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Introduction Chemical kinetics is the study of reaction rate by which reactions occur and factors, which affects rate of reaction. The Reaction Rate for a given chemical reaction is the measure of the change in concentration of solution per unit time. The reaction rate, however, can be affected by factor such as temperature and catalysts. In this experiment, chemical kinetics will be investigated through reaction between iodate ion and sulfate ion by measuring of the rate of reaction, reaction order and rate constant. This reaction consists of 3 steps as describe below: Step 1 IO3+ 3 SO3-2 I+ 3 SO4-2 iodate sulfite iodide sulfate ions ions ions ions An excess amount of iodate ions react with sulfite ion to produce iodide ion in solution. Since sulfite ion is the limited reactant, it consume first. Step 2 The excess mount of iodate ion will continue to react with iodide ion in acid environment, which produce iodine molecules as described in step 3. Step 3 Lastly, starch reacts with iodine molecules to form starch-iodine complex, which appeared to be blue. II. Procedure Solution A and B will be provided in the lab. Solution A contains 0.020 M iodate and solution B contains 0.010 M sulfite. The equipment required in this lab are pipets, 50 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and 50 ml beaker. The 50 ml Erlenmeyer flasks are used as reaction vessel while the 50 ml beaker is used to contain water. Water, solution A and solution B measured and prepared, as it is required in each system, using pipets. It is important to prepare the reaction system in this order: water, solution B and finally solution A. After all solutions are added in the 50 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, experimenters should swirl the flask gently while using stopwatch to time the reaction. Finally, the experimenters record the reaction time to the nearest second. The same procedure should be implemented for all trails and system. III. Data The Volume of solution A, B and water need in each system is showed in Table 1. All of the time recorded is showed in Table 2.

Table 1. Volume of Solution A, B and water in each system.

Volume of Solution A (ml) System 1 System 2 System 3 0.50 1.00 0.50 Volume of Solution B (ml) 0.50 0.50 1.00 Volume of water (ml) 4.00 3.50 3.50

Table 2. Reaction times on 3 trails and average reaction times of each system.
Trail 1 (s) System 1 System 2 System 3 68 34 30 Trail 2 (s) 65 36 32 Trail 3 (s) 64 35 31 Average reaction time (s)* 66 35 31

IV. Results Determination of rate of reaction The concentration of sulfite after it is mixed with iodate and water, is calculated by using M1*V1 = M2*V2 . To illustrate, in system 1, The Molarity of sulfite is 0.010 M before it is diluted and the total is 5.00 ml volume after it is diluted. Therefore,

The same calculations apply to get the concentration of sulfite in other systems as well as the concentration of iodate. The creation rate is calculated by dividing concentration of sulfite for average reaction time (Table 2).

The rate of reactions and concentrations of sulfite and iodate are showed in Table 3.

Table 3. The concentration of iodate and sulfite and the rate of reaction in each system.
System System 1 System 2 System 3 Concentration of iodate (M) 0.0020 0.0040 0.0020 Concentration of sulfite (M) 0.0010 0.0010 0.0020 Rate (M/s) 1.5*10 2.8*10 6.4*10
-5 -5 -5

Determination of reaction orders The rate law of this reaction is The first and the second system are used to calculate reaction order of iodate

The reaction order of iodate will round up to 1 (first order) The first and the third system are used to calculate reaction order of sulfite

The reaction order of sulfite will round up to 2 (second order). Since the reaction order of sulfite is 2 and iodate is 1. The overall reaction order is 3. (Equation 1)

Determination of rate constants Table 4. The concentration of iodate and sulfite and the rate constant in each system.
System System 1 System 2 System 3 Concentration of iodate (M) 0.0020 0.0040 0.0020 Concentration of sulfite (M) 0.0010 0.0010 0.0020 Rate constant -2 -1 (M s ) 7.5*10
3 3 3

7.0*10 8.0*10

Table 4 shows the rate constant of each system. To be more specific, the rate constant can be calculated by solving for k using Molarity of iodate and sulfite (Table 4) and Equation 1.

The K value will be the average of K in 3 systems, which equal to 7.5*103 M-2s-1 V. Discussion Looking at Table 3, it is clear that an increase in concentration of reactant results in a greater rate of reaction. To be more specific, system 1 has lower concentration of sulfite than system 3 so that the rate of reaction of system 1 at 1.5*10-5 M/s is slower than the rate of reaction of system 3 at 6.3*10-5 M/s. The overall reaction order of this reaction is 3 as calculated in the result section. Since the 3-body collision in a reaction is extremely rare, this suggest that the reaction can be occur in multiple steps. The propose mechanism is as below: (Fast) (R=k1[IO3-]=k-1[I-][O-2]) (Fast) (R=k2[O-2][S03-2]=k-2[SO4]) (Slow) (R=k3[I-][O-2][SO3-2])