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# DERIVATION AND EXPLORATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

Karina Zala

## HISTORICAL APPROACH TO THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

Describes the motion of fluid flow Based on Newtons 2nd Law: Sum of all forces = time rate of change of momentum
Claude-Louis Navier

F=ma

## Sir George Gabriel Stokes

Assumes stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term hence describing viscous flow Used in CFD simulations. Describes the physics of many aspects of fluid phenomena.

.

## FORCES ACTING WITHIN A FLUID ELEMENT

Pressure Surface Normal Stress Shear Stress Gravity Body Electric Magnetic Acts at a distance directly on the volumetric mass of the entire fluid element Always acts normal to the surface

FORCE

## Body Force (BF): =

GOVERNING EQUATIONS
Seven unknowns in determining the flow in a fluid
1. Pressure (P) [Pa] or [bar] 2. Velocity for x-direction (u) [m/s] 3. Velocity for y-direction (v) [m/s] 4. Velocity for z-direction (w) [m/s] 5. Density () [kg/m3 ]

## 6. Temperature (T) [K][C] 7. Viscosity () [Ns/m2, Pa.s or kg/ms

Seven equations: 1. Conservation of Mass Momentum 2. = 3. = 4. = 5. Perfect Gas 6. Energy 7. Stokes Hypothesis

GOVERNING EQUATIONS

## Substantial derivatives, represented by

Physically, the time rate of change following a moving fluid (Dynamic Fluid)

Conservation form

Plane

Direction

SF = + +

+ +

Surface Force

Body Force

= + + + +

## BUILDING THE N-S EQUATIONS MASS AND ACCELERATION

Mass = matter within a CV volume
Acceleration = velocity increase w.r.t time = ; = ; =

## NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS IN NON-CONSERVATION FORM (DYNAMIC FLUID)

For x-direction: = + + + +

For x: = +

()

## BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS CONSERVATION FORM (STATIC FLUID)

Recalling divergence product: = + ( ) Or = Substituting: () = + Finally: () = +

()

## UNDERSTANDING STRESS IN A FLUID

With each direction there is ONE normal stress and TWO shear stresses acting on the fluid element.

Normal Stresses

= =

= +

+ 2 + 2 2

Shear Stresses

## = second viscosity coefficient

= =

= =

= =

+ +

STOKES HYPOTHESIS

3 2 3 3

1 2 ( + + ) = +

Unless +
So

Therefore,

2 3

( ) = 0

2 3

=0

## BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

For x:

2 3

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = +
2

## BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

For y:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = +

2 3

+ 2

## BUILDING THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

For z:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + +=

2 3 + 2

## NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS CONSERVATION FORM (STATIC FLUID)

For x-direction: ( ) + ( ) = + + + +

For y-direction: ( ) + ( ) = + + + +

For z-direction: ( ) + ( ) = + + + +

EXAMPLE