Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies
Tomas Petru and Torbjörn Thiringer
Abstract—In this paper, the modeling of wind turbines for power system studies is investigated. Complexities of various parts of a wind turbine model, such as aerodynamic conversion, drive train, and generator representation, are analyzed. The results are verified by field measurements made on a stall-regulated fixed-speed wind turbine. The modeling focuses on deriving a representation that is suitable for use in grid simulation programs. Index Terms—Grid interaction, model, modeling, power quality, wind turbine.

I. INTRODUCTION HE number of wind energy installations is rapidly growing worldwide. With increasing wind power production, it is important, especially for grid owners, to predict the grid interaction of wind turbines in advance. Grid simulation packages, like the Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E), which are commonly used for power system behavior studies, usually require reasonably accurate and low-capacity-demanding models of all power system components. The low-capacity demand is necessary with respect to the high number of components used in the system. Models of the new types of generation units, like wind turbines, have to comply with this requirement. There are various simulation packages, which in principle describe a complete wind turbine. However, the turbine description used in such programs is not viable in grid simulations packages due to its high computational burden. It is necessary, therefore, to simplify such a description to a level acceptable for grid simulation programs, which is the intention of this paper. Approaches to simplified aerodynamic modeling of wind turbines have been presented in [1] and [2]. The main idea in these papers is to adjust wind speed data in one point (hub level) by various filters in order to represent the interaction of turbine blades with the wind speed distribution over the rotor swept area. The resulting wind data are then applied to the static power in order to determine the driving torque. curve Descriptions of the drive train also vary considerably; however, rather simplified descriptions dominate completely in the literature since parameters for detailed descriptions are not generally available. Representations of the generator complexity vary considerably in the literature. In [2], no dynamic model is used at all, whereas [3] makes use of a first-order model. In [4], a third-order model is utilized, and in [5], a fifth-order model is employed.
Manuscript received November 13, 2001; revised April 2, 2002. This work was supported by Sydkraft AB and the Swedish National Energy Administration. The authors are with the Department of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden (e-mail: tomas.petru@ elteknik.chalmers.se; torbjorn.thiringer@elteknik.chalmers.se). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRS.2002.805017


The general trend is that electrical engineers tend to simplify the aerodynamic and mechanical components of the overall model, whereas mechanical engineers tend to overlook electrical performance details of the wind turbine. Verifications of models with practical measurements on wind turbines are rare in the reported literature. Moreover, simulations and measurements of wind turbine responses to grid disturbances have not yet been published. Two cases, where measurements and simulations of the impact by wind turbines during normal operation have been reported, are [6] and [7]. In [6], results have been reported for the determination of flicker impact by a wind turbine for one wind speed, and in [7], fairly good agreement between calculations and measurements is reported for a broad wind speed range using a rather detailed wind turbine model. From a power quality point of view, prediction of voltage fluctuations caused by variable-speed turbines is not of interest since their flicker emission is very low [8]. However, prediction of voltage fluctuations due to fixed-speed turbines is very important since it is often that this contribution sets the installation limits for these turbines [9]. The aim of this paper is to investigate the modeling requirements of a wind turbine for power system studies. The importance of aspects such as complexity of the aerodynamic conversion description, the drive train, and the generator description are investigated. Moreover, our goal is to verify the simulation results through on-site measurements. II. MODELING INTEREST OF WIND TURBINE CONCEPTS Three main types of wind turbines are commonly being installed today. The fixed-speed wind turbines with a generator directly connected to the grid (see Fig. 1) and variable-speed wind turbines with either a slip-ringed induction generator and a converter in the rotor circuit or with a full power converter in the stator circuit (see Fig. 2). The variable-speed turbines are pitch-regulated, whereas the fixed-speed turbines are either stall regulated or active stall regulated. Active stall regulation means that the pitch angle is adjusted slightly at higher wind speeds in order to always obtain a correct power level. A. Steady-State Voltage Level Influence Wind turbines affect the voltage level in the point of common connection (PCC) due to their power production. The active power produced by the turbine increases the voltage, whereas the reactive power can further increase the voltage level or reduce it. The impact on the steady-state voltage level by the fixedspeed wind turbine system with an induction generator directly connected to the grid is predestined and cannot be controlled during the operation. There is a capacitor bank connected at the

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the voltage level will increase with increasing -ratio (inductive). it is described how the voltage fluctuations should be evaluated. The system with a full-power converter in the stator circuit will be able to disconnect immediately by just blocking the turn-on pulses for the converter. Simulation Models The fixed-speed systems must incorporate the description of the aerodynamics. This could be of particular interest in the case where there are many turbines connected. D. An to three usually gives a very low steady-state voltage impact. A key dimensionless quantity (short-term flicker severity index) should be determined. For the variable-speed systems.PETRU AND THIRINGER: MODELING OF WIND TURBINES FOR POWER SYSTEM STUDIES 1133 represent the wind field arriving at the turbine. the details of the control and protection of the power electronic converters must be known and implemented in the simulation program. However. which is a grid consisting of with a low mainly cables. the two variable-speed systems will behave differently. This means that these systems can simply be described as active and reactive power sources that are functions of the average wind speed. and the loss of many wind turbines would lead to grid stability problems. As the active power production increases. B. The active-stall regulated systems produce similar rapid power fluctuations to the purely stall-regulated systems since the pitching of the blades are done very slowly. in combination with the grid -ratio (ratio between grid reactance and grid resistance). generator. a short circuit nearby. the rotor windings will be short circuited (in order to protect both the rotor and the converter). For variable-speed wind turbines. It may also be desirable that the generator stays online. On a grid with a high which is a grid consisting mainly of overhead lines or close to a transformer. and an For variable-speed turbines. provided that the generator. turbine. the voltage will decrease instead [9]. the wind turbine converters can produce any reactive power. the response to minor grid disturbances depends on the details of the control system of the specific wind turbine. If the disturbance will cause too high rotor voltages. Right: System with a full power converter in the stator circuit. Flicker Emission As previous authors [8] have pointed out. On a grid -ratio (resistive). the response to a grid disturbance is mainly governed by the induction generator. In the IEC-standard [11]. it is impossible to construct a generally valid model for handling of grid disturbances for these types of turbines. for instance. wind turbine. Fig. or there can also be minor disturbances. apart from the generator and drive train.6 has been used to represent the resistive grid -ratio of 2. which is typically designed to compensate for the induction machine no-load reactive power consumption. the reactive power is controllable and is usually kept close to zero in order to obtain a power factor of one. 1. there is a need to The response of wind turbines to grid disturbances is also an important issue to be involved in the model. the reactive power consumption rises as well. power production. Grid disturbances can either be of the severe type. . for instance. and other equipment can handle such an operation. The system with a converter in the rotor circuit of a slip-ringed induction machine acts in another way. The other parts (drive train and aerodynamic conversion) are not as important to model in this case. Response to Grid Disturbances Fig. and drive train in order to predict their steady-state impact. In order to predict the rapid power fluctuations from fixed-speed turbines. When a major grid disturbance occurs. When the response to grid disturbances is of interest. which represents the amount of voltage fluctuations. To simulate the response of variable-speed systems to all grid disturbances. In the case of a fixed-speed turbine. 2. especially the immediate response. provided that the rating of the converter allows it. and the stator of the generator will be disconnected later using ordinary circuit breakers. These outcomes. Left: System with a slip-ringed induction generator and a converter in the rotor circuit. This means that the voltage level increases as the power production increases. there is a need to predict the rapid voltage fluctuations caused by fixed-speed stall-regulated turbines while prediction of flicker emission from variable-speed turbines is not of interest. an -ratio of 0. These are not generally provided by the manufacturers. An example of such a utilization is voltage level control in the PCC [10]. Rapid Voltage Fluctuations. Principle layout of the fixed-speed wind turbine system. it is mainly the generator description that affects the response of the turbine. C.7 for the inductive grid. Here. the dynamic behavior during steady-state operation does not need to be represented for the reasons mentioned earlier. Principle layout of the variable-speed wind turbine systems. if desired. a voltage dip with a duration of a few hundred milliseconds and a dip magnitude of a few percent. determine if the voltage level in the PCC is increasing with in-ratio of around two creasing power production or not. It is so due to the relation between the active and reactive power produced/consumed by a common induction machine. For this reason.

and is the damping factor. For each step of the calculation. VOL. and the outgoing signal is the equivalent wind speed representing the wind field impact.e. and is the ). which is the blade passing frequency of the investigated 0. mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. the filtering property of the rotor blades is represented. and wind speed. It must be stressed. where The second filter represents the rotational sampling of the wind by the turbine rotor and is therefore called the rotational . rotor speed. the forces acting on the blades can be determined [13]. however. 4. WIND TURBINE MODELING A. decay factor over the disc ( The SF damps higher frequency components present in the wind. In [12]. m is the turbine radius. average wind speed. The transfer function in (1) can be simplified to a first-order transfer function with a negligible effect on its characteristic (2) Hz is the cut-off frequency of the filter. i. a time series of wind data with the required properties. Damping factor and cut-off frequency as a function of mean wind speed: Solid line-TI 0:05. The first filter is the spatial filter (SF) (1) Fig. In this way. in rings with the hub as center. has been suggested in [1] and [2] and makes use of the aerodynamic filter approach. If necessary. this filter has a gain of nearly one. The resulting effect on the power quality impact of a turbine was evaluated [7].. r/min is where the rotor speed. dotted line-TI = 0:2. which. a fixed-speed stall-regulated turbine was modeled. 4 presents the calculated shaft torques determined using the detailed aerodynamic method and the filter method. Fig. it is suggested that the wings be divided into a number of sections and that the randomly generated wind signals be distributed along the center of each wind section i. More information on the tuning of the aerodynamic filters can be found in [15]. The damping factor and cut-off frequencies of the filters were determined using the detailed aerodynamic simulation approach discussed earlier on the experimental 180-kW turbine. sampling filter (RSF). With the knowledge of the blade geometry. the simplified approach makes it possible to represent the formation of the shaft torque up to a frequency of about 2 Hz. interpolation is used to calculate the wind speed at a given point.1134 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS. A configuration with three rings and 45 points per ring was found to be sufficient. the randomly generated wind signals arriving at each blade section can be determined with the knowledge of the rotor position. This resulting curve of the turwind signal can then be applied to the bine to determine the driving shaft torque. NO. In a time-critical application. Wind Field and Aerodynamic Conversion According to [12]. that the tuning performed here is valid for this specific turbine only. Fig. This filter amplifies the variations at a frequency region around the blade passing frequency. Generation of wind speeds in one and three dimensions were performed.e. . = Fig. 3 presents the damping factor of the RSF and the cut-off frequency of the SF as functions of mean wind speed for different turbulence intensities (TI). First. roughness of the surrounding terrain. An alternative approach that is applicable to fixed-speed systems. 3. Wind field model (black) and simplified aerodynamic model (gray). is the number of blades. in this paper. a wind field for a wind turbine can be constructed with the knowledge of some basic parameters—wind spectrum. In [7]. As can be noted. dashed line-TI = 0:1. and the height and rotor size of a wind turbine. pitch angle. which is used for verification in this paper.55. at one point only (at the hub level) is generated [14]. The technical data of the turbine is attached in the Appendix. In other regions. which is less time consuming.. turbulence intensity. for each time step. This signal is the input to the aerodynamic filters. and it was found that it is sufficient to only use wind speed in the longitudinal (axial) direction. as described above. it may be unacceptable to determine the driving shaft torque. 17. where m/s is the average wind speed at the hub height. is slightly modified to (3) . 4. NOVEMBER 2002 III.

and . C. The connecting shaft is modeled as a spring and a damper. rad/s are the angular speed of electromagnetic torque. . rad the turbine and of the generator. When the reactive power compensating capacitor is involved in the model. . H are the stator the grid. reactive power compensating capacitor.” The performed simulations have. and rotor currents. are the angle of the turbine and of the generator. kg m is where is the stiffness the generator moment of inertia. and rotor resistances. and the overall model order is increased by four to a ninth-order model. turbine. of the shaft. More filters could be added in order to adjust the magnitudes of the higher frequency components and. 5. Comparison of shaft power using a soft shaft description (gray) and a stiff shaft description (black). and grid. increase the frequency region where the torque is accurately determined. rad/s is the synrad/s is the rotor angular frechronous angular frequency. the supply grid representation must be represented as well. where (9)–(10) are the electric equations of the fifth-order induction machine model. stator. The equivalent circuit of the ninth-order model is presented in Fig. It can be noted that above a frequency of 0. Fig. respectively. however.5 Hz. All quantities are referred to the high-speed side of the gearbox. shown that omitting the induction lag filter has no detectable impact on the power quality prediction capability of the presented models. B. stator. Equivalent circuit of the induction generator. . 5. Generator Description The classical description of the induction machine for transient studies is the fifth-order model [16]. Simulated drive train model. are quency. respectively. One example mentioned in [1] and [2] is an “induction lag filter. This approach was found to be more accurate and less time-consuming during the grid simulation then the aerodynamic filter approach and has thus been used in this paper. (9) (10) (11) Imag where . respectively. 6.PETRU AND THIRINGER: MODELING OF WIND TURBINES FOR POWER SYSTEM STUDIES 1135 Fig. N m is the input torque. there is a major discrepancy between the two model representations. The drive train model suggested here consists of the inertia of both the turbine and the generator. rad/s is the rotor angular speed. V are the grid and stator voltages. The conclusion is that it is essential to incorporate a soft shaft in the drive train model. . 6 presents the spectra of the calculated output power from the induction generator exposed to the calculated shaft torque for both a stiff and a soft shaft representation. A are the grid. the drive train model has been developed considering the availability of data. in this way. N m is the generator . it was found that the resulting flicker emission was rather strongly dependent on the tuning of the two used filters. (8) Fig. The equations for the drive train are (4) (5) (6) (7) kg m is the turbine moment of inertia. . Fig. kg m s kg m s is the absorption of the shaft. and the electric equations of the model are described in (8)–(11). In Fig. An approach suitable for fixed-speed stall-regulated turbines is to determine the shaft torque in advance using the wind field approach according to [12] and save this to a file. . Instead. 7. the drive train of the wind turbine used in this paper is presented. 7. Drive Train Representation Since detailed knowledge (by others than the manufacturers) of the drive train parameters is rather rare.

It is observed that for the third-. Fig. IV. Lines as in Fig. it is necessary to represent both skin effect and saturation of leakage inductances in order to achieve a high accuracy. ninth-order model (gray). fifth. H are the grid and main magneting inductances. 8. whereas the other three models manage to provide similar results. such as short circuits. and rotor leakage inductances. However. not presented in the figure. In [20]. 9 presents the response to a voltage dip of 10%.and first-order model. The periodic power pulsations of the turbine are not simulated here. = = = upper The literature provides some more discussions on the fifthorder model complexity. Upper plot: Fifth-order model (black). PERFORMANCE OF THE MODELS STEADY-STATE OPERATION AT A comparison of the measured versus the simulated reactive power output of a 180-kW fixed-speed stall-regulated wind turbine is presented in Fig. The conclusion is again that the third-order model is an appropriate choice. whereas the response of the first-order model differs. The first-order model does not provide any acceptable result. Lower plot: Fifth-order model (black). The response to the voltage dip reveals more differences between the models. The simulations presented have utilized the wind field approach with the results (predetermined shaft torque) saved in advance. and is the number of pole pairs. Comparison of measured and simulated spectra.and fifth-order model predict the reactive power response well. and first-order model (black dashed). Fig. although their differences are clearly visible. respectively. A soft shaft description is considered in the models. fifth-order gray. 10. The models differ in the description of the induction generator. 4. and Fig. Fig. the third-order model is an appropriate choice. need to be determined. Simulated response to a voltage dip. models of lower order than the fifth-order model are used for power system studies. The firstorder model predicts similar results as the two other models up to about 4 Hz but then underestimates the reactive power fluctuations for higher frequencies. This is very important since the induction generator is not only exposed to disturbances on the machine shaft but to disturbances coming from the connected grid as well [7]. 8. the response to the shaft torque disturbances is very similar. and the goal in this paper is to try to be as general as possible.1136 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS.order model also predicts the surge currents during the first line periods. saturation. VOL.and ninth-order model. The third. unless a bandwidth of above 20–30 Hz is desired. The third-order model renders very similar results as the fifth-order model and is. Usually. Magnetizing inductance saturation can be represented by modification of the machine equations [17]. The reason is that they are turbine specific and. first-order lower black. Measured voltages have been used as inputs instead of using constant voltages.and ninth. and presented results are from the fifth. Simulated response to a torque step. thus. A third-order model in which the stator flux transients of the fifth-order model have been ignored [19] is common. 10. NOVEMBER 2002 Fig. and skin effect all play an unimportant role in the prediction of the induction machine response to low-frequency disturbances (below 30 Hz) [18] and are thus seldom represented in studies dealing with the low-frequency dynamics of the induction machine. have to be empirically found for each turbine. and the ninth-order model also predicts a very high-frequency oscillation due to the capacitor. which is usually not the case. iron losses. although the order of the model remains unchanged. 17. thus leading to a first-order model of the induction machine. NO. . it was found that the magnitude and phase of the periodic power pulsations . third-order model (gray). 8 presents the response of the mentioned models to a load torque step (from 50 to 100% of the nominal torque). The conclusion here is that for shaft torque disturbances. The rotor flux transients are sometimes also neglected. Measured black. although there is a slight discrepancy toward the measurements in the frequency range of 7–10 Hz. When initial response to major grid disturbances. 9. The fifth. Skin effect and iron losses are accounted for by increasing the order of the induction machine model by two. accordingly.

solid gray third order with soft shaft.7. Reactive power response to a rapid voltage dip. Finally. Thus. and in Figs. results using the fifth-order model but with constant voltages as inputs are presented. the measured and calculated active and reactive power responses are presented. The prediction of the flicker emission on the resistive grid is not as good. However. Recorded rapid voltage dip.PETRU AND THIRINGER: MODELING OF WIND TURBINES FOR POWER SYSTEM STUDIES 1137 Fig. : measured with periodic power pulsations removed. especially for the inductive grid.6. dashed black first order with soft shaft. Fig. the implementation of the periodic power pulsations in the wind turbine model can be made in a fairly convenient way. Fig. It can be noted that if grid voltage variations are not taken into consideration. Taking the grid voltage variations into account gives a very good agreement for the inductive grid. results obtained using the third-order model are not presented. it is very important to point out the fact that this mismatch is of little importance since. if this is desired. whereas the third-order representation cannot predict the initial . a cost is that one additional equation is needed in order to determine the rotor position. = = = = = could be modeled as a function of rotor position and wind speed. P on grid with X=R-ratio of 0. 11. The wind turbine model using a fifth-order representation of the generator manages to predict the response well. Circles: first-order model. 11 and 12. 13. Lines as in Fig. as pointed out in [9]. Fig. the result can be very erroneous. Diamonds: fifth-order model with constant voltages. Fig. V. solid gray fifth-order with soft shaft. RESPONSE OF THE WIND TURBINE TO GRID DISTURBANCES In Fig. 13. results using the first-order model of the induction machine are also presented. 12. 15. 14. it is the steady-state voltage limit that sets the limitation for a wind turbine installation. In Figs. 14. Markers as in Fig. Since the third-order for two grids with different model yields very similar results to the fifth-order model. for a resistive grid. Lower plot: solid black fifth order with stiff shaft. 14 and 15. However. a measured rapid voltage dip with a magnitude of about 10% is presented. 11. the resulting measured and calculated flicker emission to the grid by the wind turbine is presented ratios. Apart from the fifth-order model. Squares: fifth-order model. Upper plot: solid black measured. Active power response to a rapid voltage dip. The reason for this is unknown. P on grid with X=R-ratio of 2.

stiffness of the shaft absorption of the shaft (all data referred to the high speed shaft). it was found that a third-order generator representation. Generator Data nominal voltage number of pole-pairs stator resistance rotor resistance (referred to the stator) stator leakage inductance rotor leakage inductance (referred to the stator) magnetizing inductance 400 V. the modeling requirements of wind turbines for power quality studies are investigated. 17. surge currents. 17. . 16. 16. generator inertia 2700 Nm/rad. 180 kW. Reactive power response to a slower voltage dip.0061 186 H.5 kgm . 23. Lower plot: solid black third order. To conclude. insufficient results are obtained when a first-order model of the generator is used. 4. 42 r/min. Since there was no important difference using a soft and a stiff shaft. parameters for more detailed modeling of the drive train are usually not available. 30 m.8 kgm . this limit frequency is also . More detailed modeling could be useful. usually. APPENDIX Fig.1138 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS. turbine inertia 4. However. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. three. Recorded slow voltage dip. the control and protection of the converter and generator systems must be included in a model. and the results by various model complexities are presented in Fig. When a first-order representation of the generator is used. Instead. In this case. As the rotational speed of the turbine is reduced. solid gray fifth order. the third-order generator representation is quite sufficient. It is found that the aerodynamic filter approach to simplify the determination of the torque acting on the drive-train of a fixed-speed turbine is adequate when predicting the shaft torque up to a frequency of 2 Hz for the turbine investigated here. 23. 6. VOL. Drive Train Data 102. However.75. only results obtained using a soft shaft are presented. 17. it is extremely important.0092 0. For a variable-speed wind turbine. The reactive power response is more pronounced. The minimum requirement for the modeling of the drive train is to use a soft shaft and the turbine and generator inertia. Wind Turbine Data location rated power hub height rotor diameter number of blades rotor speed blade profile gearbox ratio B. solid gray first order. the fifth-order representation of the generator is needed. NO. use of the filter approach for the determination of flicker emission from a turbine is not recommended. which happens as the turbines are getting larger. a measured slower voltage dip that does not lead to any significant change in the active power production is presented.) to take the voltage disturbances from the connected grid at the wind turbine site into account. NACA-63 200. 427 H. Alsvik wind farm Island of Gotland. are sufficient to represent a fixed-speed wind turbine for power system simulations. no result of value is obtained. together with two drive train equations and a precalculated shaft torque signal. Sweden. it is important (for inductive grids. Measurements on a 180-kW fixed-speed stall-regulated wind turbine are used to verify the results. it can be observed that since no 50-Hz oscillations are involved. VI. . In Fig. three. and the flicker emission results vary much on details in the determination procedure. = = = = A.7 mH. lowered. NOVEMBER 2002 Fig. To simulate the surge current during the first line periods after a faster grid disturbance. and then. Upper plot: solid black measured. The tuning of the filter requires a large number of simulations. the third-order generator representation provides similar results compared with the fifth-order representation. Again. C. When the flicker emission is evaluated. this is not of interest when power system simulations are performed.2 m. however. 0. calculation of the shaft torque in advance using a detailed wind field approach and storage of the result in a file is recomended.

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