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Evaluation of Bagging of silk fabrics Jameela Khatoon, T. H. Somashekar, Y. C.

Radhalakshmi* and Arindam Basu Central Silk Technological Research Institute, Central Silk Board, BT , !a"out, Bangalore. * Central Silk Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, "sore. Key words# So$t silk, Ta$$eta, %AST s"stem, h"gral e&'ansion, e&tensi(ilit", (ending rigidit", shear rigidit", $orma(ilit" and (agging reco)er". 1. INTROD !TION %a(ric Bagging is a three dimensional residual de$ormation seen in used garments *hich causes deterioration in the a''earance o$ the garments. Bagging usuall" occurs in the el(o*, knee, 'ockets and hi's under the in$luence o$ a normal $orce 'er'endicular to $a(ric sur$ace. %a(ric (agging is )er" im'ortant $rom the 'oint o$ )ie* o$ (oth aesthetic a''earance and end use 'er$ormance o$ the $a(rics. %a(ric (agging 'er$ormance has (een e)aluated (" a num(er o$ research *orkers and man" test methods ha)e also (een de)elo'ed (" them. Yokura et.al. +, de)elo'ed an o(,ecti)e method o$ 'redicting (agging 'ro'ensit" o$ *o)en $a(rics. The" used (agging )olume to measure the (agging 'ro'ensit" and studied relationshi' (et*een (agging 'ro'ensit" and mechanical 'ro'erties o$ the $a(rics. -hang et. al. ., studied the (agging (eha)ior o$ *o)en $a(rics and re'orted the $actors in$luencing the (agging (eha)ior. The" characteri/ed (agging (eha)ior (" (agging resistance, (agging $atigue and residual (agging height. The" de)elo'ed a test method using Instron to measure the (agging 'ro'erties. In another stud" (" -hang et. al.
0,1

, studied the mechanism o$ (agging and

de)elo'ed a test method to su(,ecti)el" e)aluate the (agging 'erce'tion using a series o$ 'hotogra'hs o$ the (agged $a(ric sam'les and com'ared the results *ith residual (agging height. In another stud" the" descri(ed the 'h"sical mechanism o$ $a(ric (agging (" de)elo'ing an e2uation to descri(e the $a(ric $atigue 'rocess in terms o$ $a(ric internal energ" deca". An a''aratus $or testing s'herical de$ormation o$ $a(rics in el(o* and knee *as de)elo'ed (" Kisilak 3. -hang et. al. 4, simulated the $a(ric (agging de$ormation through the rheological (eha)ior o$ $a(ric (agging. A(ghari et. al. 5, de)elo'ed another test method $or e)aluating $a(ric (agging and the" used real time data ac2uisition and strain gauge techni2ue. The" measured tensile de$ormation in the *ar' and *e$t direction *hile the $a(ric *as de$ormed (" (agging. The" used (agging resistance, (agging $atigue, residual (agging height and residual (agging h"steresis to characteri/e the +

(agging (eha)ior and simulated it *ith %inite element anal"sis. The Bagging reco)er" o$ So$t silk and Ta$$eta silk $a(rics has (een e)aluated in this stud". ". #$TERI$%& $ND #ET'OD& ".1 #$TERI$%& &o$t silk $a(rics 6SS7 in the *eight range o$ 18938 g:m; and Ta$$eta silk $a(rics 6TA%7 in the *eight range o$ 4<98+ g:m; *ere su(,ected to testing o$ their 'h"sical, %AST i.e. %a(ric Assurance (" Sim'le Testing, 'ro'erties and Bagging. The summar" o$ the $a(ric construction 'arameters is gi)en in Ta(le9+. It can (e seen $rom Ta(le 9+, that the $a(ric thickness ranges $rom =.+01 mm to =.+45 mm in the case o$ so$t silk $a(rics and =.+38 mm to =...= mm in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics. "." #ET'OD& ".1.1 ($&T #et)ods and *ara+eters ".1.1.1 (abric $ssurance by &i+*le Testing ,($&T- syste+ %AST s"stem is an integrated set o$ instruments and test methods de)elo'ed $or >(,ecti)e measurement o$ $a(ric 'ro'erties. The %AST s"stem *as de)elo'ed (" CSIR> to measure the lo* stress mechanical and dimensional 'ro'erties o$ $a(rics related to their 'er$ormance during garment manu$acture and a''earance o$ tailored garments during *ear o$ *ool and *ool (lended $a(rics. The %AST s"stem com'rises three instruments and one test method. The details are as $ollo*s# ($&T . 1 / !o+*ression #eter ($&T . " / Bending #eter ($&T . 0 / E1tensibility #eter ($&T . 2 / $ test +et)od to +easure t)e Di+ensional &tability in ter+s of rela1ation s)rinkage and )ygral e1*ansion of fabrics. ($&T . 1/ !o+*ression #eter This instrument measures the thickness o$ $a(ric under $i&ed loads o$ . grams 'er centimeter s2uare and +== grams 'er centimeter s2uare. The $a(ric thickness is measured under a load o$ .grams 'er centimeter s2uare $irst and is termed as T. and then measured under a load o$ +== grams 'er centimeter s2uare *hich is termed as T+==. .

($&T . "/ Bending #eter This instrument measures (ending length o$ the $a(ric using the cantile)er 'rinci'le. The (ending rigidit" is estimated $rom the cantile)er (ending length o$ the $a(ric and the $a(ric mass# Bending rigidit" ? mass & 6(ending length7@ & 8.<=5 & +=A4 Bhere, the (ending rigidit" is e&'ressed in CDm, the (ending length in mm and the $a(ric mass in g:m;. ($&T . 0/ E1tensibility #eter The e&tensi(ilit" o$ a $a(ric measures the increase in $a(ric dimensions that occurs *hen it is su(,ected to an a''lied tensile load. The ($&T . 0/ E1tensibility #eter measures the e&tensi(ilit" o$ the $a(ric under three $i&ed loads o$ 3 g$:cm, .=g$:cm and +==g$:cm *idth. The e&tensi(ilit" in *ar' and *e$t directions measured at 3 g$:cm, .=g$:cm are used to calculate $a(ric $orma(ilit". %orma(ilit" is a measure o$ the e&tent to *hich a $a(ric can (e e&'ressed in its o*n 'lane (e$ore it (uckles. This 'arameter, as the 'roduct o$ the (ending rigidit" and the e&tensi(ilit" o$ the $a(ric at a lo* load, is de$ined in the %AST s"stem as# %orma(ilit" ? (ending rigidit" & e&tension 6.=79 e&tension 637 E +1.5 Bhere the $orma(ilit" is e&'ressed in mm;, the (ending rigidit" in CDm, and the e&tension as a 'ercentage. The shear rigidit" is calculated $rom the e&tensi(ilit" o$ the $a(ric under a load o$ 3g$:cm. Shear rigidit" ? +.0 E (ias e&tensi(ilit" Bhere, the shear rigidit" is e&'ressed in D:m and the (ias e&tensi(ilit" as a 'ercentage. ($&T . 2/ $ test +et)od to +easure t)e di+ensional stability of t)e fabrics in ter+s of rela1ation s)rinkage and )ygral e1*ansion. Rela&ation shrinkage is the irre)ersi(le change in the $a(ric dimensions that occur *hen a $a(ric is *et or e&'osed to steam. Rela&ation shrinkage is caused (" the release o$ cohesi)e or tem'oraril" set strains that are im'osed on $a(rics during te&tile 'rocessing. In the %AST s"stem, rela&ation shrinkage is de$ined as the 'ercentage change in dr" dimensions o$ the $a(ric measured a$ter rela&ation in *ater at .3F 3GC $or 0= minutes. The $a(ric 'ro'erties measured on the %AST s"stem are gi)en in Ta(le H ..

".1.1." &a+*ling for Testing on (abric $ssurance by &i+*le Testing ,($&T- syste+ The $a(ric sam'le si/e and the num(er o$ re'lications used in testing *ith %a(ric Assurance (" Sim'le Testing 6%AST7 s"stem are gi)en in Ta(le H 0. The sam'le si/e $or testing *ith ($&T . 13 " and 0 is +3= mm & 3= mm. The sam'le is $irst tested on ($&T . 13 $ollo*ed (" ($&T . " and then on ($&T . 0. The sam'les are later steam released and the test on ($&T . 1 is re'eated. The dimensional sta(ilit" test is carried out *ith a se'arate sam'le o$ 60== mm & 0== mm7. The %a(ric Assurance (" Sim'le Testing 6%AST7 instruments are inter$aced *ith a com'uter *hich automaticall" handles the data. The data generated *ith the s"stem is inter'reted *ith the hel' o$ a control chart. The control chart is re$erred to as a %a(ric finger *rint. The $inger 'rint is generated (" 'lotting the 'ro'erties o$ the $a(ric on the a''ro'riate scales and then ,oining the 'oints. A *ide range o$ in$ormation a(out the $a(ric can (e o(tained (" o(ser)ing the $a(ric $inger'rints 'osition *ith res'ect to the IJre" /onesK on the %AST chart. The IJre" /onesK on the chart indicate the 'otential 'ro(lem areas during the manu$acture o$ a 'articular garment. Lach garment t"'e or design can ha)e a se'arate chart. The limits on the control chart are deri)ed $rom 'u(lished in$ormation and research at CSIR> during the de)elo'ment o$ the s"stem. The IJre" /onesK on the chart should (e used as indicators o$ 'otential 'ro(lems during the con)ersion o$ these $a(rics into garments and should (e considered during garment manu$acture. It makes it easier $or the garment manu$acturer to categori/e the 'ro(lems, identi$" and 'ossi(l" correct the $a(ric 'ro'erties associated *ith 'oor $a(ric 'er$ormance. "."." #ET'OD O( DETER#IN$TION O( ($BRI! B$44IN4 ".".".1 Test $**aratus In order to simulate garment (agging during *ear, a de)ice *as de)elo'ed to test s'herical de$ormation, *hich *as attached on to the Instron Tensile Testing The si/e and sha'e o$ the de)ice is similar to the one de)elo'ed (" Kisilak 3. The de)ice com'rises t*o 'arts. A 'olished metal s'here o$ 1<mm diameter and a (ase *ith circular metal rings *ith an outside diameter o$ 5< mm and an inside diameter o$ 4+ mm. The si/e o$ the s'here is ad,usted to the si/e o$ the el(o* and the sur$ace o$ the circular $a(ric sam'le $i&ed on to the (ase is ad,usted to the si/e o$ the slee)e model. The 1 achine.

'olished metal s'here is attached to the u''er ,a* o$ the Instron Tensile Testing

achine

and the (ase is $i&ed on to the lo*er ,a*. The $a(ric sam'le is 'laced (et*een the metal rings $i&ed (" a threaded clam'. The 'olished metal s'here *hich is attached to the u''er ,a* o$ the d"namometer is used to e&ert 'ressure on the $a(ric sam'le and hence the $a(ric is strained. The straining o$ the $a(ric sam'le during el(o* or knee $le&ing is simulated in this *a". The 'hotogra'h o$ the de)ice attached on to the Instron Tensile Tester is sho*n in %igure +A M+ B. "."."." Test #et)od The $lat *o)en silk $a(ric sam'le *ith a diameter o$ 5< mm is $i&ed (et*een the round metal rings *ith an inner diameter o$ 4+ mm. The sam'le is 're9tensioned to =.+D. The s'here is attached to the crosshead and the cross head is mo)ed *ith a s'eed o$ .= mm 'er minute (ased on -hangKs method and the JIS ! +=4+. The cross head is mo)ed do*n to a distance o$ +. mm 6're9determined Bagging height7 and held in this 'osition $or 3 minutes. The $lat $a(ric is thus de$ormed into a (agged sha'e. The cross head is li$ted and the $a(ric is rela&ed $or 3 minutes at /ero load and the (agging height at =.+D load is measured. The residual (agging height or the Bagging reco)er" is calculated using the $ollo*ing $ormula# ,R- 5 ,' nrb 6 ' b- 7 188 R 5 Bagging Recovery 9ercentage ' nrb 5 Non:Recovered Bagging 'eig)t ' b 5 9re:deter+ined Bagging 'eig)t 0. RE& %T& $ND DI&! &&ION& 0.1 T)e ($&T *ara+eters The results o$ %AST 'arameters are gi)en in Ta(le91. %rom Ta(le 9 1, it is o(ser)ed that# The rela&ation shrinkage in the *ar' direction in the case o$ So$t silk $a(rics, ranges $rom a minimum o$ +.+N to a ma&imum o$ 0.=N and in the *e$t direction, the range is $rom a minimum o$ =.=N to a ma&imum o$ =.3N. The rela&ation shrinkage in the *ar' direction in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics ranges $rom a ,1-

minimum o$ +.. N to a ma&imum o$ +.4 N, *hile rela&ation shrinkage in the *e$t direction ranges $rom a minimum o$ =.= N to a ma&imum o$ 9=.3 N. The h"gral e&'ansion in the *ar' direction in the case o$ So$t silk $a(rics, ranges $rom a minimum o$ 9=.3 Nto a ma&imum o$ +.1N and in the *e$t direction, it ranges $rom a minimum o$ 9+.+ N to a ma&imum o$ =.3N. The h"gral e&'ansion in the *ar' direction in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics ranges $rom a minimum o$ 9+.+ N to a ma&imum o$ =.1 N, *hile h"gral e&'ansion in the *e$t direction ranges $rom a minimum o$ 9=.+ N to a ma&imum o$ =. 1 N. The *ar' e&tensi(ilit" in the case o$ So$t silk $a(rics ranges $rom a minimum o$ =.5 N to a ma&imum o$ +.30N and the *e$t e&tensi(ilit" ranges $rom a minimum o$ =.4N to a ma&imum o$ +.5N. The *ar' e&tensi(ilit" in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics ranges $rom a minimum o$ =.< N to a ma&imum o$ +.=0N, *hile the *e$t e&tensi(ilit" ranges $rom a minimum o$ =.0 N to a ma&imum o$ =.35. The *ar' (ending rigidit" in the case o$ So$t silk $a(rics ranges $rom a minimum o$ ..8+CDm to a ma&imum o$ +=.<1CDm. As $or the *e$t (ending rigidit", it ranges $rom a minimum o$ +.85CDm to a ma&imum o$ +3.43CDm. The *ar' (ending rigidit" in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics ranges $rom a minimum o$ 8.01 CDm to a ma&imum o$ +0.+5 CDm, *hile *e$t (ending rigidit" ranges $rom a minimum o$ +3.+8 CDm to a ma&imum o$ 45... CDm. The shear rigidit" in the case o$ So$t silk $a(rics ranges $rom 11 to +54 and in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics it ranges (et*een +41 and 18.. The *ar' $orma(ilit" in the case o$ So$t silk $a(rics ranges $rom =.=38 mm; to =.+.0 mm; and the *e$t $orma(ilit" ranges $rom =.=1= mm; to =.+41 mm;. The *ar' $orma(ilit" in the case o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics ranges $rom =.=3. mm; to =.++8 mm;, *hile *e$t $orma(ilit" ranges $rom =.=01 mm; to =.+<< mm;. The results o$ $a(ric Bagging o$ So$t silk and ta$$eta silk $a(rics are gi)en (elo*. 0." T)e Residual Bagging 'eig)t The residual Bagging height or the Bagging reco)er" is gi)en in Ta(le 9 3. It is o(ser)ed that the (agging reco)er" in case o$ So$t silk ranges (et*een 15.+1 N and 35.+0 N. In case o$ Ta$$eta silk it ranges (et*een 1+..5 N and 3..=+ N. The a)erage (agging reco)er" is higher in So$t silk $a(rics than that o$ Ta$$eta silk $a(rics. 0.0 !o+*arison of Bagging Recovery of &oft &ilk ; Taffeta &ilk fabrics

The data *as su(,ected to the anal"sis o$ )ariance 6AD>OA7 and the results are gi)en in Ta(le 9 4. The results o$ the Anal"sis o$ Oariance indicate that there is signi$icant di$$erence (et*een the Bagging reco)er" o$ So$t silk and Ta$$eta silk $a(rics. 0.2 Relations)i* between (abric Bagging Recovery and %ow &tress #ec)anical 9ro*erties In order to determine the relationshi' (et*een $a(ric Bagging reco)er" and the lo* stress mechanical 'ro'erties 6%AST 'ro'erties7, (i)ariate correlation anal"sis *as carried out. The relationshi' (et*een $a(ric Bagging reco)er" and the lo* stress mechanical 'ro'erties 6%AST 'ro'erties7 $or the selected silk sam'les is summari/ed in Ta(le H 5. The results o$ the correlation anal"sis gi)en in Ta(le H 5 indicate that, in the case o$ selected silk $a(rics there is a negati)e relationshi' (et*een Bagging reco)er" and %orma(ilit" in the *e$t *a" at 3 N le)el o$ signi$icance and Shear rigidit" at + N le)el o$ signi$icance. This *ould mean that, as the %orma(ilit" in the *e$t *a" and Shear rigidit" increases, the Bagging reco)er" decreases and )ice )ersa. >ther %AST 'arameters do not sho* signi$icant correlation *ith (agging reco)er". There is a 'ositi)e relationshi' (et*een Bagging reco)er" and L&tensi(ilit" in the *e$t *a" and Bias L&tension at + N le)el o$ signi$icance. This *ould mean that, as the L&tensi(ilit" in the *e$t *a" and Bias L&tension increases, the Bagging reco)er" increases. The %AST 'ro'erties *hich contri(ute signi$icantl" in e&'laining the $a(ric (agging reco)er" o$ so$t silk and Ta$$eta silk $a(rics are identi$ied using the ste' *ise regression anal"sis and are e&'lained (elo*. Summar" o$ the Ste'*ise regression anal"sis are gi)en in Ta(le 9 <. The model at serial num(er 3 is good *ith a coe$$icient o$ determination o$ 88.<N. Bagging reco)er" o$ these silk $a(rics is e&'lained *ell (" the lo* stress mechanical 'ro'erties gi)en (" the %AST s"stem and there$ore the %AST 'ro'erties can (e used to 'redict the Bagging reco)er" o$ silk $a(rics. The model consists o$ $i)e inde'endent )aria(les, Shear rigidit" 6J7 , %orma(ilit" o$ *e$t 6%.7, H"gral e&'ansion o$ *ar' 6H+7 , L&tensi(ilit" o$ *ar' 6L+7 , Bending rigidit" o$ *ar' 6B+7 and Bagging reco)er" 6R7 is the de'endant )aria(le. All the coe$$icients o$ inde'endent )aria(les are statisticall" signi$icant.

The Regression e2uation is as $ollo*s# R 5 2<.=1: 8.8>=,4- : "<.>= ,("- ? 2.@8 ,'1- ? >.@2 ,E1- ? 8.0< ,B1This e2uation can (e used to 'redict Bagging Reco)er" success$ull". 2. !ON!% &ION& ,"-

The de)ice de)elo'ed $or use on Instron can (e success$ull" em'lo"ed $or e)aluating the Bagging height or Bagging reco)er" o$ silk $a(rics. %rom the anal"sis o$ the results it can (e in$erred that, there is signi$icant di$$erence (et*een the Bagging reco)er" o$ So$t silk and Ta$$eta silk $a(rics, and Bagging reco)er" is e&'lained )er" *ell (" the %AST 'ro'erties *ith a coe$$icient o$ determination o$ =.88<. There$ore, the %AST 'ro'erties can (e used to 'redict the Bagging reco)er" o$ these silk $a(rics $airl" accuratel". Re$erences# +. H. Yokura et.al, PQrediction o$ %a(ric Bagging $rom Te&tile Research Journal, Ool.34 6+8<47, 51<. .. R. -hang et.al, PJarment BagginessS, Te&tile Asia, Ool..<, Do.+ 6+885(7, 3=. 0. R. -hang et.al, PA Test ethod $or $a(ric BaggingS, in Qroc., %i(er Societ" H S'ring +885 Joint con$erence, 6+885a7, +5<. 1. R.-hang et.al, P%a(ric Bagging9 Qart I# Su(,ecti)e Qerce'tion and Qs"cho'h"sical echanismS, Te&tile Research Journal, Ool. 48, Do. 5 6+8887, 3++. 3. Tragica Kisilak, PA De* ethod o$ L)aluating S'herical %a(ric Te$ormationS, Te&tile Research Journal, Ool. 48, Do. +. 6+8887, 8=<. 4. R. -hang et.al, P%a(ric9Bagging# Stress Tistri(ution in Isotro'ic and Anisotro'ic %a(ricsS, Journal o$ Te&tile Institute, Ool. 8+, Qart +, Do. 1 6.===7, 340. 5. R. A(ghari et.al, PContri(utions o$ in9'lane $a(ric tensile 'ro'erties in *o)en $a(ric (agging (eha)iour using a ne* de)elo'ed test methodS, International Journal o$ Clothing, Science and Technolog", Ool. +4, Do. 3 6.==17, 1+<. echanical Qro'erties,

<

$bstract %a(ric Bagging is a three dimensional residual de$ormation seen in used garments *hich causes deterioration in the a''earance o$ the garments. Bagging usuall" occurs in the el(o*, knee, 'ockets and hi's under the in$luence o$ a normal $orce 'er'endicular to $a(ric sur$ace. %a(ric (agging is )er" im'ortant $rom the 'oint o$ )ie* o$ (oth aesthetic a''earance and end use 'er$ormance o$ the $a(rics. In the 'resent stud", in order to simulate garment (agging during *ear, a de)ice *as de)elo'ed to test s'herical de$ormation, *hich *as attached on to the Instron Tensile Testing achine. The si/e and sha'e o$ the de)ice is similar to the one de)elo'ed (" Kisilak. Using this de)ice $a(ric (agging o$ so$t silk and ta$$eta silk $a(rics *as e)aluated. It is o(ser)ed that, there is signi$icant di$$erence (et*een the Bagging reco)er" o$ So$t silk and Ta$$eta silk $a(rics and (agging reco)er" is e&'lained )er" *ell (" the %AST 'ro'erties *ith a coe$$icient o$ determination o$ =.88<. There$ore, the %AST 'ro'erties can (e used to 'redict the Bagging reco)er" o$ these silk $a(rics $airl" accuratel".

Table 1/ !onstruction *ara+eters of silk fabric sa+*les Sam'le num(er SS+ SS. SS0 SS1 SS3 SS4 TA%+ TA%. TA%0 TA%1 %a(ric com'osition +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk +==N Silk ass 'er unit area 6g:m;7 3+ 31 38 18 30 3< 54 4< <+ 8+ Thickness 6mm7 =.+1= =.+1< =.+45 =.+3= =.+01 =.+34 =.+<4 =.+38 =.+<< =...= Bea)e Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain Qlain

Table "/ (abric 9ro*erties #easured on t)e ($&T &yste+


Instru+ent 9ro*ert y T. T+== ST C+ C. B+ B. L3 9+ L3 9 . L.= 9 + L.= H . %AST 0 # L&tensi(ilit" eter L+== H + L+== H . LB3 RS H + %AST 1#Timensional Sta(ilit" RS H . HL H + HL H . %AST . M %AST 0 # %orma(ilit" %AST + M %AST 0 # Shear rigidit" %H+ %9. J Descri*tion Thickness at . g:cm . Thickness at +== g:cm . Sur$ace Thickness Bending length *ar' Bending length *e$t Bending rigidit" *ar' Bending rigidit" *e$t L&tensi(ilit" at 3 g:cm load *ar' L&tensi(ilit" at 3 g:cm load *e$t L&tensi(ilit" at .= g:cm load *ar' L&tensi(ilit" at .= g:cm load *e$t L&tensi(ilit" at +== g:cm load *ar' L&tensi(ilit" at +== g:cm load *e$t Bias L&tension at 3 g:cm load *e$t Rela&ation shrinkage *ar' Rela&ation shrinkage *e$t H"gral e&'ansion *ar' H"gral e&'ansion *e$t %orma(ilit" *ar' %orma(ilit" *e$t Shear rigidit" nits ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ N. m N. m A A A A A A A A A A A ++ " ++ " N6+

%AST + # Com'ression

eter

%AST . # Bending

eter

+=

Table . 0 (abric &a+*ling for Testing on t)e ($&T &yste+ Instru+ent &a+*le siBe ,++($&T . 1 +3= & 3= ($&T . " +3= & 3= ($&T . 0 ($&T . 2 +3= & 3= 0== & 0== Nu+ber of Re*lications 3 0 Bar' *a" M 0 Be$t *a" 0 Bar' *a" M 0 Be$t *a" 4 $or Bias 6 0 le$t (ias M 0 right (ias 7 +

Table 2 / ($&T *ara+eters of silk fabric sa+*les &a+*l e No. 1 " 0 2 > @ = < E 18 (or+ability &a+*le !ode &&1 &&" &&0 &&2 &&> &&@ T$(1 T$(" T$(0 T$(2 Car* ,++"=.=4 =.+= =.+. =.=4 =.+= =.=5 =.=3 =.++ =.=< =.+. Ceft ,++"=.=1 =.=5 =.=5 =.+4 =.=8 =.+. =.+= =.=0 =.+8 =.+4 E1tension Car* ,A=.5 +.3 =.8 +.3 +.= +.1 =.8 =.8 =.< +.= Ceft ,A+.5 =.4 +.= +.3 =.8 =.5 =.4 =.3 =.0 =.1 Bias E1tension EB> ,A..< =.8 +.< ..0 =.5 +.0 =.3 =.4 =.0 =.< Bending Rigidity Car* ,DN.+<.8 3.1 +=.< ..8 5.1 4.. ++.4 8.0 ++.0 +0.. Ceft ,DN.+..= +3.4 5.3 +=.0 8.5 +0.= .+.5 +3.. 1+.+ 45.. &)ea r 4 N6+ 11 +08 48 30 +54 80 .14 .+5 18. +41 T)icknes s T" ,++=.+1= =.+1< =.+45 =.+3= =.+01 =.+34 =.+<4 =.+38 =.+<< =...= &urface T)icknes s &T ,++=.=3= =.=3+ =.=3+ =.=30 =.=04 =.=1. =.=3= =.=04 =.=1= =.=31 Di+ensional &tability Car* ,A+.0 0.= +.+ +.3 +.4 +.+ +.0 +.0 +.4 +.. Ceft ,A=.3 =.= =.= =.= =.= =.= = 9=.3 = = Car* ,A+.1 9=.+ +.+ 9=.1 =.0 9=.3 9=.0 9=.+ =.1 9=.3 Ceft ,A=.3 =.= =.= =.= =.= 9+.+ = 9=.+ =.0 =.1

Table > / Bagging Recovery of &oft &ilk ; Taffeta &ilk fabrics

&a+*le !ode SS+ SS. SS0 SS1 SS3 SS4 TA%+ TA%. TA%0 TA%1

Bagging Recovery ,A35.+0 1<.<1 34.3= 1<.01 15.+1 18.41 1+.80 15.5= 1+..5 3..=+

++

Table @ / $nalysis of Fariance of Bagging Recovery &u+ of &Guares df Bet*een Jrou's Bithin Jrou's Total ..=.<8+ +080.=1. +4+0.800 + . < . 8 #ean sGuare ( 1.11 ..=.<8+ = 18.53. &ig. =.=11

Table = / !orrelation between ($&T 9ara+eters and Bagging Recovery Bagging Recovery ,AThickness 6mm7 9=.=8< Sur$ace thickness 6mm7 =.+.= %orma(ilit" *ar' 6mm.7 =.=38 %orma(ilit" *e$t 6mm.7 9=.1=. * L&tensi(ilit" *ar' 6N7 9=.=4. L&tensi(ilit" *e$t 6N7 =.0<0 * Bias L&tension 6N7 =.13+ * Bending rigidit" *ar' 6CD.m7 9=.+.+ Bending rigidit" *e$t 6CD.m7 9=..0. Shear rigidit" 6D:m7 9=.3.5 ** Rela&ation shrinkage *ar' 6N7 9=.=0. Rela&ation shrinkage *e$t 6N7 =.0.1 H"gral e&'ansion *ar' 6N7 =.11. H"gral e&'ansion *e$t 6N7 9=.+=4 Fariables

+.

* Signi$icant at 3 N le)el ** Signi$icant at +N le)el Table < / ($&T *ro*erties selected by &te*wise regression analysis for fabric Bagging Recovery #ode l + . 0 1 3 Shear rigidit" Shear rigidit" 6D:m7, %orma(ilit" *e$t 6mm.7 Shear rigidit" 6D:m7, %orma(ilit" *e$t 6mm.7, H"gral e&'ansion *ar' 6N7 Shear rigidit" 6D:m7, %orma(ilit" *e$t 6mm.7, H"gral e&'ansion *ar' 6N7, L&tensi(ilit" *ar' 6N7, Shear rigidit" 6D:m7, %orma(ilit" *e$t 6mm.7, H"gral e&'ansion *ar' 6N7, L&tensi(ilit" *ar' 6N7, Bending rigidit" *ar' 6micro Dm7. Fariables Entered ,R"=.<= 5 =.8. 5 =.84 8 =.8< 8 =.88 < &tandard Error of Esti+ate 1.+<0 ..515 +.81. +..53 =.4=5

R. ? Coe$$icient o$ Tetermination Te'endent Oaria(le# Bagging Reco)er" 6N7

+0

(igure 1$/ Device

attac)ed on Instron for testing (abric Bagging Recovery

&teel &*)ere

#etal Ring

(abric &a+*le

(igure 1B/ $ closer view of t)e device attac)ed on Instron for testing (abric Bagging Recovery

+1

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