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DERIVATION AND EXPLORATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

Karina Zala

HISTORICAL APPROACH TO THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS


Describes the motion of fluid flow Based on Newtons 2nd Law: Sum of all forces = time rate of change of momentum
Claude-Louis Navier

F=ma

Sir Isaac Newton

Sir George Gabriel Stokes

Assumes stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term hence describing viscous flow Used in CFD simulations. Describes the physics of many aspects of fluid phenomena.

HOW CAN YOU APPLY THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS?

CONTROL VOLUME OF THE FLUID ELEMENT


.

FORCES ACTING WITHIN A FLUID ELEMENT


Pressure Surface Normal Stress Shear Stress Gravity Body Electric Magnetic Acts at a distance directly on the volumetric mass of the entire fluid element Always acts normal to the surface

FORCE

Body Force (BF): =

GOVERNING EQUATIONS
Seven unknowns in determining the flow in a fluid
1. Pressure (P) [Pa] or [bar] 2. Velocity for x-direction (u) [m/s] 3. Velocity for y-direction (v) [m/s] 4. Velocity for z-direction (w) [m/s] 5. Density () [kg/m3 ]

6. Temperature (T) [K][C] 7. Viscosity () [Ns/m2, Pa.s or kg/ms

Seven equations: 1. Conservation of Mass Momentum 2. = 3. = 4. = 5. Perfect Gas 6. Energy 7. Stokes Hypothesis

GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Governed for unsteady 3D compressible viscous flow. Non-conservation form


Substantial derivatives, represented by

Physically, the time rate of change following a moving fluid (Dynamic Fluid)

Conservation form

Local derivatives, represented by

Physically, the time rate of change at a fixed point (Static Fluid)

FLUID ELEMENT : X DIRECTION

Plane

Direction

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS SURFACE FORCE (SF)


SF = + +

+ +

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS SURFACE FORCE (SF) Or simplified: SF = + + +

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS FORCE ( ) = SURFACE + BODY


Surface Force

Body Force

= + + + +

BUILDING THE N-S EQUATIONS MASS AND ACCELERATION


Mass = matter within a CV volume
Acceleration = velocity increase w.r.t time = ; = ; =

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS IN NON-CONSERVATION FORM (DYNAMIC FLUID)


For x-direction: = + + + +

For y-direction: = + + + + For z-direction: = + + + +

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS CONSERVATION FORM (STATIC FLUID)


For x: = +

Expanding the derivative: () = + Rearranging the derivative:


()

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS CONSERVATION FORM (STATIC FLUID)


Recalling divergence product: = + ( ) Or = Substituting: () = + Finally: () = +

()

UNDERSTANDING STRESS IN A FLUID

With each direction there is ONE normal stress and TWO shear stresses acting on the fluid element.

UNDERSTANDING STRESS IN A FLUID


Normal Stresses

= =

where: = dynamic (shear) viscosity coefficient

= +

+ 2 + 2 2

Assumption made by Stokes: 2 = 3


Shear Stresses

= second viscosity coefficient

= =

= =

= =

+ +

STOKES HYPOTHESIS

If pressure is defined as:


3 2 3 3

1 2 ( + + ) = +

Unless +
So

Mean pressure thermodynamic pressure


Therefore,

transposing to make the subject, =


2 3

Stokes assumed that +

( ) = 0

2 3

=0

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

For x:

2 3

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = +
2

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

For y:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = +

2 3

+ 2

BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

For z:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + +=

2 3 + 2

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS CONSERVATION FORM (STATIC FLUID)


For x-direction: ( ) + ( ) = + + + +

For y-direction: ( ) + ( ) = + + + +

For z-direction: ( ) + ( ) = + + + +

EXAMPLE

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