K. L. Lian Member, IEEE, B. K. Perkins, Member, IEEE, and P. W. Lehn, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract This paper presents a time domain method to analyze the three phase rectier with capacitor output lter. As demonstrated in the paper, the proposed method analytically evaluates harmonics, and obtains exact switching functions by iteratively solving for the switching instants. An analytical Jacobian of the mismatch equations is obtained to ensure a quadratic convergence rate for the iteration process. It is also demonstrated that a unied approach exists to analyze converters operating in the continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). One potential application of the proposed model is to incorporate it into a harmonic power ow program to yield improved accuracy. Index Terms Diode Bridge Rectier, Harmonics, Continuous Conduction Mode, Discontinuous Conduction Mode, Steady State Analysis.
1) directly calculates the steady state solution without stepping through system transients. 2) can employ known waveform symmetry. In contrast to harmonic domain analysis methods, the proposed time domain sampleddata model can accurately determine harmonics of interest without concern for harmonic truncation error or aliasing effects. Section II introduces the circuit descriptions of the rectier being analyzed. Section III and IV show how to use the proposed method to analyze discontinuous conduction modes (DCM) and continuous conduction mode(CCM). A computational example is presented in section V to demonstrate the validity of the method. II. C IRCUIT D ESCRIPTION Fig. 1 shows a sixpulse capacitorltered diode bridge rectier where the dc load is modeled as an equivalent resistance, Rl [3], [4]. The line harmonics are ltered by the ac chokes, L. This type of rectier is frequently employed for battery charger application [5]. It is also used for adjustable speed drives [6] because it has better drive isolation and lower dc current requirements [7], [8] than a conventional inductorltered rectier.
idc
D1 D3 D5
+
I. I NTRODUCTION
HREE phase diode bridge rectiers are often used in industry to provide the dc input voltage for motor drives and dctodc converters. The main drawback of these rectiers is that they inject signicant current harmonics into the power network. These harmonics current injections can detrimentally affect the power system by overloading nearby shunt capacitors and by distorting the bus voltage at the point of common coupling. Computation of harmonics is routinely accomplished through use of transient time domain simulation. While this approach is effective, it is not without challenges. Accuracy of simulation results depends on simulation time step size and simulation length  quantities that must be estimated based on experience, or selected using trial and error. An alternative approach is to employ harmonic domain analysis methods [1], [2]. By avoiding simulation of circuit transients, these methods yield accurate steady state harmonic spectra in a more computationally efcient manner. Once again, user experience is required to obtain accurate harmonic results, since accuracy depends on the numbers of harmonics included during the calculation process. In this paper, a time domain sampleddata model is presented to iteratively solve for the current and voltage harmonics injected by a threephase full bridge rectier with capacitive load. The computation time is short compared to transient time domain simulation because the proposed method:
R n
v sa
ia
ib
vdc
Rl
vsb
vsc
ic
D4 D6 D2

Fig. 1.
This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and by the University of Toronto. B. K. Perkins is with Hatch Ltd., 2800 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 2R7. P. W. Lehn and K. L. Lian are with Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G4, Canada. (emails: BPerkins@hatch.ca, lehn@ecf.utoronto.ca, and liank@ecf.utoronto.ca).
Surprisingly, as noted in [9], the literature available on comprehensive analysis of this rectier is quite limited. In fact, [3] is the only reference which provides complete analytical models for both DCM and CCM without the aids of transient time domain simulation. However, the approach in [3] requires evaluation of a lengthy inverse Laplace Transformation, which becomes complicated for the case of CCM analysis. The proposed model provides a viable alternative to [3]. DCM and CCM are modeled in an efcient and unied fashion without the need for inverse Laplace Transformation. To simplify the model development and discussion, only balanced operation of the converter is considered. However,
the proposed technique can well be extended to the unbalanced case. III. D ISCONTINUOUS C ONDUCTION M ODE For DCM, Fig. 2 shows typical phase currents, together with the six linetoline voltages and the dc voltage. As noted in the gure, two subintervals can be identied in every sixth of a period conduction ( ), and nonconduction ( = T /6 ) intervals. This repetition pattern allows one to fully describe the behavior of the rectier by only considering 1/6 th of the period.
v dc v sab v sac v scb v sba v sca v
sbc
d dt
x2 z
= Ao = ,
x2 z id
= vdc
T
Ax2 0 , x2
N2 =
x2 z [vdc ], z
1 2 3 2
(2) =
where x1 vs vs vs vs Ax1 = N1 =
1 0
1 2 3 2
, Ax2 =
1 , = Rl C
, and N2 = 0 0 . 0 0 Note that the loop current (i.e. i d in Fig. 3) and the and axis bus voltages, are chosen as state variables to yield a minimum realization for the state space formulation. A. Diode Constraint Equations To solve for the conduction time, and nonconduction interval length, , formulation of two diode constraint equations is required: Diode D1 must turn on when forward biased, i.e. when:
d = vsab ( ) vdc ( ) = M1
Voltage
ia i b ic
Current
D1 D6
0
D1 D2
T/6+
D3 D2
T/2 Time
D3 D4
D4 D5
D5 D6
T
3 2
3 2
x2 ( ) z( )
=0 (3)
Fig. 2.
vsa n vsb
L id
D1 C D6
Rl
d = ia ( + ) = M2
0 0
eAon Qd 1 0 0 1
x2 ( ) z( )
=0 (4)
+ 
vdc
N
Rl
, and Qxd =
R id C
L
+ 
0 , which is associated with the change of basis [10] at the 1 transition instant from nonconduction to conduction interval. Expressions for x 2 ( ), and z( ) in terms of unknowns ( , and ) and input z (0) are dened in the subsequent section. B. Steady State Constraint Equations Under balanced operation, the states ( x2 ( ) z( ) ) at the end points of the sixth period interval are related through the state transition matrix d according to: x2 ( T 6 + ) z( T 6 + ) = d
T
vdc
N
Fig. 3. (a) Top: rectier model during the conduction subinterval; (b) Bottom: rectier model during the nonconduction subinterval
The conduction interval with diodes D 1 and D6 on commences at instant with respect to the zero reference (the intersection point between v sab and vscb ). Fig. 3(a) shows the circuit involved during the conduction interval, and (1) gives the corresponding differential equations. In the nonconduction interval, D1 and D6 turn off, and the capacitor discharges through the load resistance (Fig. 3(b)). The corresponding differential equations are given in (2). d dt x1 z = Aon x1 z = Ax1 0 N1 x1 z (1)
x2 ( ) z( )
(5)
where d = eAo ( 6 ) Pd eAon Qd , Pd = blkdiag {Pxd, I}, and Pxd = 0 1 , which is associated with the change of basis from conduction to nonconduction interval. In addition, the steady state sixth period symmetry that the dc voltage (Fig. 2) and ac voltage possess yields the constraint x2 ( T 6 + ) z( T 6 + ) = Id
1 /6
x2 ( ) z( )
(6)
where Id = blkdiag (1, ), ) sin( ) cos( 3 3 . sin( cos( 3) 3) Combining (5) and (6), one gets (Id
1 /6
1 /6
and
Begin
d )
x2 ( ) z( )
Dd Fd
Ed Kd
x2 ( ) z( )
=0 (7) (8)
Therefore,
x2 ( ) = Dd 1 Ed z( ) z ( ) = e z (0)
(k )
Calculate steady state solutions, x 2 ( ) based on (8) for DCM x3 ( ) based on (18) for CCM
Insert (8) and (9) into (3) and (4) yielding two transcendental equations in terms of unknowns, and . These equations are solved via numerical iteration, as described in section C. C. Numerical Iteration For Finding Unknowns Fig. 4 shows the overall ow diagram of the proposed T method. First, = is initialized, allowing determination of x2 ( ) based on (8). Then, x 2 ( ) is substituted into the diode constraint mismatch equations (3) and (4). The mismatch equations then set the stage for a Newtontype iterative method, which generates the sequence, { } n=0 by (10). (10) (k+1) = (k) J1 M where M =
d M1 d M2
k=k+1
( k +1)
M = ( k ) J 1M where J =
, and J =
d M1 d M2
iteration terminates when the difference between , and (k) reaches a required tolerance, . To have quadratic convergence, an analytical Jacobian is constructed. For DCM, the expression of each element in the Jacobian matrix is listed in Appendix I. D. Harmonic Analysis Once interval lengths and are determined, one can proceed to solve for the current and voltage harmonics. Since sixth period symmetry also exists for the ac current space vector (see Fig. 5), the evaluation of the system harmonic can proceed as follows: 1) The system matrices are augmented with one additional equation [13] for each harmonic of interest, leading to conduction and nonconduction equations of the form: x A x1 x1 N1 0 d 1 x1 z z 0 0 z = Ah = on dt y1 y1 y1 0 H1 G1 (11) x A d 2 x2 z 0 = dt y2 G2 N2 0
d M1 d M2 (k+1)
The
No
x2 x2 0 z 0 z = Ah o I (A) y2 y2 H2 (12) Fig. 5. Ac current space vector with onesixth period symmetry in the DCM l ]T , and y = [V l ]. I h is the hth ac where y1 = [ I h Vdc 2 dc current space vector harmonic, i(t), given as i = i + ji (13)
I (A)
where i i
Voltage
ia = Cx i b , ic
G1 =
1 )h (1 j 3 0
0 l
, G2 =
Current
l and ia , ib , ic are the three phase ac current harmonics. V dc th represents the l dc voltage harmonics. Since ia = id , ib = id , ic = 0 in the conduction 1 subinterval (Fig. 3(a)), one can express i = (1 j )i . 3 d Consequently, based on [13], expressions for G 1 , G2 , H1 , and H2 are as follow:
i a ib ic
T T 6 3 h = ejh( 6 + ) , l = ejl( 6 + ) , T T
D5 D1 D6 D6 D5
0
D1 D6
D1 D6 D2
T/6+
D1 D2
D1 D3 D2
D3 D2
T/2 Time
D3 D4 D2
D3 D4
D3 D5 D4
D4 D5
D5 D4 D6
T
H1 =
jh 0
0 jl
, H2 = [jl] , =
2 . T
Fig. 6.
2) For characteristic harmonics, (i.e. h = 1, 5, 7, 11, . . ., and l = 0, 6, 12, 18, . . .), the system harmonics can be obtained by evaluating (14): x1 ( ) h z( ) h T Isp Ah (14) on ( ) Qh = Ch eAo ( 6 ) Ph l de d 0 Vdc 0 where C
h
L id
D1 C D6 D1 D6 C
+ + 
vdc
Rl
R R
L L id
Qd 0 Qh = d 0
0 0 . I
0 0
Ph d
Pd 0
0 0
0 I
, and
n vsb vsc
vdc
Rl
R R
L ie L D2
h Note that the transition matrices, P h d , and Qd are needed h h due to different basis of A on , and Ao .
IV. C ONTINUOUS C ONDUCTION M ODE Similar to the DCM, two subintervals can also be identied in every sixth of the period in CCM (Fig. 6) conduction ( ), and commutation ( = T /6 ) intervals. However, different from DCM, now refers to the time diode (D 5 ) turns off with respect to the zero reference. The differential equations describing the conduction interval (Fig. 7(a)) are the same as (1). The differential equations describing the commutation interval (Fig. 7(b)) are given in (15). d dt x3 z = Acom x3 z = Ax3 0 N3
1 2L 1 L 3 2L
Fig. 7. (a) Top: rectier model during the conduction subinterval; (b) Bottom: rectier model during the commutation subinterval
A. Diode Constraint Equations The diode constraint equations for the interval from to T /6 + in the CCM are now determined. Noting v N n = vdc /3 in Fig. 7(b), Diode D 2 turnon occurs when
c = 3vc ( + ) vdc ( + ) M1
(16) x3 ( ) z( )
1 2
0 1
3 2
3 3 2
eAon Pc
= 0
x3 z (15) , and
where x3 = Ax3 = 0 0
R L
ie
R L 1 C
id
vdc , N3 =
1 3L 2 3L 1 Rl C
0 0
1 0 . 0 0 1 Pc is associated with change of basis at the diode transition instant from the commutation to the conduction interval in the CCM. Diode D5 turnoff (refer to Fig. 6) occurs when
c M2 = ie ( ) =
1 0
0 0
x3 ( ) z( )
=0 (17)
Similar to the DCM, expressions linking x 3 ( ) and z ( ) to input z(0) are needed to solve for and from (16), and (17). B. Steady State Constraint Equations The steady state constraint for CCM is expressed in (18): x3 ( T 6 + ) z( T 6 + ) where c =
(18)
) A eAcom ( 6 = Qc e cond Pc , Qc 0 0 blkdiag (Qxc, I), and Qxc = 1 0 , which represents 0 1 the transition matrix from conduction to commutation interval in the CCM. Combining sixth period mapping constraint, (19) can be obtained. x3 ( ) Dc Ec x3 ( ) /6 c ) = =0 (I1 c z( ) z( ) Fc Kc
T
I (A)
= c
x3 ( ) z( )
I (A)
Fig. 8. Ac current space vector with onesixth period symmetry in the CCM
x3 ( ) = Dc 1 Ec z( ) = Dc 1 Ec e z(0) where
1 /6 Ic
(19)
0 1 0 = blkdiag (Ied , ), and Ied = 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 As in the DCM case, constraints (16), and (17) are again transcendental equation that must be solved numerically. C. Numerical Iteration For Finding Unknowns For CCM, numerical iteration is carried out just as outlined in Fig. 4, albeit with new constraint equations and a new Jacobian. The iteration process yields outputs , and . Thec elc ements of the required Jacobian matrix, J = are listed in the Appendix II.
M1 c M2 M1 c M2
during the commutation interval (Fig. 7(b)). 2) For characteristic harmonics, (i.e. h = 1, 5, 7, 11, . . ., and l = 0, 6, 12, 18, . . .), the system harmonics can be found by evaluating (22): x1 ( ) h z( ) h T Isp Ah (22) on ( ) Qh = Ch eAcom ( 6 ) Ph ce c l 0 Vdc 0 where Ph c = Pc 0 0 I , and Qh c = Qc 0 0 I .
V. G ENERAL C OMMENTS
From the above analysis, one can immediately note the strong similarity between the analysis of DCM and CCM, contrary to the claims of some authors [5], [14] that the D. Harmonic Analysis analysis of CCM is more complex than that of DCM. As shown in Fig. 8, the current space vector of CCM also In total, there are four different modes [15], [16] of conexhibits sixth period symmetry. Consequently, the harmonic verter operation: two discontinuous cases (mode 1 and 3), and analysis can proceed as follows: two continuous cases (mode 2 and 4) . 1) Similar to the analysis of the DCM, the system matrices Mode 1 (also called 2/0 mode) happens when the intervals of CCM are augmented with one additional equation for each of conduction via two diodes alternate with intervals of zero harmonic of interest. Consequently, (1) becomes (11), and (15) conduction. Mode 2 (also called 3/2 mode) happens when becomes (20). conduction is via alternate 3 and 2 diode paths. Mode 3 (also x3 Ax3 N3 0 x3 x3 called 2/3/2/0 mode) occurs when an interval of conduction via d z two diodes is followed by a 3diode interval; this is followed 0 z = Ah z = 0 com dt 0 H1 G3 y1 y1 y1 by another 2diode interval and then by a zeroconduction (20) interval. In mode 4 (or 3/3 mode), conduction occurs via a where sequence of 3diode paths. 2 1 In this paper, only mode 1 and 2 are discussed because: (j 3 )h (1 j 3 )h G3 = . 1) The operating range of mode 3 is very small [16]. Most 0 l of the existing literature [3], [17] only analyze mode 1 The expression of G 3 is obtained based on the fact that for the DCM. i = i + ji , and 2) Operation at mode 4 is rare for it is very close to 3 0 2 i ie the shortcircuit point [15], [16]. Most of the existing 2 = (21) 3 i i literature [3], [5], [14] only refer mode 2 as the CCM. 3 3 d 2
3) The proposed method can be easily extended to mode 3 with slightly added complexity. 4) Constant voltage load can be assumed in mode 4 [9], [18] to have fairly accurate results, and this greatly simplies harmonic analysis. Also, note that the boundary conditions for each mode has been identied by [8], [16] via brute force time domain simulation. Deriving a closed form expression for the boundary condition for each mode is not the objective of this paper. VI. S IMULATION E XAMPLES In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, two sets of parameters, extracted from [7], are chosen to result in continuous and discontinuous conduction modes respectively. Solutions are compared with those of PSCAD/EMTDC. A. Discontinuous Mode To analyze the DCM, the following system parameters are used: R = 0.001, L = 0.1mH , C = 1000F , Rl = 25, and source voltages: vsa = 120 2 sin(377t) ) vsb = 1202 sin(377t 23 2 vsc = 120 2 sin(377t + 3 ) Fig. 9 shows ac currents, i and i , and dc capacitor voltage, vdc , predicted by PSCAD/EMTDC.
400 284.7908 Voltage (V)
Fig. 10 and 11 compare ac current space vector and dc voltage harmonics obtained from PSCAD/EMTDC, and the proposed sampleddata model method. Fig. 11 are shown in log scale because the dc voltage harmonic rolls off very rapidly. As can be seen from Table I, Fig. 10 and 11, excellent agreement exists between the two approaches.
14 PSCAD Sampleddata Model 12
17
11
1 7 harmonic number
13
19
Fig. 10. Complex harmonic spectrum of the capacitor ltered rectier in the DCM
300 200 100 PSCAD Sampleddata Model
10
i Current (A)
0.1
50
0.0167
0.01
6 harmonic number
12
18
The values of diode conduction instant, , and conduction interval, , and x 2 ( ) (i.e. vdc ( )) in Fig. 9 are listed in Table I to compare with those predicted by the proposed method.
TABLE I R ESULTS F ROM PSCAD/EMTDC AND T HE S AMPLED D ATA M ODEL M ETHOD IN THE DCM vdc ( ) PSCAD/EMTDC 7.3927 104 s 1.6355 103 s 284.7908 V SampledData Model 7.2553 104 s 1.6030 103 s 284.7951V
Fig. 11. Dc voltage harmonic spectrum of the capacitor ltered rectier in the DCM
B. Continuous Mode As shown in [7], the rectier operates in the CCM when the inductance of the ac choke in the DCM is changed to 3mH and the rest of the parameters are kept intact. Fig. 12 shows ac currents, i and i , and dc capacitor voltage, vdc , predicted by PSCAD/EMTDC. Table II lists the extinction time instant, , conduction interval, and the values of the steady state ac currents and dc
600
10
0 vsab v scb 3vsc vdc 600 20 i 7.6719 0 4.4297
i Current (A)
2
20 0
0.0167
Fig. 12. Voltage and current waveforms in the CCM produced by PSCAD/EMTDC
17
11
1 7 harmonic number
13
19
voltages obtained from Fig. 12, together with those obtained from the sampleddata model. Note that ie ( ) and id ( ) obtained from (19) has been converted to i ( ) and i ( ) as shown in Table II via (21) so as to be comparable with PSCAD/EMTDC results.
TABLE II M ETHOD IN THE CCM i ( ) i ( ) vdc ( ) PSCAD/EMTDC 1.0631 103 s 1.8406 103 s 7.6719A 4.4297A 267.6064V SampledData Model 1.0441 103 s 1.8159 103 s 7.6593A 4.4221A 267.6159V R ESULTS F ROM PSCAD/EMTDC AND T HE S AMPLE D ATA M ODEL
Fig. 13. Complex harmonic spectrum of the capacitor ltered rectier in the CCM
300 200 100
10
The ac current space vector and dc voltage harmonics obtained from PSCAD/EMTDC, and the proposed sampleddata model method are shown in Fig. 13 and 14, respectively. Similar to the case of the DCM, excellent agreement exist between the time domain simulation and the proposed model for the CCM. VII. C ONCLUSIONS A time domain sampleddata model method for the computation of the ac current and dc voltage harmonic generated by a capacitor ltered threephase uncontrolled rectier is presented. The approach employs numerical iteration to determine the diodes turnon and time turnoff times and thereby determine the circuits steady steady solution. Harmonics of interest are solved analytically through a state augmentation method. The results have been validated with those of PSCAD/EMTDC to show the accuracy of the method. One potential application of the proposed model would be to incorporate it into a harmonic power ow program to improve the accuracy of the existing methods. A PPENDIX I A NALYTICAL JACOBIAN  DCM In DCM the Jacobian matrix or the system may be found analytically in accordance with the following equations.
0.1
0.01
6 harmonic number
12
18
Fig. 14. Dc voltage harmonic spectrum of the capacitor ltered rectier in the CCM
d M1 =
3 2
3 2
e z(0)
x2 ( )
(23)
d M1 x2 ( ) = d M2 =
1 0
{eAx1 Qxd
eAx1 N1 z( )}
d M2 =
1 + N1 e z( )}
where x2 ( ) = (1 xd )1 eAx2 Pxd {1 + N1 e z( ) eAx1 N1 z( )}, x2 ( ) = (1xd)2 (Ax2 xd eAx2 Pxd eAx1 Ax1 Qxd ) eAx2 Pxd 2 (1 xd )1 eAx2 Ax2 Pxd 2 + (1 xd )1 eAx2 Pxd {1 + N1 e z( )}. xd = eAx2 ( 6 ) Pxd eAx1 Qxd ,
T
where x3 ( ) = [Ied xc ]
1 Ax3
Qxc {1 + N1 e z( )
= [Ied xc ]2 (Ax3 xc eAx3 Qxc eAx1 Ax1 Pxc ) (eAx3 Qxc 2 + 4 + [I6 xc ]1 {Ax3 eAx3 Qxc 2 + eAx3 Qxc [1 + N1 e z( )] eAx3 N3 e z( )},
T /6+
1 =
3 =
+
2 =
eAx1 ( + ) N1 z( )d.
T /6+
4 =
+
Note that the two convolution integrals, 1 and 2 can be easily evaluated by using the matrix augmentation technique presented in [12]: 0 1 0 0 0 eAonG 0 1 = (27) 0 1 0 0 z( ) where AonG = 2 = Ax1 0 1 0 0 1 Ax1 N1 0 0 0 0 . 0 eAon 0 z( )
Note that both 3 and 4 can be found as follows: 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 = 0 1 0 0 0 eAcomG 0 0 0 1 0 0 z( + ) where AcomG = 1 4 = 0 0 0 1 0 Ax3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 N3 . 0 0 0 z( + )
(33)
(28)
0 0 eAcom 0
(34)
A PPENDIX II A NALYTICAL JACOBIAN  CCM In CCM the Jacobian matrix or the system may be found analytically in accordance with the following equations.
c M1 = 3 2 3 3 2
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e( +) z(0) x3 ( ) e( +) z(0)
0 1
(29)
eAx1 () pxc
c M1 = 3 2 3 3 2
0 1
1 0 1 0
0 0
x3 ( ) x3 ( )
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P. W. Lehn received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Manitoba in 1990 and 1992, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Toronto in 1999. From 1992 to 1994, he was with the Network Planning Group of Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the University of Toronto. His research interests include modelling and control of converters, and integration of renewable energy source into the power grid.
K. L. Lian received the B.A.Sc.(Hons.), M.A.Sc, Ph. D. degrees in electrical engineering in 2001, 2003, and 2007, respectively, all from the University of Toronto. He is currently a visiting research scientist at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan. His research interests include mathematical modeling and analysis of nonlinear and power electronic converters and real time simulations of power systems.
Brian K. Perkians has been involved in a broad range of industrial projects ranging from industrial power distribution to smelting furnace applications since joining Hatch in 2000. Prior to joining Hatch, Brian acquired a broad range of experience in both academic and industrial milieus. After completing his Ph.D. in Power Systems at the University of Toronto (1997), he served as a postdoctoral intern with Siemens AG in Erlangen, Germany where he contributed to active lter development (the SIPCON product line) and developed software for the design and evaluation of rectier harmonic compensation lters. This software has been used for the design and verication of compensation schemes for rectier load associated with electrolysis and aluminum smelting applications.