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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART

By DR. M. VEGO
JMO DEPARTMENT, U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, RI.

WAR IS NOT AN AFFAIR OF CHANCE. A GREAT DEAL OF KNOWLEDGE, STUDY AND MEDITATION IS NECESSARY TO CONDUCT IT WELL.
FREDERICK THE GREAT, 1747

TERMS USED
GRAND TACTICS OPERATIONS (OPERATIONS) OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONSKUNST) OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIVNOYE ISKUSSTVO) OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP (OPERATIONSFUEHRUNG; OPERATIVE FUEHRUNG) OPERATIONAL WARFARE OPERATIONAL WARFIGHTING

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART

STRATEGY

OPERATIONS
(Operational Art)

TACTICS

PPT-98-VEG0-38A (PFR)

ON OPERATIONAL ART

AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS IT IS APPLIED ACROSS THE ENTIRE OPERATIONAL CONTINUUM IT DEALS WITH THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PLANNING, PREPARING, CONDUCTING, AND SUSTAINING MAJOR OPERATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS AIMED AT ACCOMPLISHING OPERATIONAL OR STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER.

THE

NATION THAT WILL INSIST ON DRAWING A BROAD LINE BETWEEN THE FIGHTING MAN AND THE THINKING MAN IS LIABLE TO FIND ITS FIGHTING DONE BY FOOLS AND ITS THINKING DONE BY COWARDS.
SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS BUTLER

MILITARY SCIENCE AND MILITARY ART

MILITARY SCIENCE MILITARY ART

STRATEGY

TACTICS

OPERATIONS
(OPERATIONAL ART)

PPT-98-VEG0-10A (PFR)

IMPORTANCE
TACTICS ALONE CANNOT ACCOMPLISH STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER OR WIN THE WAR; RESULTS OF TACTICAL ACTIONS ARE USEFUL ONLY WHEN LINKED TOGETHER AS A PART OF SOME LARGER DESIGN FRAMED BY STRATEGY AND ORCEHSTRATED BY OPERATIONAL ART THE GAP BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS IS TOO LARGE TO BE BRIDGED WITHOUT AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE -- OPERATIONAL ART

OPERATIONAL ART SEQUENCES AND SYNCHRONIZES SERIES OF TACTICAL ACTIONS TO ACCOMPLISH OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF MAJOR OPERATIONS; STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER ARE NORMALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL ART ALLOWS A SMALLER, BUT BETTER TRAINED AND SKILLFULLY LED FORCE GUIDED BY SOUND STRATEGY TO DEFEAT QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY A MUCH STRONGER FORCE.

OPERATIONAL ART HELPS TO AVOID MORE COSTLY AND TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS IT PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK AND KEY INPUTS FOR WRITING SERVICE AND JOINT/COMBINED DOCTRINE IT REINFORCES THE NEED FOR THE CLOSEST COOPERATION AMONG THE SERVICES -JOINTNESS.

CHARACTERISTICS
MOVEMENTS OF LARGE MULTI-SERVICE OR MULTI-NATIONAL FORCES OVER LARGE PART OF THE THEATER THE DEPLOYMENT FORMS THE VERY BASIS OF A PLAN FOR CAMPAIGN OR MAJOR OPERATION SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER

PREREQUISITES
A SUFFICIENT PHYSICAL SPACE FOR MOVEMENTS OF LARGE FORMATIONS FULL MASTERY OF TACTICS THE COMMANDERS MUST HAVE THAT RARE ABILITY TO THINK BEYOND THE REALM OF PHYSICAL COMBAT THE EXISTENCE OF THE THEATER-WIDE STRUCTURE (C2; C2W; INTELLIGENCE; FIRES; LOGISTICS; AND PROTECTION).

COMPONENTS

MILITARY ART COMPONENTS


COMPONENT
THEORY AND PRACTICE NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGY)

LEVEL OF WAR STRATEGIC

STRATEGY

CONFLICT/WAR TERMINATION ISSUING STRATEGIC GUIDANCE DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY ALLOCATION OF MILITARY RESOURCES AND SECONDARY AMONG THEATERS THEATERS BUILDING ALLIANCE/COALITION ENHANCING COUNTRYS GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY

NATIONALSTRATEGIC THEATERSTRATEGIC

THEORY AND PRACTICE

OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONS)

OPERATIONAL-STRATEGIC AL INPUT TO CONFLICT/ OPERA N O I FUN TION WAR TERMINATION AT RS TIO A L O OPER T C N FA O PER S L OPERATIONAL ART A N IO IP PLAATION RATR H S (OPERATIONS) NNI AL P OPEA E RIN N OPERATIONAL C LE D NTS OF O I P LE G P OPERATIONAL L E E A R M ATI S OF ELE RATION WAR TRAINING O E E R P A FARNAL O F R A METHODS OF COMBAT E W FORCE EMPLOYMENT
THEORY AND PRACTICE A CO OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL OF M S C I T HES METHODS OF TACTICAL RMS T BAT TA C ACT C EMPLOYMENT BR A N TAC ICS T IC TACTICS IC A L W EA S G N TA C T P I PONOF L N N A A T TA C FOR S PL F T T MS O TACTICAL Y I S C P C D I S E T O O C E TYPES OF F AIR F SH TA MBI N CRA IPS/ SHIPS / AIRCRAFT CO RMS FT A TACTICAL FUNCTIONS

TACTICS

PPT-99-VEGO-40 (PFR)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART AND THE LEVELS OF WAR


COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

LEVEL OF WAR

COMMAND ECHELON

STRATEGY

GLOBAL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEVEL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

THEATER OF WAR OPERATIONAL ART

THEATER-STRATEGIC LEVEL

THEATER-STRATEGIC

THEATER OF OPERATIONS
(LAND, MARITIME)

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

AREA OF OPERATIONS
(LAND, MARITIME, AIR)

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL LEVEL

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL

TACTICS

COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR)


(LAND, MARITIME, AIR)

TACTICAL LEVEL

TACTICAL

PPT-97VEG024A (PFR)

OPERATIONAL FACTORS

OPERATIONAL FACTORS

OPERATIONAL FACTORS
SPACE- FORCE

OBJECTIVE

SPACE
TIME-SPACE

TIME
TIME-FORCE

FORCE

BAL ANC ING SPA E CE - TIME - FORC

INFORMATION
PPT-96VEG040B

THE FACTOR OF SPACE

DISTANCES

GEOSTRATEGIC POSITIONS

MILITARY ORGANIZATION OF SPACE

FACTOR SPACE

SIZE

SHAPE

ELEMENTS OF THE THEATER DYNAMICS OF SPACE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

PPT-97VEG022

6/14/2004

THE FACTOR OF TIME


DECISION CYCLE PLANNING COLLECTING, PROCESSING AND EVALUATING INFORMATION DURATION OF WAR OPENING HOSTILITIES MANEUVER/COUNTERMANEUVER

WARNING TIME BETWEEN CONSECUTIVE MAJOR OPERATIONS/ CAMPAIGNS

REACTION

MOBILIZATION

ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE MISSION

DEPLOYMENT

TIME FOR:

TRANSIT

REDEPLOYMENT

COMMITMENT OF RESERVES

TIMING

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

PREPARATION MASTERING NEW WEAPONS/ EQUIPMENT FOR WAR FOR A MAJOR OPERATION/CAMPAIGN CONCENTRATION/COUNTERCONCENTRATION FORCE RECONSTITUTION ETC. BRINGING UP REINFORCEMENTS

PPT-96VEG032A (PFR)

COMBAT POTENTIAL vs. COMBAT POWER

PEACETIME
NON-COMBAT DESIGNED

HOSTILITIES
COMBAT
COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS

COMBAT POTENTIAL

ACTIVATION OF COMBAT POWER

COMBAT POWER

ENEMY COMBAT POWER

AVAILABLE

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

PPT-00-VEGO-38 (PFR)

COMBAT POWER
PEACETIME NON-COMBAT FORCE TIME
AVAILABLE COMBAT POTENTIAL

HOSTILITIES COMBAT

PLUS

INFLUENCES OF:

COMBAT POWER

SPACE
FATIGUE ETC. DOCTRINE INTELLIGENCE DECISIONS MADE
PPT-00-VEGO-36 (PFR)

SURPRISE DECEPTION

CHANCE / LUCK FOG OF WAR FRICTION FREEDOM OF ACTION / INITIATIVE LOGISTICAL SUSTAINMENT

THE THEATER

THEATER STRUCTURE AND LEVELS OF WAR


LEVELS OF WAR
THEATER (OF WAR)
THEATER-STRATEGIC

ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE
NATIONAL OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE THEATER-STRATEGIC (OR MILITARY THEATER OF STRATEGIC) OPERATIONS OBJECTIVE

OPERATIONAL

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

AREAS OF OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL
AIR (SPACE) MARITIME LAND JOINT

OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE OR MAJOR TACTICAL

COMBAT ZONES/SECTORS

TACTICAL
AIR (SPACE) MARITIME LAND

TACTICAL OBJECTIVE

PPT-97VEG035

THEATER GEOEMETRY
INTERIOR EXTERIOR PARALLEL CONVERGING DIVERGING

POSITIONS

CENTRAL (INTERIOR) EXTERIOR TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC MAIN INTERMEDIATE

LINE OF OPERATIONS (LOO)


SINGLE DOUBLE MULTIPLE

THEATER GEOMETRY
BASE OF OPERATIONS

SHORT LONG

SHORT LONG

LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS (LOC)


CENTRAL (INTERIOR) EXTERIOR
PPT-96VEG08

DECISIVE POINTS
LAND (LLOC)

PHYSICAL OBJECTIVES
TACTICAL
MINOR MAJOR

AIR (ALOC)

SEA (SLOC)

OCEANIC COASTAL

GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED FORCE-ORIENTED CYBER-ORIENTED

OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC

THEATER GEOMETRY

SLO C

LOO

LOO

NEW LOO
INTERMEDIATE BASE OPERATIONS

ENEMY CENTER OF GRAVITY


S

PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE

BASE OF OPERATIONS

LLOC

OC AL

LOO
OS

LOO

LO NEW

DECISIVE POINTS GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED FORCE=ORIENTED

97-VEG032.PPT

OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS

OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS
(IN GENERIC TERMS)
COMMAND AND CONTROL (C2) COMMAND & CONTROL WARFARE (C2W) COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS (C3)
I LL TE IN GE E NC

OPERATIONAL FIRES

OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS
N CTIO FUN

OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

SU PP O RT

OPERATIONAL PROTECTION

C2

OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS

PPT-96VEG07

SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE EFFORT


LEVEL OF WAR
LEVELS OF COMMAND
NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP

IN SUPPORT OF
NATIONAL ALLIANCE AND/OR COALITION POLICY & STRATEGY

STRATEGIC

STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE

THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER

THEATER CAMPAIGNS & LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT

THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER

A SINGLE CAMPAIGN

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL TACTICAL COMMANDER

A SINGLE MAJOR OPERATION

TACTICAL

TACTICAL INTELLIGENCE

TACTICAL COMMANDER

TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, ATTACKS, ETC.)

PPT-96VEG03A (PFR)

C2W COMPONENTS
INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT INFORMATION WARFARE (IW)

OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC) ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW)


EW SUPPORT ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA) ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (EP)

C2W

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOPS) MILITARY DECEPTION (MILDEC)

PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION

PPT-96VEG02

TYPE OF OPERATIONAL FIRES

OPERATIONAL FIRES
LETHAL
AIRBASED SEABASED GROUNDBASED CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS ELECTRONIC WEAPONS OF WARFARE (EW) MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD) SPECIAL NUCLEAR FORCES ELECTRONIC CHEMICAL ATTACK (EA) BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOP)

NON-LETHAL

PPT-96VEG011

SCALE OF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT THE COMMUNICATIONS ZONE


THEATER OF WAR THEATER OF WAR
COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR)

HOME BASE

INTER-THEATER LOCs

THEATER SUSTAINMENT BASE

INTRA-THEATER LOCs

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

STRATEGIC LOGISTICS

OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS TACTICAL LOGISTICS

PPT-97VEG020 (PFR)

OPERATIONAL PROTECTION
(IN GENERIC TERMS)
AIR DEFENSE AND AIRSPACE CONTROL
COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE FOR INDICATORS & WARNING (I&W)

PROTECTION OF INFORMATION

FORCE PROTECTION

AIR BASE GROUND DEFENSE (ABGD)

COMPONENTS
REAR AREA DEFENSE MARITIME SECURITY OF PORTS / HARBORS

DEFENSE AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD)


PPT-99-VEG0-61 (PFR)

PROTECTION OF LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE

STAGES OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT

STAGES AND ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT


MILITARY DECISION-MAKING AND PLANNING
MAJOR STAGES
DEPLOYMENT
PEACETIME MOBILIZATION PREDEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES STRATEGIC COMBAT CONFLICT/ OPERATIONAL EMPLOYMENT WAR & / TERMINATION SUSTAINMENT TACTICAL POSTHOSTILITIES ACTIONS
REDEPLOYMENT DEMOBILIZATION

RECONSTITUTION

PEACETIME

OFFENSE

OR

DEFENSE

CRITICAL FACTORS CONCENTRATION/ COUNTER CONCENTRATION

CENTERS OF GRAVITY COMBAT SUCCESS CULMINATING POINT

PURSUIT/ COUNTER-PURSUIT

MANEUVER / COUNTER MANEUVER CONSOLIDATION OF COMBAT SUCCESS

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT

PPT-98-VEGO-8 (PFR)

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR

ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE

CONCEPT OF CRITICAL FACTORS


CRITICAL FACTORS
CONCRETE (TANGIBLE) ABSTRACT (INTANGIBLE)

CRITICAL STRENGTHS

CRITICAL WEAKNESSES
IF O PEN TO A TTA CK

OBJECTIVE(S) CENTER OF GRAVITY (COG)


97-VEG033.PPT

CRITICAL VULNERABILITIES (CVs)

CRITICAL FACTORS
PHYSICAL (TANGIBLE)

CRITICAL FACTORS
ABSTRACT (INTANGIBLE)
POLITICAL DIPLOMATIC PSYCHOLOGICAL WILL TO FIGHT LEADERSHIP ALLIANCE/COALITION COHESION ALLIANCE / COALITIONS COMMUNITY OF INTERESTS PUBLIC SUPPORT UNITY OF COMMAND SERVICE / JOINT DOCTRINE MORALE DISCIPLINE COMBAT TRAINING COMBAT READINESS ETC.

GEOGRAPHIC GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION GEOPOLITICAL POSITION POSITIONS NON-MILITARY BASE OF OPERATIONS STATE ORGANIZATION LINES OF OPERATIONS ECONOMY LINES OF COMMUNICATIONS MINERAL RESOURCES ETC. AGRICULTURE MILITARY FINANCES ARMED FORCES INDIVIDUAL SERVICES (ARMY, NAVY, AIR BANKING FORCE) ENERGY RESOURCES THEATER ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE ETC. NUMBERED ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE MAJOR FORCE ELEMENTS (AIR CORPS, NAVAL TASK FORCES, AIR TASK FORCES) TACTICAL UNITS (DIVISIONS, BRIGADES, REGIMENTS, NAVAL SQUADRONS / GROUPS, AIR DIVISIONS / REGIMENTS / SQUADRONS) INTELLIGENCE C3I NODES LOGISTICAL SUPPORT AND SUSTAINMENT BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE INTELLIGENCE AND WARNING (I&W) ETC.
97-VEG030.PPT

CENTER OF GRAVITY
(IN GENERIC TERMS)

IS A SOURCE OF MASSED STRENGTH -PHYSICAL OR MORAL OR A SOURCE OF LEVERAGE WHOSE SERIOUS DEGRADATION, DISLOCATION, NEUTRALIZATION, OR DESTRUCTION WILL HAVE THE MOST DECISIVE IMPACT ON THE ENEMYS OR ONES OWN ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH A GIVEN MILITARY OBJECTIVE.

CENTER OF GRAVITYS COMPOSITION


OUTER CORE
N O I AT S R EG ENT T IN LEM E

PROTECTION

TANFIREPOWER
MANEUVER

LE B I G

INTA

NG I BLE

LEADERSHIP

INFORMATION INFORMATION

INNER CORE

SUPPORT

PPT-98-VEG0-4 (PFR)

OPERATIONAL MANEUVER

MANEUVER
FORCES SCALE
GROUND AIR/ SPACE NAVAL

MANEUVER

TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC

ENCIRCLEMENT

FORM
DOUBLE SINGLE COMBINED PENETRATION COMBINED WITH THE ONE-SIDED ENVELOPMENT

MEDIUM
PENETRATION ENVELOPMENT
ONE-SIDED TWO-SIDED (DOUBLE) WIDE ENVELOPMENT (TURNING MOVEMENT) LAND SEA AIR/SPACE

PENETRATION COMBINED WITH THE ECCENTRIC (OR CONCENTRIC) MOVEMENT


PPT-96VEG042

OPERATIONAL MANEUV ER, PART 1


PENETRATION MA NEU VER ONE-SIDED ENVELOPMENT MANEUVER

SH

OU LD E R

S HOULD ER

ENE MYS COG E NEM Y FO RCE

SU PP O RT ING

ATT AC K

M AIN

TTAC K RTING A SUP P O

A TTA

CK
FIXING FORCE

MOBI L E FORC E

RE SERVE

TWO-SIDE D (DOUBLE) ENVELOP MENT

MAIN ENEMY FORCE

FIXING FORCE MOBILE FORCE


CD -98 -V EGO-6 (JR N)

MOBILE FORCE

OPERATIONAL MANEUVER, PART 2


TURNING MANEUVER ( WIDE MOVEMENT)
ER UT O
IN N

ENCIRCLEMENT
NT FR O

ENEMYS OPERATIONAL DEPTH

R E

O FR

NT

ENEMY SUPPLY LINES

ENEMYS O PE RATIONAL COG

ENCIRC LED FOR CE

ESCAPE R OUT E

MOBILE FORCE

SUPPORTING ATTACK OR F IXING FO RCE

DOUBLE ENCIRCLEMENT
O NT FR R RO NT TE R F NE OU N I

T ON FR R E UT O ER FRO N INN T

CD-9 8-VE GO-7 (JRN)

THEORY OF CULMINATING POINT


FACTOR OF SPACE
EQUILIBRIUM OF RELATIVE COMBAT POWER CULMINATING POINT

ATTACK ER COMBA T POWE R

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

FACTOR OF FORCE

DEFENDERS OBJECTIVE

ATTACKERS OBJECTIVE
AREA OF UNCERTAINTY

WER O P T A COMB DER DEFEN

FACTOR OF TIME
PPT-00-VEG0-22 (PFR)

FACTOR OF FORCE

ATTACKERS CULMINATION
START OF OFFENSIVE OFFENSIVE STALLED
STALEMATE

FACTOR OF SPACE
SPACE GAINED CANNOT BE HELD
DIMINIS HING S TRE NGT HO FT HE AT TA CK ER

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

FACTOR OF FORCE

CULMINATING POINT OF OFFENSIVE (ATTACK)

LINES OF SUPPLIES
C SU SS CE

ATTACKERS OBJECTIVE
C RE FO

INCREAS

ING

NGTH STRE

OF

DE E H T

E ND FE

D SE LO

START OF ATTACK
PPT-00-VEG0-24 (PFR)

FACTOR OF TIME

ATTACK STALLED

DEFENDERS CULMINATION

START OF DEFENSIVE

FACTOR OF SPACE SPACE LOST TO THE ATTACKER

COUNTER-OFFENSIVE

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

FACTOR OF FORCE

DIMINIS HING S TRE NGT HO FT HE AT TA CK ER

CULMINATING POINT OF COUNTER-ATTACK

TACTICAL DEFENDERS OFFENSIVE

OBJECTIVE

COUNTER-ATTACKS

COUNTER-OFFENSIVE

INCREAS

ING

F H O T G N STRE

THE

F DE

D EN

ER

WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY OF SHIFTING TO

COUNTER-ATTACK

START OF DEFENSE
PPT-00-VEG0-23 (PFR)

FACTOR OF TIME

CULMINATING POINT AND THE LEVELS OF WAR


LEVEL OF WAR FACTOR OF SPACE
WAR AS A WHOLE CULMINATING POINT OF VICTORY (OR DEFEAT)

OCCURRENCE

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A WAR

THEATER-STRATEGIC

CAMPAIGNS AND MAJOR OPERATIONS CULMINATING POINT OF OFFENSIVE (OR DEFENSIVE)

OPERATIONAL

IT COULD OCCUR SEVERAL TIMES DURING A CAMPAIGN AND ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR OPERATION IT COULD OCCUR ONLY ONCE

OPERATIONALTACTICAL

A MAJOR OPERATION

TACTICAL

CULMINATING POINT OF ATTACK (OR DEFENSE)

A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT


PPT-00-VEG0-25 (PFR)

IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT

FACTOR OF TIME

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

ELEMENTS
TASKORIENTED TRAINING

LARGE-SCALE REPLACEMENT OF PERSONNEL

REESTABLISHMENT OF COMMAND AND CONTROL

REPAIR & REPLACEMENT OF WEAPONS & EQUIPMENT

REST & RECREATION OF PERSONNEL


PPT-98-VEG0-46 (PFR)

REPLENISHMENT OF SUPPLIES

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE

THERE HAVE EXISTED IN ALL TIMES FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ON WHICH DEPEND GOOD RESULTS IN WARFARE. THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNCHANGING, INDEPENDENT OF THE KIND OF WEAPONS, OF HISTORICAL TIME AND OF PLACE.
BARON ANTOINE HENRI DE JOMINI

PRINCIPLES OF WAR
(GENERIC)

PRINCIPLES OF WAR

PURPOSE
TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC

SURPRISE SIMPLICITY SECURITY UNITY OF EFFORT


COOPERATION
PPT-96VEG041

OBJECTIVE MASS OFFENSIVE MANEUVER ECONOMY OF FORCE

UNITY OF COMMAND

METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT

LEVELS OF WAR AND COMBAT FORCES EMPLOYMENT

CA M MA PAIGNS J M OR OP E R IL A OT ITARY OP TIONS HE R THAN ERATION S W AR (MO OTW )

S GN ATION I A P AM OPER C A AJOR M


THEATER STRATEGIC LEVEL OPERATIONAL LEVEL

TACTICAL LEVEL

TACTICAL ACTIONS

PPT-98VEG049 (PFR)

BATTLE ENGAGEMENT STRIKE ATTACK ENCOUNTER DUEL

SKIRMISH AMBUSH RAID HARASSMENT INFILTRATION PATROL

SEARCH SURVEILLANCE OBSERVATION SCOUTING RECONNAISSANCE ETC.

LEVELS OF COMMAND AND AND METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT


LEVEL OF WAR MILITARY ART

METHOD

LEVEL OF COMMAND OBJECTIVES NATIONAL* (OR ALLIANCE/ COALITION) LEVEL


A SINGLE OR SEVERAL NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

NATIONAL STRATEGIC

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC
THEATERSTRATEGIC
CAMPAIGNS MAJOR OPERATIONS

THEATER CDR

A SINGLE OR SEVERAL THEATER-STRATEGIC

OPERATIONALSTRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

A SINGLE CAMPAIGN MAJOR OPERATIONS A MAJOR JOINT OPERATION TACTICAL ACTIONS NEO OPERATIONS MAJOR TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES) MINOR TACTICAL ACTIONS

TO CDR**

A SINGLE THEATERSTRATEGIC

OPERATIONALTACTICAL

COMJTF ***

OPERATIONAL
TACTICS

TACTICAL

MAJOR-TACTICAL
TACTICAL COMMANDER

MINOR TACTICAL

PPT-96VEG09A

* NATIONAL COMMAND AUTHORITY

** THEATER OF OPERATIONS CINC

*** COMMANDER JOINT TASK FORCE

OPERATIONAL ART

STRATEGY

MAJOR OPERATIONS

MAJOR OPERATION
(IN GENERIC TERMS)
A MAJOR OPERATION CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, AND OTHER TACTICAL ACTIONS SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED IN TERMS OF SPACE AND TIME TO ACCOMPLISH AN OPERATIONAL (AND SOMETIMES STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE IN A GIVEN PART OF THE THEATER.

SCHEME OF A MAJOR OPERATION


MAJOR STAGES
BASE OF OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL DEPLOYMENT & CONCENTRATION COMBAT EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINMENT CONSOLIDATION OF OPERATIONAL REDEPLOYMENT SUCCESS

X X

OPERATIONAL MANEUVER

FORCE ALFA
ENGAGEMENT BATTLE
BA TT LE

A CE R FO

FORCE BRAVO OPERATION RESERVE


BATTLE
T ENGAGEMEN

FORCE B

FORC EC

FORCE CHARLIE
ENGAGEMENT

NT ME E G GA EN

CE D FOR

FORCE DELTA
ENGAGEMENT

TT BA

LE

1ST PHASE
LEGEND DECISIVE POINT MINOR TACTICAL OBJECTIVE MAJOR TACTICAL OBJECTIVE
PPT-99-VEGO-15 (PFR)

2ND PHASEETC OPERATIONAL PAUSE REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

X OPERATIONAL OF STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

MAJOR OPERATIONS
PRELIMINARY INITIAL

SEQUENCE
CONSECUTIVE
(SUCCESSIVE)

PURPOSE

MAJOR OPERATIONS
OFFENSIVE DEFENSIVE

MEDIUM/ SERVICE
LAND
(GROUND)

NAVAL
(MARITIME)

PRINCIPAL (MAIN) SUPPORTING


(ANCILLARY)

DEGREE OF SERVICE PARTICIPATION

AIR (SPACE)

INDEPENDENT JOINT (MULTI-SERVICE) COMBINED (MULTI-NATIONAL)


PPT-97VEG027

CAMPAIGNS

(IN GENERIC TERMS) A CAMPAIGN CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED IN TERMS OF SPACE AND TIME AND AIMED TO ACCOMPLISH A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE IN A GIVEN THEATER OF OPERATIONS.

CAMPAIGN

SCHEME OF A CAMPAIGN
MAJOR STAGES
DEPLOYMENT STRATEGIC INTRA-THEATER

MOBILIZATION

BASE OF OPERATIONS

CONSOLIDATION OF STRATEGIC SUCCESS COMBAT EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINMENT

X X

REDEPLOYMENT FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN OR DEMOBILIZATION

MAJOR NAVAL OPERATION

X
THEATER STRATEGIC RESERVE JOINT / COMBINED

X X

X
MAJOR LAND (GROUND) OPERATION

X X X

DESIRED END STATE

INDEPENDENT

MAJOR AIR (SPACE) OPERATION

X X X
WAR/CONFLICT TERMINATION OR A DISTINCT PHASE OF WAR

STRATEGIC PHASE I CONCENTRATION

PHASE II

PHASE III...ETC.

LEGEND STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE


PPT-99-VEGO-16 (PFR)

OPERATIONAL PAUSES

POST-HOSTILITIES ACTIVITIES RECONSTITUTION

X OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE

CAMPAIGNS
TIMING
SEQUENTIAL (CONSECUTIVE) SIMULTANEOUS (CONCURRENT)

CAMPAIGNS
THEATER STRATEGIC

PURPOSE
DEFENSIVE OFFENSIVE

OBJECTIVE
NATIONAL OR ALLIANCE/COALITION MILITARY STRATEGIC

PLANNING
UNPLANNED PLANNED

OPERATIONAL CONTINUUM
LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT** WAR
REGIONAL (LOCAL)

SERVICE PARTICIPATION
COMBINED (MULTI-NATIONAL) JOINT (MULTISERVICE)

GLOBAL (GENERAL)

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT(MEDIUM)
LAND MARITIME

* Denotes predominant features of the medium in which a campaign in conducted ** MOOTW in U.S. terms
PPT-97VEG028

OPERATIONAL PLANNING

DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGY (IN GENERIC TERMS)


NATIONAL POLICY

MEANS NATIONAL SOURCES OF POWER

ENDS TRADITIONAL NATIONAL INTERESTS


PHYSICAL SECURITY AND SURVIVAL POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY ECONOMIC STABILITY AND WELL BEING DOMESTIC PEACE AND STABILITY

NATIONAL GOALS/AIMS

NATIONAL OBJECTIVE

VITAL INTERESTS

NATIONAL (GRAND) STRATEGY

UNLIMITED LIMITED ANNIHILATION EROSION (ATTRITION)

POLITICAL OBJECTIVE MILITARY STRATEGY MILITARY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

POLITICAL DIPLOMATIC ECONOMIC MILITARY INFORMATIONAL SCIENTIFIC TECHNOLOGICAL OTHER

SUPPORTING STRATEGIES

NATIONAL ALLIANCE OR COALITION POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

STRATEGIC GUIDANCE

THEATER STRATEGY AND THEATER-STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

**

OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE

SYMMETRIC OR ASYMMETRIC

COURSES OF ACTION (COAs) STRATEGIC SITUATION STRATEGIC CONCEPTS

DECISIONS

NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY IN U.S. TERMS


REVISED/UPDATED MILITARY OR THEATER STRATEGY

** WHEN MULTIPLE THEATERS EXIST

EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER

TYPE OF PLANNING
OPERATIONAL PLANNING
(MAJOR OPERATIONS OR CAMPAIGNS) INTERMEDIATE MILITARY OBJECTIVES INVERSE (REGRESSIVE) PLANNING

HERE AND NOW

ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE

PROGRESSIVE PLANNING
NEAR TASK FUTURE TASK

PPT-97VEG047 (PFR)

(BATTLES / ENGAGEMENTS, ETC.) TACTICAL PLANNING

CAMPAIGN PLAN DEVELOPMENT


COMMAND ECHELON
STRATEGIC GUIDANCE MILITARY-STRATEGIC THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER (CINC) THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER (CINC)

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE STRATEGIC VISION CONCEPTS


STAFF ESTIMATES OPERATIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL DEPLOYMENT LOGISTICS OTHER

COMMANDERS ESTIMATE OF THE STRATEGIC SITUATION

THE DECISION
THE DECISION STATEMENT OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME) COMMANDERS INTENT

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
CAMPAIGN PLANS

WAR

LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT (LIC)

PPT-99-VEGO-04 (PFR)

MAJOR OPERATION PLAN DEVELOPMENT


HIGHER COMMAND AUTHORITY

COMMAND ECHELON
SERVICE COMPONENT JOINT/COMBINED TASK FORCE ARMY GROUP ARMY ARMY CORPS NUMBERED AIR FORCE NUMBERED FLEET

DOCUMENTS
CAMPAIGN PLAN OPORD OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE

COMMANDER

OPERATIONAL VISION

STAFF ESTIMATES

COMMANDERS ESTIMATE OF THE OPERATIONAL SITUATION

THE DECISION
THE DECISION STATEMENT OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME) COMMANDERS INTENT
PPT-97VEGO15 (PFR)

PLAN FOR A MAJOR OPERATION (LAND, NAVAL, AIR/SPACE)

OPERATIONAL DESIGN

GUIDANCE STRATEGIC
OPERATIONAL

OBJECTIVE

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

DESIRED END STATE

OPERATIONAL DESIGN
DIRECTION/AXIS

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENEMYS CRITICAL FACTORS

98-PPT-VEGO-03( es)

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)


CAMPAIGN MAJOR OPERATION

OPERATIONAL IDEA

TACTICAL CONCEPTS

MAJOR LAND OPERATION

MAJOR NAVAL OPERATION

MARITIME ELEMENTS

AIR (SPACE) ELEMENTS

MAJOR AIR (SPACE) OPERATION

GROUND ELEMENTS

SPECIAL FORCES ELEMENTS

PPT-96VEG017 (PFR)

OPERATIONAL IDEA FEATURES


FULL USE OF DECEPTION CREATIVE AND NOVEL

SPEED IN EXECUTION

OPERATIONAL IDEA

NO DISCERNIBLE PATTERNS

MULTIPLE OPTIONS

FULL USE OF AMBIGUITY

PPT-96VEG021

OPERATIONAL DESIGN FOR A CAMPAIGN (IN GENERIC TERMS)


DESIRED END STATE *

REQUIRED FORCES AND ASSETS

OPERATIONAL DESIGN

INTERIOR VS. EXTERIOR GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION

STRATEGIC OR OPERATIONAL DIRECTION / AXIS

OPERATIONAL FACTORS

ULTIMATE (STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE INTERMEDIATE (OPERATIONAL) OBJECTIVES

COORDINATION

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENEMYS CRITICAL FACTORS AND STRATEGIC CENTER OF GRAVITY

RECONSTITUTION METHODS FOR DEFEATING THE ENEMY SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF WAR BRANCHES AND SEQUELS OPERATIONAL PHASING APPLICATION OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST) CONCENTRATION IN THE SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST) POINT OF MAIN ATTACK (DEFENSE)

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL PAUSE ANTICIPATING ONES OWN STRATEGIC CULMINATION POINT OPERATIONAL TEMPO

STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL DECEPTION OPERATIONAL MANEUVER ** PROTECTION OF ONES OWN STRATEGIC COG

OPERATIONAL MOMENTUM STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL RESERVES STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL SUSTAINMENT

* FOR A CAMPAIGN THAT ENDS HOSTILITIES ** FOR EACH MAJOR OPERATION IN A CAMPAIGN

OPERATIONAL DESIGN FOR A MAJOR OPERATION


DESIRED END STATE * INTERIOR VS.EXTERIOR LINES

REQUIRED FORCES AND ASSETS

OPERATIONAL DESIGN

OPERATIONAL OR TACTICAL DIRECTION / AXIS IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENEMYS CRITICAL FACTORS AND OPERATIONAL CENTER OFGRAVITY

OPERATIONAL FACTORS

ULTIMATE (OPERATIONAL) OBJECTIVE INTERMEDIATE (MAJOR TACTICAL) OBJECTIVES

COORDINATION *

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POTENTIAL BRANCHES AND SEQUELS

METHODS OF DEFEATING THE ENEMYS OPERATIONAL COG APPLICATION OF AVAILABLE COMBAT POTENTIAL SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST)

SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF WAR

OPERATIONAL PHASING

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL PAUSE

ANTICIPATING ONES OWN CULMINATION POINT

CONCENTRATION AT SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST) OPERATIONAL DECEPTION OPERATIONAL MANEUVER PROTECTION OF ONES OWN OPERATIONAL COG

OPERATIONAL TEMPO

OPERATIONAL MOMENTUM

POINT OF MAIN ATTACK (DEFENSE)

OPERATIONAL RESERVE

* FOR A MAJOR OPERATION PLANNED TO ACCOMPLISH A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE.

OPERATIONAL SUSTAINMENT

OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP

OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP
ARMY CORPS ?? COMMANDERS THEATERSTRATEGIC COMMANDERS

OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP

THEATER/ NUMBERED AIR FORCE COMMANDERS

THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDERS SERVICE COMPONNENT COMMANDERS MILITARY/NAVAL DISTRICT COMMANDERS THEATER/ NUMBERED FLEET COMMANDERS JOINT TASK FORCE COMMANDERS
PPT-97VEGO53

THEATER/ NUMBERED ARMY COMMANDERS

OPERATIONAL COMMANDERS REQUIREMENTS


PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OPERATIONAL THINKING INITIATIVE STEADFASTNESS OF PURPOSE MORAL COURAGE LEADING BY PERSONAL EXAMPLE DECISIVENESS HONESTY

REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESS

SOUND JUDGMENT TOUGHNESS BOLDNESS HIGH INTELLECT

CREATIVENESS

PERSISTENCE

MENTAL AGILITY ABILITY TO PROVIDE MOTIVATION AND INSTILL PURPOSE

PPT-97VEGO54B

TENETS OF OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP


INDIRECT APPROACH ABSOLUTE PRIMACY OF POLICY & STRATEGY UNWAVERING FOCUS ON THE OBJECTIVE APPLICATION OF OVERWHELMING FORCE BALANCING THE ENDS, MEANS, AND WAYS SELECTION OF THE PROPER WEIGHT OF EFFORT

CONCENTRATION AT THE WEIGHT OF EFFORT

TENETS
(CARDINAL RULES)

OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING FREEDOM OF ACTION

INITIATIVE JOINTNESS EMPLOYMENT OF ALL AVAILABLE MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER

WILLINGNESS TO TAKE HIGH RISKS ACTING IN AN UNPREDICTABLE MANNER

PPT-97VEGO41 (PFR)

OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING FREEDOM OF ACTION


AL G E -L

ERCISING FR X EEDOM OR E F K OF A R O ST R A E R N I W T S= L + C IO E S T N IM I M A I T R A A T N IONST FR CONST

EN VI

AL T EN NM O R

GIV EN

SP AC E

E IM T
S CE OR -F

T IC - EC OMA DIPL ON L OM ICA IT L IC PO

OPERATIONAL COMMANDER

INITIATIVE

FACTORS AFFECTING FREEDOM OF ACTION


ASSIGNED OBJECTIVES/TASKS COMBAT POWER OF ONES OWN / FRIENDLY FORCES ENEMYS COMBAT POWER ENEMYS DECISIONS AND ACTIONS COMMAND & CONTROL STRUCTURE COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

DECISION CYCLE INTELLIGENCE GIVEN SPACE TIME AVAILABLE FORCES AVAILABLE FORCES BECOMING AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS AND SUSTAINMENT OPERATIONAL PROTECTION OPERATIONAL RESERVE

TASK-ORIENTED ORDERS MENTAL AGILITY FORCES MOBILITY SURPRISE OFFENSIVE ANTICIPATION ABILITY TO DEPLOY OPERATIONAL RESERVES ETC.

PPT-97VEGO42 (PR)

TYPE OF DECISIONS
OPERATIONAL COMMANDER

ORGANIZATIONAL

INFORMATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

PPT-97VEGO52

THE FUTURE

WARS WILL BE WON OR LOST AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVEL; HENCE, THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF OPERATIONAL ART WILL NOT BE REDUCED INFORMATION WILL INCREASINGLY AFFECT THE FACTORS OF SPACE, TIME AND FORCE NEW TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES WILL COMPRESS SPACE AND TIME SEPARATING LEVELS OF WAR HOWEVER, THE NEED FOR THE OPERATIONAL LEVELS OF COMMAND WILL REMAIN.

NEW METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT WILL EMERGE STRIKES WILL REPLACE BATTLES AND ENGAGEMENTS, WHILE MAJOR OPERATIONS WILL BECOME THE MAIN METHOD OF COMBAT EMPLOYMENT TO ACCOMPLISH NOT ONLY OPERATIONAL BUT ALSO STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A GIVEN PART OF THE THEATER.