You are on page 1of 34

Workshop 01 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Tee

14.5 Release

Introduction to ANSYS Fluent


2012 ANSYS, Inc. November 13, 2012 1 Release 14.5

Introduction
Workshop Description:

The flow simulated is in a T-section of a pipeline. Fluid enters at two different temperatures, and the computation simulates the mixing process.
Learning Aims:

This workshop aims to teach basic skills in the use of the Fluent interface. The entire simulation approach is covered, including:
reading a mesh, selecting material properties, defining boundary conditions, - setting up solution monitors, - running the simulation, - post-processing

Learning Objectives: To show the basic techniques used in performing a Fluent simulation. You will need to use these steps in all your Fluent simulations.
Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
2

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Simulation to be performed
The task is to simulate mixing of hot and cold water in a T-piece. Note that if you have just attended our pre-processing course, this example will be
making use of the same mesh that you generated in ANSYS Meshing / WS 1.

We have provided a fresh copy of this mesh here. You are welcome to use your
existing mesh if you like.

The simulation is being performed to determine:


How well do the fluids mix? What are the pressure drops?
Its a good idea to identify the key simulation outcomes from the start. You can use these to monitor solution progress.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
3

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Loading a mesh and starting Fluent


Jump to next slide if you would prefer to use the supplied mesh

If you want to use the mesh you created during the ANSYS Meshing course:
Open up the previous project from the meshing course (Meshing Workshop 1). Drag a Fluent component system onto the Mesh cell B3.
Workbench will then generate a new Fluent system (column C), linked to the mesh component in B3. - Right-click on the Update symbol [ ]in cell B3 and select Update. The icon will shortly change to a tick [ ]. - Double-click on Setup to launch Fluent then click OK on the Fluent Launcher screen. - Ignore the instructions on the next slide.

Connecting Mesh to Fluent tells Workbench which mesh format is required. During the mesh update step, the mesh is then exported in a format suitable for Fluent . The mesh is not being re-generated, simply converted for the Fluent solver.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
4

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Loading a mesh and starting Fluent


These instructions are for users wanting to use the supplied mesh. Start a new workbench session. Drag a Fluent component system onto the project. Right-click on Setup, and select Import Fluent Case, and Browse.

In the pop-up window, change the


filter (bottom-right) from case to Fluent Mesh File. Browse to and select the file mixing_tee.msh. Click OK on the Fluent Launcher screen
Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
5

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Fluent interface
Meshing is available when Fluent (with Tgrid meshing) is used Each item in the navigation pane brings up a new task page. A typical workflow will tackle these in order One or more graphics windows will be available (shown here with reduced size) The console window displays text, and can accept TUI (Text User Interface) commands

The main commands are reached from the navigation pane

Some useful commands have toolbar buttons The Help button brings up contextsensitive help pages

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
6

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Mouse functionality
Mouse button functionality depends on the chosen solver (2D / 3D) and

can be configured in the solver. Default settings 2D Solver Left button translates/pans (dolly) Middle button zooms Right button selects/probes 3D Solver Left button rotates about 2 axes Middle button zooms
Middle click on point in screen centers point in window

Display

Mouse Buttons

Right button selects/probes

The left mouse button functionality can also be controlled using the toolbar buttons

When mouse-probe is enabled, clicking an object in the graphics window will retrieve detailed information about the flow field at the mouse position

The Workbench Defaults button will make the mouse behavior consistent with Workbench

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
7

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Mesh scale and check


Press Check - review the text output

Press Report Quality - review the text output

The mesh check ensures that each cell is in a correct format and connected to other cells as expected. It is recommended to check every mesh immediately after reading it. Failure of any check indicates a badly formed or corrupted mesh which will need repairs prior to simulation.

Mesh quality is very important for getting a converged, accurate solution. The worst cells will have an orthogonal quality closer to 0, with the best cells closer to 1. The minimum orthogonal quality for all types of cells should be more than 0.01, with an average value that is significantly higher (0.2). The maximum aspect ratio is 18.0, which is high, but acceptable in inflation layers. If the mesh quality is unacceptable it is best to remesh before proceeding. There are other possible remedies in Fluent, such as conversion to polyhedral cells.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
8

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Display geometry
Press Display
set Edge Type to Feature, press Display and then Close

Adjust the view if you like


in rotation mode: drag left-mouse-button drag middle-mouse-button click middle-mouse-button
Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

rotates zooms

(to zoom in, drag down and right) (to zoom out, drag up and left) centre origin on click
Solving
9

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Change units of temperature


Click Units
select Temperature to be c (Celsius) click Close

Fluent stores values in SI units. Most post-processing can be converted to other units.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
10

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Activate models
Double-click (or click and press Edit...) the following models:
Energy Equation: On Viscous model: k-epsilon, Realizable
Activating the Energy equation allows temperature dependent problems to be solved.

Turbulence modelling is a complex area. The choice of model depends on the application. Here, the Realizable k-epsilon model is used. This is an improvement on the well-established Standard k-epsilon model. Accept the remaining default settings.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
11

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Define a new material


In Materials, click Create/Edit...
click Fluent Database... select water-liquid, press Copy, then close both windows

The default available fluid is air. This step makes water available for the simulation. Note that it is the step on the next slide that makes water be actually used in the simulation.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
12

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Cell Zone Conditions


In Cell Zone Conditions, double-click the zone called fluid
Change Material Name to water-liquid accept all other settings
If you are using the mesh you created during the ANSYS Meshing course, the zone name may initially be solid. If so, in addition to changing the material as shown on this slide, also change the name of the cell zone to fluid before clicking OK.

Alternatively, click once on fluid to highlight it, and then click Edit....

Throughout the problem setup there are many options that are left to default settings as they are not relevant to this particular type of analysis.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
13

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Boundary Conditions
In Boundary Conditions, select the zone called inlet-y then Edit. Set the following under the Momentum tab. Set Temperature under the Thermal tab.
Velocity Magnitude 3m/s Hydraulic Diameter 0.15m Turbulent Intensity 5% Temperature 10C
Inlet flows bring turbulence with them. The quantities depend on the upstream conditions so they are user inputs. For flow in pipes, turbulent intensity is typically 5 to 10%. The length-scale of the turbulence can be deduced from the pipe diameter.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
14

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Boundary Conditions
Select the zone called inlet-z, then Edit. Apply the following settings
Velocity Magnitude 1m/s Hydraulic Diameter 0.10m Turbulent Intensity 5% Temperature 90C

Select the zone called outlet, then Edit


for this problem the outlet gauge pressure is 0 turbulence must still be specified and is referred to as Backflow when specified on an outlet. for backflow: Turbulent Intensity 5% Hydraulic Diameter 0.15m Temperature 30C
It is possible that during the solution process material may flow back into the domain though an outlet boundary. This could either be a genuine feature of the flow (and still present in the converged solution), or just a short-lived state reached during the convergence process. Either way, Fluent needs to know realistic conditions at this boundary to give to the incoming flow. If (as in this model) the converged model has only flow leaving at the outlet boundary then these values are not used and do not affect the final answer. Ideally, the geometry should be selected such that flow enters the model only at well-defined inlets, with no backflow occurring.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
15

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Discretization schemes
In Solution Methods
Change to the option Coupled for Pressure-Velocity Coupling and activate Pseudo Transient Change Pressure, Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation to Second Order Tick the box to allow High Order Term Relaxation

Discretization schemes define how the solver calculates gradients and interpolates variables to non-stored locations. Firstorder schemes are more stable but less accurate than higher order schemes. This case is well defined and will be stable using second-order numerics from the start.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
16

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Monitors
In Monitors, press Create... for a Surface Monitor
Name p-inlet-y Area-Weighted Average Plot in window 2 Pressure inlet-y
Accept Static pressure in the sub-category menu.

By default, Fluent reports values of the residuals, which are indications of the errors in the current solution. These should decrease during the calculation. There are guidelines on the reductions that indicate a solution is converged. It is also recommended to observe other important solution quantities. In the current case, we will use pressure and temperature as monitors.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
17

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Monitors
In Monitors, press Create... for a Surface Monitor
Name p-inlet-z Area-Weighted Average Plot in window 2 Pressure inlet-z
Not the default, 3 (which puts the new monitor in a new window).

In Monitors, press Create... for a Surface Monitor


Name tmax-outlet Vertex maximum Plot in window 3 Temperature outlet

Accept Static pressure and Static temperature in the sub-menu.

Here is an instance where Fluent does not convert units. Click OK.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
18

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Initialization
In Solution Initialization
keep Hybrid Initialization under Initialization Methods click Initialize a warning message that convergence was not reached during hybrid initialization may appear, but it is only a warning, not an error, and it is safe to continue
Initialization creates the initial solution that the solver will iteratively improve. Generally, the same converged solution is reached whatever the initialization, but convergence will be faster if the starting point is more realistic. Basic initialization imposes the same values in all cells. You can improve on this in various ways for example, by patching different values into different zones. Several features, including patching and post-processing, are not available until after initialization. Hybrid Initialization Method is an efficient method of initializing the solution based purely on the setup of the simulation with no extra information required. This method produces a velocity field that conforms to complex domain geometries and a pressure field which smoothly connects high and low pressure values.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
19

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Calculate
In Run Calculation
click Check Case...
see No recommendations to make at this time.

set Number of Iterations to 150 click Calculate

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
20

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Calculating
While calculating, review residuals and monitors
change graphics windows using the drop-down box
An alternative way to stop calculation is to press CTRL-C. In this simple case, approximately 100 iterations (or fewer) are enough to reach low residuals and stable values of monitors. Most cases require many more.

This option will let you have several graphics windows visible simultaneously.

This option lets you choose what is in each window

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
21

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Preliminary post-processing
In Graphics and Animations, select Contours, press Set Up...
select Filled contours of Turbulence...Wall Yplus on wall-fluid press Display The plot appears in the last active Set lights (see image) graphics window. You may want to
revert to having one window, and select fit to view

Yplus is a measure of whether the mesh near the walls captures turbulent effects. Standard wall functions work in the range 30 300. Smaller values require Enhanced Wall Treatment (in the Models...Viscous panel).

3D images are best viewed with lighting enabled. Select Lights, then scheme Gouraud with headlight on

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
22

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Check mass and heat balance


In Reports, select Fluxes and press Set Up...
compute Mass Flow Rate and Total Heat Transfer Rate for inlets and outlets check that Net Results are small
Checking that mass and energy are conserved (to acceptable accuracy) is simple and important.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
23

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Exit Fluent
Close Fluent simulation case and data files are written on exit In Workbench: Save the Project (Save As....) From Component Systems, drag a Results object and drop on the Fluent solution cell.
Double-click Results in Cell D2 in the Workbench Project Schematic window to launch CFD-Post

If you started with the supplied mesh file (rather than continuing the project started during the meshing course) then you will not have these blocks on your project page.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
24

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

CFD-Post
The results are loaded CFD-Post initially displays the outline (wireframe) of the model
viewer toolbar buttons allow you to manipulate the view

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
25

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Temperature contour plot


Press the contour button
accept the default name Contour 1 set Locations to be wall fluid, and Variable to be Temperature press Apply

Try changing the view by rotate, zoom and pan tools.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
26

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Create a plane
Hide the contour plot by unchecking it in the tree view In the Location menu, select Plane
accept the default name Plane 1 set Method to be YZ Plane, accept X as 0.0 and press Apply

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
27

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Velocity vector plot


Hide the plane by unchecking it in the tree view Press the Vector button (accept default name)
set Locations to be Plane 1 and press Apply
The plane is used only as a location for the vector plot.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
28

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Predefined Camera views and shortcuts


Since the vector plot is on the YZ-plane, select a normal view
click with the right mouse-button in the view window select Predefined Camera then View From +X
Alternatively, press x. Keyboard shortcuts are listed by pressing here.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
29

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Streamline plot
Hide the vector plot by unchecking it in the tree view Press the Streamline button (accept default name)
set Start from to be inlet y and inlet z in the Symbol tab, set Stream Type to be Ribbon Press Apply
To select multiple locations, press the Location editor button, and press CTRL while clicking. Ribbons give a 3-D representation of the flow direction. In the current plot, the colour depends on the flow velocity.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
30

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Velocity isosurface
Hide the streamline plot by unchecking it in the tree view In the Location menu, select Isosurface and accept the default name
in the Geometry tab, set Variable to Velocity and Value to 4 [m s^-1] Click Apply
This is just one example you can try other values.

The velocity magnitude is greater than 4 m/s inside the isosurface , and less than that outside it.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
31

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Velocity isosurface
By default, the isosurface is colored by velocity magnitude In the Colour tab
select Mode to be Variable, Variable to be Temperature, Range to be Local, and press Apply

This is the end of the tutorial. To be able to revisit this problem, quit CFD-Post and save the project in Workbench.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
32

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Further work
There are many ways the simulation in this tutorial could be extended
Better inlet profiles
current boundary conditions (velocity inlets) assume uniform profiles specify profiles (of velocity, turbulence, etc), or extend the geometry so that inlets and outlets are further from junction

Mesh independence
check that results do not depend on mesh re-run simulations with finer mesh(es)
generated in Meshing application, or from adaptive meshing in Fluent

Actually, the current mesh is probably not fine enough one indication of this is that low-order discretization gives different answers. Note that, by default, there is no gravity in the model this is a setting in the General task page.

Temperature-dependent physical properties


density
differences could lead to buoyant forces (with gravity turned on) quite small effects in this case

viscosity, etc
Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
33

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5

Wrap-up
This workshop has shown the basic steps that are applied in all CFD simulations: - Defining material properties. - Setting boundary conditions and solver settings. - Running a simulation whilst monitoring quantities of interest. - Post-processing the results, both in Fluent and CFD-Post.

One of the important things to remember in your own work, before even starting the ANSYS software, is to think WHY you are performing the simulation: - What information are you looking for. - What do you know about the inlet conditions. In this case we were interested in checking the pressure drop, and assessing the amount of mixing present around this T-piece.
Knowing your aims from the start will help you make sensible decisions of how much of the part to simulate, the level of mesh refinement needed, and which numerical schemes should be selected.

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Model Setup
November 13, 2012

Solving
34

Post-Processing

Summary
Release 14.5