnt mean that these components can be fit and be forgotten. Its very important that on-condition parts are checked periodically because else they may cause an operational surprise which could not only be costly but also be harmful for the safety of the aircraft. Because of the fact that these components dont fail immediately, but first give signs of aging, damage or wear, these potential failures can be prevented before they occur.

During on-condition checks described earlier in this project potential failures are meant to be found, this is to determine if parts or items comply with a certain standard. Of course not all the parts of the engine are maintained on-condition. Only parts where the airworthiness can be determined by doing visual inspections, measurements or tests without disassembling or overhauling the part are being on-condition maintained.

Based on different kinds of continues on-condition checks like trend monitoring by engine data that is monitored through the ECU (engine control unit), for example the FADEC during the flight, the engine is maintained and checked for unusual fluctuations in the different parameters metered inside an engine. By the use of pressure, temperature, vibration and other kind of sensors and Chip detectors, the condition of the engine is continuously analyzed. When a suspicious increase is noticed, other on-condition checks are preformed to trace the cause. Because of the modular construction of the engine, its easy to disassemble it and means that damages can be maintained more efficient. Other kinds of on-condition tasks/inspections like SOAP are also very important because they give an analyzed detail about the possible problems located in the engines lubrication and oil system. This Inspection is preformed to verify and localize the damage its origin and can be done after suspicious results from previous on-condition checks.

A turbojet engine used in civil aviation must be reliable, durable and a cost effective maintenance is recommended. The approach of effective inspection of a turbojet engine is divided in three main groups: Components, Operational Systems and Fluid Systems. 148

5.2.2. Block Diagram

Figure 150: Proposal of Turbojet Maintenance System: Block Diagram

149

5.2.3. Components
To know the condition of a turbojet engine it is important to check every part of the engine separately. These parts concerning: engine housing, inlet, compressor, combustor, turbine and outlet. In order to calculate the performance and condition level of the engine, pressure and temperature will be measured through all these components. For example a critical parameter is TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature). TIT is measured as indication of the state of the engine, because operation of the engine beyond the limits of turbine temperature, even for only a moment, is liable to cause excessive turbine blade creep. This can be catastrophic when the rotating blades break through the casing of the engine.

Rotational speeds of the Low Pressure Shaft (N1) and the High Pressure Shaft (N2) are of upmost importance if accurate control and monitoring of the engine is to be achieved. It is an indication of the gas velocity through the engine.

Although turbojet engines have an extremely low vibration level, any change in that level is usually indicative of damage (for example bearings) which may lead to failure. So vibration equipment is installed in vital parts of the engine, such as compressor, combustor and turbine. The vibration level of each assembly can be monitored so that the source of any vibration can be located.

As an indication of engine power output, the EPR (Engine Pressure Ratio) is measured. The ratio is that between the exhaust pressure and the engine intake pressure. Visual inspection is also needed for on condition maintenance of the different components. This can be done by close looking at the components or by use of a boroscope for places that are more difficult to access (refer boroscopic holes).

150

5.2.4. Operational Systems


Operational Systems concerning Ignition System and Thrust Reversing System are important for the operation of the engine during flight (especially during the most critical moment: the landing). Because it is important for safe operation of the aircraft that these systems dont fail during flight, a visual inspection on these systems has to be carried out.

5.2.5. Fluid Systems


Internal Air System, Lubrication System and Fuel System are very important systems within a turbojet engine. The condition of these systems have to be inspected closely because of early detection of errors. Different parameters are measured for an overview of the state of the engine. The temperature and pressure of all the systems are a reliable indication of the state of the engine. When a component is failing, the temperature in a certain part of the engine will increase.

The Fuel system is very important for the performance of the engine. When the engine is operating the fuel flow is measured. This parameter is important for the efficiency of the engine. To be economical an engine must maintain the ratio of its fuel consumption at lowest level as possible. The Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is determined by both the engines thermal and propulsive efficiency. The fuel filter clogging is useful for indicating if there is a malfunctioning in the fuel supply. It is to indicate if there is too much contamination in the fuel there will no good fuel supply to the engine and the engine will not operate reliable.

Lubrication System is very important especially for the bearings, they get very hot when there rotating and need to be cooled down. The oil also prevents oxidation of the components in the lubrication system and can give an indication of contamination. Also oil filters are checked for contamination (clogging). The particles in oil filters indicate more severe wear, like small metal particles, probably from a failure because of the bigger particles. The magnetic chip detectors are installed in the stream of the oil in that way they hold ferrous metal particles. These particles can indicate from where inside the engine a malfunction occurs.

151

The Internal Air System needs to be checked periodically. Engine compartment cleanliness is important because the extensive mass air flow attracts foreign objects into the engine. Air flow measurement can give an indication of a jammed object in the engine.

5.2.6. Database
All the outputs measured are collected by the hart of the engine: FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) and are used for maintenance. The different parameters can be shown in the cockpit in means of the instruments, so the pilots can follow the condition of the engine during flight. The visual inspections and testing of the condition of the engine is performed during ground inspections. The detection of damages on rotating parts like turbine, compressor and bearings are collected in the Vibration Survey. In this matter we can correct or replace for example unbalanced rotating parts. The periodic analysis of the oil samples, SOAP, taken from the lubrication system are capable to detect and alarm in early stages if abnormal wear occurs in the engine. A sudden increase of particles indicates a failure.

Together with the collected data from the FADEC all the data is analysed and processed. All these data can be used for Trend Monitoring (SFC, TIT, SOAP,) or stored in the Database.

152

Summary
This project in general deals about the conception of a turbojet maintenance system. In preparation we discussed the general characteristics and performances of aircraft engines in the first part. In the next subjects of this project following this first we presented the architecture like the different parts and systems, located in a turbojet engine.

After we discussed about the general characteristic, we talked about the typical damages, possible in a turbojet engine and where they can occur. After this we gave a summary of different kinds of inspections and tests there exist to locate these damages or to estimate the health of the engine.

In the last part which Is the most important part we talked about the maintenance philosophies, engine construction requirements for on condition maintenance system and different kinds of engine control units for example the FADEC. We also gave a summary of the engine parameters for monitoring system.

At last we wrote a proposal for turbojet maintenance system which describes our opinion about what is for us the best maintenance philosophy to maintain an Turbojet engine.

153

References Books
Gasturbines algemeen voor vliegtuigonderhoud deel 1 (H.S. Kooijman) Gasturbines systemen voor vliegtuigonderhoud deel 2 (H.S. Kooijman) Introduction to flight (John D. Anderson) ATPL Gas Turbine Engines (Oxford Aviation Training DVD) Major process equipment maintenance and repair (Heinz P. Bloch, Fred K. Geitner) Elements of Gas Turbine Propulsion (Jack D. Mattingly) Aviation maintenance management (Harry A. Kinnison)

Manuals
B737 CFM56 (ATA 72, systems, basis engine, line maintenance course) B767 CF6-80 (ATA72) Manual C152 Revision NDT with specific examples B727 (SRM, AMM) Manual C152

Websites
http://www.metallurgicallab.com/spectrochemical_analysis.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destructive_testing http://blog.flightstory.net/index.php?s=destructive+testing http://www.mecmesin.com/ucm/home/section1.asp?Cat=1&ID=1&template=1&fram e=1 http://www.worldspec.org/story.php?id=466&sn=399 http://www.asnt.org/ http://www.bakertesting.com/index.htm http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/search/allsearch?mode=quicksearch&WISindex id1=WISall&WISsearch1=non+destructive+testing 154

http://www2.arnes.si http://www.wikipedia.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dye_penetrant_inspection http://www.ndt-ed.org/ http://www.krautkramer.com.au/ http://mech.vub.ac.be/teaching/info/Damage_testing_prevention_and_detection_in_ aeronautics/thermography.ppt#258,1,Dia 1 http://www.infraredinstitute.com http://www.twi.co.uk http://www.spectroinc.com/ http://www.ndt.net http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt98/aero/031/031.htm http://www.ndt.net/article/wcndt00/papers/idn904/idn904.htm http://www.ndt.net/ndtaz/ndtaz.php https://engineering.purdue.edu/AAE/Research/Propulsion/Info/jets/basics http://www.aerospaceweb.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airaircraft/shortp.html http://www.pilotfriend.com/index.htm http://inventors.about.com/lr/jet_engine/381596/1/ http://science.howstuffworks.com/aircraft-channel.htm http://www.britannica.com/ http://july.fixedreference.org/en/20040724/wikipedia/Pulse_jet_engine http://www.boeing-727.com/index.htm http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/1-506/Ch6.htm http://powertips.org/articles/maintphil.htm http://www.businessdictionary.com/ http://www.casa.gov.au/scripts/nc.dll?WCMS:STANDARD:1001:pc=PC_90602 http://www.satsair.com/
http://www.aviationtoday.com/am/categories/maintenance/Trend-Monitoring-is-about-Peace-ofMind_437.html

155

http://www.critical-software.co.uk/critical-news/revolutionary-hums-ground-stationssoftware.html http://www.md80.it/approfondimenti-2/il-fadec/ http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/about/Organizations/Technology/Facts/TF2004-06-DFRC_prt.htm http://www.connectingindustry.com/story.asp?storycode=183924

156