Publick Notice

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that this Letter, Table and Memorandum shall ser e as la!"ul, le#al and Publi$% Noti$e o" the e&'lanation o" the OPERAT(ON )LASS(*()AT(ON on the +S,OT M)S-./0 Personal Automobile Re#istration1 and that the essel %no!n as LYNN )RA(2 PA(NTER TM is not en#a#ed in tra""i$%in# in interstate or intrastate $ommer$e u'on the 'ubli$ !a3 "or 'ro"it or #ain 4'ri ile#e in $ommer$e "or limited liabilit35 in 6this state7 or in an3 other state8 (, THE MAN WHO STAN,S BY L3nn )rai# Painter, am a man u'on the soil o" the nation-state )ali"ornia re'ubli$, m3 as3lum home state, !here ( am al!a3s and at all times 'resent8 ( am a 6tra eler7 usin# the !a3 6 iati$all317 there"ore, ( ha e had *M)SA issue a one-time $ourtes3 e&em't +S,OT re#istration number to 'ro'erl3 re"le$t, and to ser e as noti$e to others o", m3 $orre$t status 'ursuant to .9 +S) : ;.8 M3 tra el and transit $onstitutes the 'leasure, re$reation and tra el use o" m3 $on e3an$e, e&$lusi el38 ( am the 6o!ner7 named therein and at all times en#a#e in and e&er$ise m3 unalienable Ri#ht o" Publi$ <ehi$ular Tra el8 Also see "ederal $ase la! and sister state Statutes 4 arious5 de"inin# 6re$reational ehi$le7 as a non-$ommer$ial ehi$le, o" a t3'e not re=uired to be re#istered8 Lines and bo&es intentionall3 le"t blan% and the use o" N>A on *orm M)S-./0 means the item is 6not a''li$able7 to me and the use o" $o'3ri#ht s3mbol © and TM are used in re"eren$e to $ommon la! Re#istered )o'3ri#ht Trade-name>Trademar%8

TABLE O* A+THOR(T(ES Ri#ht o" *ree Passa#e Ri#ht o" Wa3 - 6The Libert3 o" the )ommon Wa37 and
Memorandum o" the La! (n Su''ort O" ,OT *orm M)S-./0 State and *ederal )ase La!
6A hi#h!a3 is a !a3 o er !hi$h the 'ubli$ ha e a "ree ri#ht o" 'assa#e87 --Yale +ni ersit3 8 )it3 o" Ne! Ha en, .0? )onn8 @.01 .;? Atl8 A@9, AB.8 6The ri#ht to tra el on the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s is a $onstitutional ri#ht87 --Te$he Lines 8 ,an"orth, Miss8 .A So Ad B9?, B9B8 6The ri#ht to tra el is 'art o" the libert3 o" !hi$h a $itiCen $annot be de'ri ed !ithout due 'ro$ess o" la! under the /th Amendment8 This Ri#ht !as emer#in# as earl3 as the Ma#na )arta87 -- Kent s8 ,ulles, ;/B +S ..@ 4.D/958 6We are bound to inter'ret the )onstitution in the li#ht o" the la! as it e&isted at the time it !as ado'ted87 --Matto& 8 +8S8, ./@ +S A;B, A?;8 ,OT M)S-./0 Letter - Pa#e .

6The )onstitution is a !ritten instrument8 As su$h, its meanin# does not alter8 That !hi$h it meant !hen it !as ado'ted, it means no!87 --)arolina 8 +8S8, .DD +8S8 ?;B, ??9 4.D0/58 6Where ri#hts se$ured b3 the )onstitution are in ol ed, there $an be no rule ma%in# or le#islation, !hi$h !ould abro#ate them87 --Miranda 8 AriCona, ;9? +8S8 ?;@8 EThe assertion o" "ederal ri#hts, !hen 'lainl3 and reasonabl3 made, are not to be de"eated under the name o" lo$al 'ra$ti$e8E --Davis v. Wechler, A@; +8S8 AA, A?1 Stromberb v. California, A9; +8S8 ;/D1 NAACP v. Alabama, ;B/ +8S8 ??D8 E)onstitutional Fri#htsF !ould be o" little alue i" the3 $ould be indire$tl3 denied8E --Gomillion v. Lightfoot, ;@? +8S8 .// 4.D@@5, $ited also in Smith v. Allwright, ;A. +8S8 @?D8@??8 6The $laim G e&er$ise o" a $onstitutional ri#ht $annot be $on erted into a $rime87 --Miller s8 +8S8, A;0 *8Ad8 ?9@, ?9D8 EThere $an be no san$tion or 'enalt3 im'osed u'on one be$ause o" his e&er$ise o" )onstitutional Ri#hts8E --Sherar 8 )ullen, ?9. *8Ad D?@ 6No state shall $on ert a libert3 into a 'ri ile#e, li$ense it, and atta$h a "ee to it87 --Murdo$% 8 Penns3l ania, ;.D +S .0/8 6(" the state $on erts a libert3 into a 'ri ile#e, the $itiCen $an en#a#e in the ri#ht !ith im'unit387 --Shuttles!orth 8 Birmin#ham, ;B; +S A@A “(" 3ou ha e relied on 'rior de$isions o" the su'reme )ourt, 3ou ha e the 'er"e$t de"ense "or !ill"ulness87 --+8S8 8 Bisho', ?.A +S ;?@ 6The $ourt is to 'rote$t a#ainst an3 en$roa$hment o" )onstitutionall3 se$ured liberties87 --Bo3d 8 +8S8, ..@ +8S8 @.@ 6O""i$ers o" the $ourt ha e no immunit3, !hen iolatin# a )onstitutional ri#ht, "rom liabilit38 *or the3 are deemed to %no! the la!87 --O!en 8 (nde'enden$e, .00 S8)8T8 .;D9, ??/ +S @AA1 S$heuer 8 Rhodes, ?.@ +8S8 A;A8 6No state le#islator or e&e$uti e or Hudi$ial o""i$er $an !ar a#ainst the )onstitution !ithout iolatin# his underta%in# to su''ort it87 --)oo'er 8 Aaron, ;/9 +8S8 ., B9 S8)t8 .?0. 4.D/958 (t is undis'uted that the use o" the hi#h!a3 "or the 'ur'ose o" tra el and trans'ortation is NOT a mere PR(<(LE2E, but a 6)OMMON AN, *+N,AMENTAL R(2HT7 o" !hi$h the 'ubli$ and indi iduals $annot ri#ht"ull3 be de'ri ed8 4Em'hasis added5 SeeI )hi$a#o Motor )oa$h 8 )hi$a#o, su'ra1 Li#are 8 )hi$a#o, A9 N8E8 D;?1 Boone 8 )lar%, A.? S8W8 @0B1 Ameri$an Juris'ruden$e .st Ed8, Hi#h!a3s .@;8

,OT M)S-./0 Letter - Pa#e A

@/D8 The a$t o" ta%in# a tri'8 !" parte Arch . a ri#ht o" !a3.0 Am J Re ed (nternat L : . side!al% or 'ath8 (n a more te$hni$al sense. !hether on "oot. transit or !a38 A Kent.OT M)S-.A L Ed And DDA. road or street8 (n a te$hni$al sense. .Meanin# and Si#ni"i$ation o" Words *undamental Ri#ht8 An3 ri#ht e&'ressl3 #uaranteed b3 the )onstitution8 Areas no! deemed "undamental in$lude 8 8 8 "reedom o" tra el8 Tra el8 NounI A K$onstitutionall3 'rote$tedL ri#ht under KArti$le the "i"th o" the Bill o" Ri#hts8L Aptheker v Secretar of State.8 WAY8 A 'assa#e. the ri#ht o" one 'erson. or the $ommunit3 at lar#e to 'ass o er the land o" another8 A/ Am J. unitin# both le#s into a throu#h route "or !hi$h a Hoint rate $an be 'ublished8 Tra eler8 One usin# a 'ubli$ !a38 As "or !hom a 'ubli$ !a3 must be %e't reasonabl3 sa"e. a right o" 'assa#e o er land8 PR(<ATE WAY8 A ri#ht !hi$h a 'erson has o" 'assin# o er the land o" another8 (n another sense a 'ri ate !a3 is one laid out b3 the lo$al 'ubli$ authorities "or the a$$ommodation o" indi iduals and !holl3 or $hie"l3 at their e&'ense. inde'endent sovereignty and control over all persons and thin#s !ithin its boundaries87 . or se eral 'ersons.i$tionar38 .B9 +S /00. )omm8 /?. an3one rightfully using the way viatically . . bein# subHe$t. WAY8 The tra eled 'ath.08 --BallentineNs La! .@?8 To tra el is to 'ass or ma%e a Hourne3 "rom 'la$e to 'la$e. but not restri$ted to their e&$lusi e use. on horseba$%. . . or the 'ath used "or 'ubli$ tra el8 Within lo$ated limits o" the !a38 Also $alled 6tra eled 'art o" hi#h!a387 MBla$%Ns La! . convenience.Pa#e . that is. in the $ourse o" 'assin# "rom 'oint to 'oint1 on the 'assa#e.?B. li%e hi#h!a3s to the 'ubli$ easement o" 'assa#e8 TRA<ELE. or !ho has occasion to pass over the way for the purpose of business. or pleasure8 A/ Am J.8 Transit8 A sto'-o er 'ri ile#e on a $ontinuous Hourne3 #ranted b3 $arrier b3 !hi$h a brea% #e facto in $ontinuit3 o" $arria#e o" #oods is disre#arded and t!o le#s o" a Hourne3 are treated as thou#h $o ered !ithout interru'tion./0 Letter . D )al .i$tionar3 Publi$ Hi#h!a38 A !a3 "or the use o" the 'ubli$1 a hi#h!a38 An3 !a3 used b3 the 'ubli$ in #oin# "rom one 'la$e to another 8 8 87 Publi$8 The 'eo'le8 So erei#n state8 A people 8 8 8 e&er$isin# throu#h the medium o" an or#aniCed #o Hi#h!a3 :?AB8 Ri#ht o" Wa38 A ri#ht o" 'assa#e1 an easement8 Wa38 A road. 9? S)t . or in an3 $on e3an$e8 Tra elin# is the a$t o" ma%in# a Hourne31 $han#e o" 'la$e1 'assa#e8 S'o%en o" oluntar3 $han#e o" 'la$e8 (n transitu8 (n transit8 Hi#h!a3 : . 'ath.

&anson v.58 6The 'ubli$ ha e a ri#ht o" "ree and unobstru$ted transit o er streets. Perr . +oome .98 6This ri#ht o" the 'eo'le is in the street and hi#h!a3s o" the state. &all. )nter(rban +ransp.@ 4(nd8-. Co(nt v.8 6Publi$ !a3s./. side!al%s and alle3s. Dw er.P(gh v. is a 'aramount ri#ht87 --Light $ Coke v.S(mner v.B@ (o!a /D./9 Neb8 ?AB 4. . A?D (ll8 A''8. Cit .. . .D@. B. !a3.Hi#h!a3 H(2HWAY8 A free and 'ubli$ road. side!al%s. D9B.9. Tenn8 ?D. !hi$h e er3 $itiCen o" the state has a ri#ht to use "or the 'ur'ose o" tra el87 --Shelb Co(nt Com*rs v. N8E>Ad B. /DD.OT M)S-.. B (nd8 A''8 .D/?58 6Our so$iet3 is built in 'art u'on "ree 'assa#e o" men and #oods.. as a''lied to !a3s b3 land. v. /. N8E8Ad BBB. and in$ludes streets in $ities. $onstru$ted under the authorit3 o" those la!s8 Abbott8 --Bla$%Ns La! .. Pierson. A )onn8 )ir8 @@01 A0? A8Ad 9. . . Ad ed8 4. !hether inside or outside the muni$i'alities thereo".?. N8E8 D9@./@ N8W8 9DA. Castetter .. )al8 @A8 6A hi#h!a3 in$ludes all 'ubli$ !a3s !hi$h the 'ubli$ #enerall3 has a ri#ht to use "or 'assa#e and tra""i$. '8 /B. Cit of Chicago. A0@ 6A hi#h!a3 is a 'ubli$ road. )llinois Power Co8.1 ?. C(rtis. N8W8Ad /.DD8 6Our $ourts ha e stressed the basi$ ri#ht o" the transient 'ubli$ and abuttin# 'ro'ert3 o!ners to the "ree 'assa#e o" ehi$les on 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s and the 'aramount "un$tion o" tra el as o erridin# all other subordinate uses o" our streets87 --State v.N are su$h !a3s as e er3 $itiCen has a ri#ht to use87 --'ripp v. A0A Minn8 . /008 . B9. . and 're'arin# and de otin# it to the use o" travelers8 (n this use it im'orts a road-way upon the soil. Coal %ining Co. Co8.. turn'i%es and brid#es87 --Central )ll. or street1 one !hi$h e er3 'erson has the right to use8 There is a di""eren$e in the shade o" meanin# $on e3ed b3 t!o uses o" the !ord1 Sometimes it si#ni"ies the right of free passage 8 8 8 KandL it has re"eren$e to some s3stem o" la! authoriCin# the ta%in# a stri' o" land. @. are usuall3 termed Ohi#h!a3sN or O'ubli$ roads. A@D Minn8 A0?.i$tionar3.0D1 Spin#ler v.8 6The essential "eature o" a hi#h!a3 is that it is a !a3 o er !hi$h the 'ubli$ at lar#e has the ri#ht to 'ass87 State v..Pa#e ? ..D/A58 6(t is !ell settled that the 'ubli$ are entitled to a "ree 'assa#e alon# the hi#h!a387 --%ichelson v. P8 9BD1 B. 9D?8 6(t is !ell settled la! that e er3 member o" the 'ubli$ has a ri#ht to use the 'ubli$ roads in a reasonable manner "or the 'romotion o" his health and ha''iness87 -.D./0 Letter . ..9. and the 'ubli$ streets and hi#h!a3s ma3 ri#ht"ull3 be used "or tra el b3 e er3one87 -. and this is the 'rimar3 a''ro'riate use to !hi$h the3 are #enerall3 dedi$ated87 -. (ll8 ?/B 4.B1 .05.

@. 9@A 4*la8.009.9 P8Ad BA.?0 Wis8 D98 .@.OT M)S-.?..0B/.DA?58 6E er3 $itiCen has an inalienable ri#ht to ma%e use o" the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s o" the state1 e er3 $itiCen has "ull "reedom to tra el "rom 'la$e to 'la$e in the enHo3ment o" li"e and libert387 --People v Notha(s. thou#h in a stri$t le#al sense it is restri$ted to roads !hi$h are !holl3 'ubli$87 MSee Weirich v.0B@.0.Pa#e / . D//1 . . in$ludes toll roads -.Wil# v. 4.. . )n#iana.B Miss8 . inherent and $onstitutionall3-se$ured Ri#htI 6(t is settled that the streets o" a $it3 belon# to the 'eo'le o" a state and the use thereo" is an inalienable ri#ht o" e er3 $itiCen o" the state87 Wh3te 8 )it3 o" Sa$ramento. War#. of %otor 0ehicles 4.@B8 AlsoI State v.. ..? So8 9/D. .B So8 . @B?8 6The ri#ht o" a $itiCen to use the hi#h!a3s./0 Letter .D@. unalienable.DAB51 Davis v. BA98 6A hi#h!a3 is a 'assa#e. .D/05.9A 4)olo8-. $ W. . @AD 4Te&8 )i 8 A''8.D/058 6This ri#ht o" the 'eo'le to the use o" the 'ubli$ streets o" a $it3 is so !ell established and so uni ersall3 re$o#niCed in this $ountr3.D (ll8 A''8 ?B.. Co. P8Ad .90.. .DD8 (t is undis'uted that the $ourts o" this land ha e re'eatedl3 and $onsistentl3 $on$urred on the "a$t that the 'eo'le ha e a ri#ht to tra el on the 'ubli$ roads and hi#h!a3s o" this $ountr31 but the nature o" this Ri#ht must be determined8 What t3'e o" Ri#ht is it =uestioned hereP (s it onl3 a statutor3 6'ri ile#e7 or an inherent ri#htP The $ases $ited 'ro e that it is an 6in$or'oreal hereditaments17 a "undamental... AAA Pa$8 Ad . A@? S8W8 @A/.58 6The term 6'ubli$ hi#h!a3. /.DA?51 !scobe#o v.... Kansas @B. in$lude the streets o" the $it3 or to!n. "or tra el and to trans'ort his #oods. Cit of +opeka. v A#kinson. ?. . Cit of &o(ston. State. . A. . Pa$8 . 1(igg. People. . Deig. v.. BB So8 D/?.. AA? Pa$8 . Am8 Re'8 . ?. is an inherent ri#ht !hi$h $annot be ta%en "rom him87 -.oise Cit ./ )al8Ad 9B0 4. . @/ )al8 A''8 /. State Dept. that it has be$ome a 'art o" the al'habet o" "undamental ri#hts o" the $itiCen87 --Swift v.-lori#a %otor Lines v.6A hi#h!a3 is a road or !a3 u'on !hi$h all 'ersons ha e a ri#ht to tra el at 'leasure8 (t is the ri#ht o" all 'ersons to tra el u'on a road87 --G(lf $ S. (nd8 ?//. !hi$h e er3 $itiCen has a ri#ht to use87 -. .an3 road !hi$h the 'ubli$ ha e a 6R(2HT7 to use e en $onditionall3. ?/91 ..).98 6The ri#ht to tra el o er a street or hi#h!a3 is a 'rimar3 absolute ri#ht o" e er3one87 -oster*s )nc. road or street !hi$h e er3 $itiCen has a ri#ht to use87 /hio. /?B. v. Co.8 6Hi#h!a3s are 'ubli$ roads.7 in its broad 'o'ular sense. .

of changing situation.st5 )onstitutional La!.DBB5 ?. )onstitutional La!. not onl3 in his 'erson.. Se$t8A0A. or de'endent on. !hi$h ma3 not be submitted to a ote and ma3 not de'end on the out$ome o" an ele$tion8 (t is one o" the most sa$red and aluable Ri#hts./ Personal Libert3 -./0 Letter . !a#on. Se$t8. the la! o" En#land re#ards. b3 the Ri#ht o" )hoi$e o" La!. !hi$h is not deri ed "rom. '8. !hether common law or statutor3 la!8 .0?. as sa$red as the Ri#ht to 'ri ate 'ro'ert3 888 and is re#arded as inalienable8E --.8 due course of law8 A$$ordin# to the la! o" the land1 due 'ro$ess o" the la!8 Hanson 8 Krehbiel. there"ore.I. without imprisonment or restraint.. neither inter"erin# !ith nor disturbin# anotherFs Ri#hts.@ )8J8S8.7 !hi$h are the internal administrati e 'ro$edures o" the $or'orate states8 . is not a mere 'ri ile#e !hi$h ma3 be 'ermitted or 'rohibited at !ill.onl3 so "ar restrained as the Ri#hts o" others ma3 ma%e it ne$essar3 "or the !el"are o" all other $itiCens8 The Ri#ht o" the )itiCen to tra el u'on the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s and to trans'ort his 'ro'ert3 thereon. asserts. the +8S8 )onstitution.7 )ornell La! Re ie! @A 4Mar$h .8 (t is undis'uted that the term 6or7 abo e is disHun$ti e1 there"ore. $hoose sel"-#o ernan$e b3 the $ommon la! NOT b3 statutor3 la!8 The su'reme la! o" the land is the National )onstitution.AD. that it is a ri#ht stri$tl3 natural8 --Bla$%stoneNs )ommentaries . unless b3 due course of law8 )on$ernin# !hi$h !e ma3 ma%e the same obser ations as u'on the 're$edin# arti$le.Personal Libert3 The Emost sacre# of libertiesE is 'ersonal libert38 The de"inition o" 'ersonal libert3 isI EPersonal libert3. but in his sa"e $ondu$t8E --(( Am8Jur8 4. and 'reser es the 'ersonal libert3 o" indi iduals8 This 'ersonal libert3 $onsists in the power of locomotion.Pa#e @ .((8 Ne&t to 'ersonal se$urit3. and the 'ursuit o" ha''iness8 +nder this )onstitutional #uarantee one ma3. @9 Kan @B0. but the $ommon Ri#ht !hi$h he has under his Ri#ht to li"e. or the Ri#ht to enHo3ment o" li"e and libert3. and !hile $ondu$tin# himsel" in an orderl3 and de$ent manner. or automobile. libert3. tra el at his in$lination alon# the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s or in 'ubli$ 'la$es.OT M)S-. B/ P . !hi$h has alread3 s'o%en1 it does NOT mean the 6la!s o" the $ountr3. b3 horse dra!n $arria#e.. !e. the 'eo'le.8 --Henr3 Paul Mona#han M 6O" Libert3 and Pro'ert3. !hi$h has been 'rote$ted b3 its in$lusion as a #uarantee in the arious $onstitutions.@ Am JAd )onst L : /?.8 law of the land8 The la! o" the state in !hi$h the 'ro$eedin# is brou#ht. he !ill be 'rote$ted.A0 M ?.to #o !here and !hen one 'leases -. '8D9B This $on$e't is "urther am'li"ied b3 this de"inition o" 'ersonal libert3I EPersonal libert3 lar#el3 $onsists o" the Ri#ht o" lo$omotion -. is one o" the "undamental or natural Ri#hts. under normal $onditions. or moving one’s person to whatsoever place one’s own inclination may direct.

the s$o'e o" "ederal inHun$ti e relie" a#ainst an a#en$3 o" state #o ernment must al!a3s be narro!l3 tailored to en"or$e "ederal $onstitutional and statutor3 la! onl38 Toussaint 8 M$)arth3. Para#ra'h . and all e&e$uti e and Hudi$ial O""i$ers.58 .OT M)S-. .0@D 4. .DD. Gran# +r(nk . shall be bound b3 Oath or A""irmation. 90. Provi#ence Am(sement Co.09 A8 99B8 .090. A? A8 9?91 /3Neil vs.09D 4Dth )ir8 .0/0 4. and the La!s o" the +nited States !hi$h shall be made in Pursuan$e thereo"1 and all Treaties made. 6The Senators and Re'resentati es be"ore mentioned. shall be the su'reme La! o" the Land1 and the Jud#es in e er3 State shall be bound thereb3. 9@A 4Dth )ir8 . to su''ort this )onstitution87 MNational )onstitution... ?9. or !hi$h shall be made. . !e ha e held that Eother!ise alid state la!s or $ourt orders $annot stand in the !a3 o" a "ederal $ourtFs remedial s$heme i" the a$tion is essential to en"or$e the s$heme8E Stone 8 )it3 and )ount3 o" San *ran$is$o. both o" the +nited States and o" the se eral States. and the Members o" the se eral State Le#islatures. D@9 *8Ad 9/0.. under the Authorit3 o" the +nited States. Arti$le <(. 2nion Sewer Pipe Co8.. it is elementar3 that a Ri#ht se$ured or 'rote$ted b3 that do$ument $annot be o erthro!n or im'aired b3 an3 state 'oli$e authorit387 --Connoll vs.DDA5.ue to $on$erns o" $omit3 and "ederalism.D9A58 Similarl3. 4. ?/B +8S8 @A?.8 There"ore. +8S8 .9? +S /?01 --Lafarier vs.7 E<ERYONE must de"er to "ederal la! in the "a$e o" $on"li$tin# state la!8 (t has lon# been established that Ea state statute is oid to the e&tent that it a$tuall3 $on"li$ts !ith a alid "ederal statuteE and that a $on"li$t !ill be "ound either !here $om'lian$e !ith both "ederal and state la! is im'ossible or !here the state la! stands as an obsta$le to the a$$om'lishment and e&e$ution o" the "ull 'ur'oses and obHe$ti es o" )on#ress8 See Ed#ar 8 Mite )or'8. S8 )t8 .. Arti$le <(. the Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t and im'lementin# re#ulations are e&'li$it !ith re#ard to the authorit3 o" the states to re#ulate $ommer$ial motor ehi$les ONLYQ 6With re#ard 'arti$ularl3 to the +8S8 )onstitution. $ert8 denied. *8Ad .Pa#e B . an3 Thin# in the )onstitution or La!s o" an3 State to the $ontrar3 not!ithstandin#8E MNational )onstitution. @.laws of the country8 (n the broader sense o" the term the la!s o" the +nited States and the state and lo$al la!s8 So "ar as the +nited States is $on$erned. Para#ra'h A8 *urthermore. 'ursuant to the 6Su'rema$3 )lause..D9B58 With the Su'rema$3 )lause in mind. $ert8 denied.D9@5. as !ell as the limitations o" state 'oli$e 'o!er./0 Letter . the 'hrase means the local laws of administration and procedure o" the res'e$ti e states o" the +nion8 S+PREMA)Y )LA+SE )ON*(RMS EThis )onstitution. Co8..

8 (s this re#ulation reasonablePE --People vs. . but also the Ri#ht to the due 'ro$ess o" the la!8 Ne&t1 #oes the reg(lation involve a .. !hi$h threatens the sa"et3 o" the 'ubli$8 The abilit3 to sto' =ui$%l3 and to res'ond =ui$%l3 to #uidan$e !ould seem to ma%e the automobile one o" the least dan#erous $on e3an$es8 4See Yale La! Journal. Wanle .8 E(t is !ell settled that the )onstitutional Ri#hts 'rote$ted "rom in asion b3 the 'oli$e 'o!er.D0/85 6The automobile is not inherentl3 dan#erous87 --Cohens vs. "undamental limitations o" re#ulations under the 'oli$e 'o!er are "ound in the s'irit o" the )onstitutions. and need not be rein"or$ed other to re'eat that the 'eo'le do ha e the Ri#ht to tra el "reel3.i$tionar3. s'eed. in the ordinar3 $ourse o" li"e and businessP The ans!er is NoQ There is nothin# inherentl3 dan#erous in the use o" an automobile !hen it is $are"ull3 mana#ed8 Their #uidan$e. .acahanan vs. /sborne.OT M)S-. in$lude Ri#hts sa"e#uarded both b3 e&'ress and im'lied 'rohibitions in the )onstitutions8E --+iche vs. !ithout interru'tion.A8 To de'ri e all men and !oman o" the Ri#ht to use the road in the ordinar3 $ourse o" li"e and business. . be$ome dan#erous. vs.09 Am8St8Re'8 B.6The 'oli$e 'o!er o" the state must be e&er$ised in subordination to the 'ro isions o" the +8S8 )onstitution87 --.. !ould be a de'ri ation not onl3 o" the Ri#ht to tra el./0 Letter . State &ighwa Commission.D. SE /. not in the letter. althou#h the3 are Hust as e""i$ient as i" e&'ressed in the $learest lan#ua#e87 --%ehlos vs. AD? +S @..?@ NW 99A8 Moreo er. in the "uture. and that alone.oes a re#ulation in ol e a )onstitutionall3 'rote$ted Ri#htP . under a $om'etent and $onsiderate mana#er. u'on . ea$h la! relatin# to the use o" 'oli$e 'o!er must as% three =uestionsI .ight sec(re# b the Constit(tionP This =uestion has alread3 been addressed and ans!ered herein. . A8 @0 6As a rule.e$ember. A?/ +S @01 Panhan#le !astern Pipeline Co. it is as harmless on the road as a horse and bu##38 (t is the manner o" mana#in# the automobile.8 (s there threatened dan#erP A8 . .roa#more.lair vs. . some $riti$al issues emer#e8 *irst. Eis there a threatene# #angerE in the indi idual usin# his automobile on the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s.? ed8. 9D SE 9B@1 . . under 6Poli$e Po!er87 When a''l3in# these three =uestions to li$ensure statutes. D. %ilwa(kee. %ea#ow. and noise are subHe$t to a =ui$% and eas3 $ontrol./1 Bou ierFs La! . Smith.Pa#e 9 . be$ause one mi#ht.

no license or re*istration is required to e0ercise the .i*ht .0B. is NOT the sa e as “dri)in*+. . but onl3 u'on entities subHe$t to re#ulation8 Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t M State or Lo$al La!s Subpart B—General require ents and infor ation !"#$%# State and local laws& effect on% E&$e't as other!ise s'e$i"i$all3 indi$ated. (t is undis'uted that the im'lementin# re#ulations also su''ort the "a$t.Pa#e D .OT M)S-. the $om'lian$e !ith !hi$h !ould not 're ent "ull $om'lian$e !ith these re#ulations b3 the 'erson subHe$t thereto8 HOWE<ER.4H54.B.i*ht endowed by the /reator+ 6Li$ense is s3non3mous !ith 'ri ile#e 8 8 87 --Aberdeen 8 )ole. .7 is o''ressi e..M(N(STRAT(ON.ERAL MOTOR )ARR(ER SA*ETY A. Sub$ha'ter B o" this $ha'ter is not intended to preclude States or subdivisions thereof from establishing or enforcing State or local laws relating to safety.EPARTMENT O* TRANSPORTAT(ON PART . +8S8 . A?./0 Letter .D/8. as enumerated in the de"initions abo e. Wn8 A''8 @.D?8 See ?D +S) : . -ri)in* is a *o)ern ent *ranted pri)ile*e and tra)elin* is an unalienable natural . and $ould be e""e$ti el3 administered b3 less o''ressi e means. /. 4in -(e %o .8 See also 2nite# States v.the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s b3 automobile in the ordinar3 $ourse o" li"e and business8 (t $an there"ore be $on$luded that an3 attem'ted re#ulation thereo" does in ol e a Ri#ht se$ured b3 the )onstitution8 The third =uestion is the most im'ortantI E)s this reg(lation reasonablePE The ans!er is NoQ An3 li$ensin# or re#istration statute in ol es an 6e&a$tion.i*ht of 1ay—the 2iberty of the /o on 1ay—the .7 e en !ith re"eren$e to a $ommer$ial motor ehi$le. that 6tra elin#.B P8Ad .5 and 4A5 belo!8 Moreo er.D/RHO+RS O* SER<()E O* . it is undis'uted that those State or lo$al la!s relate to sa"e o'eration o" commercial motor vehicles ONLYQ See belo!8 T(TLE ?D--TRANSPORTAT(ON )HAPTER (((--*E.R(<ERS--Table o" )ontents Se$8 "#'%( S$o'e o" rules in this 'art8 4A5 The e&$e'tions "rom *ederal re=uirements $ontained in 'ara#ra'hs 4l5 and 4m5 o" this se$tion do not 'reem't State la!s and re#ulations governing the safe operation of commercial motor vehicles.

%cConnell. .7 so $an (8 (" ( am not 6dri in#.. <olume /L KRe ised as o" O$tober .i*ht& a on* all others& was endowed to e by y /reator& is freely e0ercised by e accordin* to y in capite so)erei*n body authority& and is sub5ect to no other% )ase )ites M Peo'le s8 Persons 6The so erei#nt3 o" a state does not reside in the 'ersons !ho "ill the di""erent de'artments o" its #o ernment. and not !ith the a#ent1 and this remar% is true. S$o'e o" rules in this 'art8 456 Tra)el ti e--4(6 When a 'ro'ert3-$arr3in# $ommer$ial motor ehi$le dri er at the dire$tion o" the motor $arrier is traveling. "rom !hom the #o ernment emanated1 and the3 ma3 $han#e it at their dis$retion8 So erei#nt3.D.OT M)S-.L KPa#e ?/B-?@. A009L *rom the +8S8 2o ernment Printin# O""i$e ia 2PO A$$ess K)(TEI ?D)*R. since tra)elin* is an unalienable natural .EPARTMENT O* TRANSPORTAT(ON PART .D/8.L T(TLE ?D--TRANSPORTAT(ON )HAPTER (((--*E.R(<ERS--Table o" )ontents Se$8 . D?. but in the Peo'le.of 3ree Passa*e—by any con)eyance whatsoe)er for personal& pri)ate recreation or tra)el purposes% K)ode o" *ederal Re#ulationsL KTitle ?D. in !hi$h $ase he>she must be $onsidered o"" dut3 "or the entire 'eriod8 476 When a 'assen#er-$arr3in# $ommer$ial motor ehi$le dri er at the dire$tion o" the motor $arrier is traveling./0 Letter .i*ht and no license is& or can be& required to e0ercise a .D/RHO+RS O* SER<()E O* .0 $onse$uti e hours o"" dut3 !hen arri in# at destination.7 ( am not a 6dri er7 and ( am not re=uired to obtain a 6dri er li$ense87 There is no such thin* as a “tra)eler license.8 . su$h time must be $ounted as on-dut3 time unless the dri er is a""orded at least 9 $onse$uti e hours o"" dut3 !hen arri in# at destination. in !hi$h $ase he>she must be $onsidered o"" dut3 "or the entire 'eriod8 (" a $ommer$ial motor ehi$le dri er $an be 6tra elin#. abides !ith the $onstituen$3.i*ht% That . then in this $ountr3. but not driving or assumin# an3 other res'onsibilit3 to the $arrier. but not driving or assumin# an3 other res'onsibilit3 to the $arrier.Spooner v.M(N(STRAT(ON. both in re"eren$e to the "ederal and state #o ernment87 -. AA * D.ERAL MOTOR )ARR(ER SA*ETY A.D/8.0 .Pa#e . su$h time must be $ounted as on-dut3 time unless the dri er is a""orded at least . but not dri in#.

B./0 Letter . see e8#8 . ? )o!en 4NY5 . or so erei#n are not bound b3 #eneral !ords in statutes. the "ormer so erei#n 888 (t is a ma&im o" the $ommon la!. . <ol .?9 4.9A/58 *REE.A *Ad ?. unless e&'ressl3 named8 A$ts o" limitation do not bind the Kin# or the 'eo'le8 The 'eo'le ha e been $eded all the ri#hts o" the Kin#. .9A98 SO<ERE(2NTY..i$tionar3 (t is undis'uted that ( ha e the Ri#ht o" *reedom and that. . "irst edition. ?// S. that !hen an a$t is made "or the $ommon #ood and to 're ent inHur3. +8S8)8 'ara#ra'h .-?BA8 "ree8 Without restraint or $oer$ion1 not ensla ed1 not bound1 to be enHo3ed !ithout limitation1 o'en "or use or enHo3ment !ithout $har#e8 MBallentineNs La! . Department of 4(stice 4. the so erei#nt3 de ol ed on the people1 and the3 are trul3 the so erei#ns o" the $ountr3..?/.6This !ord 6'erson7 and its s$o'e and bearin# in the la!. n8 A state o" e&em'tion "rom the 'o!er or $ontrol o" another8 MWebsterNs .B. L Ed ??0. the Kin# shall be bound. "ree so erei#ns are not subHe$t to. or o" un$ontrollable 'o!er8 MWebsterNs .9A98 E8 8 8 at the Re olution.. at !hate er $ost. an3 hi#her authorit3 other than to 2od8 6Absolute sovereignt belon#s to 2od onl387 MWebsterNs .87 --Ch(rch of Scientolog v. or a$$ountable to. but they are sovereigns without subjects 8 8 8 !ith none to #o ern but themsel es1 the $itiCens o" Ameri$a are e=ual as "ello! $itiCens. it is di""i$ult to understand1 but it is absolutel3 ne$essar3 to #ras'. 'a#e . title or interest. 4+S5 A . thou#h not named. n8 Su'reme 'o!er1 su'rema$31 the 'ossession o" the hi#hest 'o!er. SO<ER(2NTY *REE. $ondition or $hara$ter borne b3 'h3si$al 'ersons 888 The la! o" 'ersons is the la! o" status or $ondition87 -. &erkimer.D. le#al "i$tions and also a''arentl3 natural bein#s. and as Hoint tenants in the so erei#nt38E --Chisholm v.OM AN.i$tionar3 o" the En#lish Lan#ua#e.Ameri$an La! and Pro$edure.BD.S..all ?. . ?A/8 6The 'eo'le. a true and 'ro'er understandin# to the !ord in all the 'hases o" its 'ro'er use 888 A 'erson is here not a 'h3si$al or indi idual 'erson. .9A98 .. restri$ti e o" 'rero#ati e ri#ht. as it does.D. '' ?B.. 2.DBD5 @. but the status.OM.ALL . ?/?. Georgia.Pa#e . but !hen a statute is #eneral and 'rero#ati e ri#ht !ould be di ested or ta%en "rom the Kin# Kor the 'eo'leL he shall not be bound87 --+he People v.08 6The !ord 6'erson7 in le#al terminolo#3 is 'er$ei ed as a #eneral !ord !hi$h normall3 in$ludes in its s$o'e a ariet3 o" entities other than human bein#s8. but the status or $ondition !ith !hi$h he is in ested 888 not an indi idual or 'h3si$al 'erson. b3 de"inition.OT M)S-. in ol in#.

and those o" an3 other States that ma3 be admitted into the $on"edera$3.0.e"initions 4A..OT M)S-. 9 +S) : .E*(N(T(ONS 9 +S) .7 are still alid. shall be common highways and forever free. subHe$t to the Arti$les o" )on"ederation.E)LARAT(ON O* STAT+S AN. o!es 'ermanent alle#ian$e to the +nited States8 . or duty therefore8 (t is undis'uted that all "ees. a#abonds and "u#iti es "rom Husti$e e&$e'ted./0 Letter . be"ore the Ado'tion o" this )onstitution. impost.. shall "ore er remain a 'art o" this )on"edera$3 o" the +nited States o" Ameri$a. and to su$h alterations therein as shall be $onstitutionall3 made1 and to all the a$ts and ordinan$es o" the +nited States in )on#ress assembled.A .ebts $ontra$ted and En#a#ements entered into. su$h as those im'osed "or li$enses and re#istrations are ta&es and e&a$tions8 .(NAN)E Arti$le ?8 The said territor3. in$ludin#. as !ell to the inhabitants o" the said territor3 as to the $itiCens o" the +nited States. shall be entitled to all 'ri ile#es and immunities o" "ree $itiCens in the se eral States1 and the people of each state shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State 8 8 87 The )on#ress o" the )on"ederation THE NORTHWEST OR. as under the )on"ederation87 MNational )onstitution. APPL()ABLE . be"ore the Ado'tion o" KtheL )onstitution. Arti$le <(. and the carrying places between the same. the Arti$les o" )on"ederation and the North!est Ordinan$e8 Arti$les o" )on"ederation Arti$le (<8 The better to se$ure and 'er'etuate mutual "riendshi' and inter$ourse amon# the 'eo'le o" the di""erent States in this +nion.8 .0. without any tax. Para#ra'h .5 The term 6national7 means a 'erson o!in# 'ermanent alle#ian$e to a state8 4AA5 The term 6national o" the +nited States7 means 4A5 a $itiCen o" the +nited States. the "ree inhabitants o" ea$h o" these States. shall be as alid a#ainst the +nited States under this )onstitution. but not limited to. 'au'ers.Pa#e . thou#h not a $itiCen o" the +nited States.8 The 6En#a#ements entered into. or 4B5 a 'erson !ho.What This Means With Re#ard To The Ri#ht O" *ree Passa#e 6All . and the States !hi$h ma3 be "ormed therein. $on"ormable thereto8888 4The a$t ne&t 'ro ided ho! the 'eo'le o" the territor3 !ould share in the 'ro$ess o" raisin# re enue "or the "ederal #o ernment85 The na i#able !aters leadin# into the Mississi''i and St8 La!ren$e.

8 -efinitions When used in this $ha'ter the term M “Motor )ehicle. M ...7 that aries "rom the de"inition belo! that !ould in$lude an3 $arria#e or $ontri an$e NOT used "or $ommer$ial 'ur'oses and not in $on"orman$e !ith the Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t. let him $ome "orth b3 s!orn a""ida it. +N(TE. or in an3 *ederal and>or State statute.OT M)S-.7 !hi$h statutes are limited in their a''li$ation and o'eration.9 +S) : . or dire$tl3 or indire$tl3 in $onne$tion !ith an3 business. and that $an embra$e onl3 one sin#le subHe$t matterI the re#ulation o" $ertain State-$reated entitiesI 'ersons !ho o'erate said 6motor ehi$les7 that are 6used "or $ommer$ial 'ur'oses87 (" an3 'erson $laims that an3 other de"inition o" the term 6motor ehi$le. all statutes or rules that in$lude the $ontradi$tor3 term8 .Pa#e .9 +S) : . !ith re"eren$e to m3 status as a so erei#n 4a 6national7 NOT a 6national o" the +nited States75.o$trine. under the <oid "or <a#ueness . MO O! "#$%&'#S Se$8 . "or an3 "uture 6le#al 'ro$eedin#. the de"inition o" 6motor ehi$le. or 'ro'ert3 or $ar#o8 69sed for co ercial purposes7 means the $arria#e o" 'ersons or 'ro'ert3 "or an3 fare& fee& rate& char*e or other consideration .7 'ursuant to the Su'rema$3 )lause o" the National )onstitution..Pursuant to this noti$e.E Se$8 . means e er3 des$ri'tion o" $arria#e or other $ontri an$e 'ro'elled or dra!n b3 me$hani$al 'o!er and used for commercial purposes on the hi#h!a3s in the trans'ortation o" 'assen#ers& 'assen#ers and 'ro'ert3. and !ould nulli"3.)R(MES )HAPTER A . as a 'eo'le NOT a 'erson.. as su$h a $laim !ould $onstitute prima facie ambi#uit3. e&ists at la!.9. ./0 Letter . must be a''lied in all *ederal and>or State statutes that $ontain or in$lude the term 6motor ehi$le.e"inition o" Motor <ehi$le Title. STATES )O.. or other underta%in# intended "or profitK8L7 6(t is ob ious that those !ho operate otor )ehicles "or the trans'ortation o" 'ersons or 'ro'ert3 for hire enHo3 a different and ore e0tensi)e use of the public hi*hways8 T T T Su$h e0traordinary use $onstitutes a natural distin$tion and a "ull Husti"i$ation "or their se'arate $lassi"i$ation and for relie)in* fro the .A(R)RA*T AN.7 as $odi"ied in the *ederal )riminal )ode and o" other related terms listed belo! "rom the Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t bet!een the $om'a$t states.7 shall be as "ollo!s and ONLY as "ollo!s8 The 'rin$i'le o" in pari materia di$tates that this de"inition in . to the 6meanin# and si#ni"i$ation7 thereo". PART ( . to 6the true and 'ro'er understandin# to the termKsL in all the 'hases o" KtheirL 'ro'er use.

althou#h it does not apply to private vehicles & or those used b3 the o!ner in his o!n business. A?9 P8 A.90 So8 .987 4State 8 Karel.OT A# 9S/ ! ("'$'8 Trans'ortation "urtherin# a 'rimar3 business 4a6 =n General%— Neither the Se$retar3 nor the Board has Hurisdi$tion under this 'art o er the trans'ortation o" 'ro'ert3 b3 motor ehi$le !henU 4(6 the 'ro'ert3 is trans'orted b3 a 'erson en#a#ed in a business other than transportation1 and 476 the trans'ortation is !ithin the s$o'e o". !ithout )onsent o" )on#ress. and "urthers a 'rimar3 business 4other than transportation5 o" the 'erson8 (m'lementin# Re#ulationI *ederal Motor )arrier Sa"et3 Administration Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t Subpart ?—General applicability and definitions !"#$%' -efinitions% 3or-hire otor carrier means a 'erson en#a#ed in the trans'ortation o" #oods or 'assen#ers "or $om'ensation8 No (nterstate )om'a$ts Without the )onsent o" )on#ress 6No state shall.A8 /o pacts between States "or $oo'eration in 're ention o" $rime1 $onsent o" )on#ress . .OT M)S-.Pa#e .8 )odi"i$ation .AD )al8 A./. Se$tion .La$% o" Jurisdi$tion o" +S. . at 985 6(t is held that a tax u'on $ommon $arriers b3 motor ehi$les is based u'on a reasonable $lassi"i$ation.% 77% 6 )odi"i$ation ..? +S) .Release dateI A00@-0.-A0 . )lause ./0 Letter . and does not in ol e an3 un$onstitutional dis$rimination..burden of the license ta0 those who erely e ploy the public hi*hways for the transportation of their own property or e ployees87 --(acon Service &orporation v.(nterstate )om'a$ts ? +S) : . A.. Arti$le .0.ailroad /o rs%& @' ?%2%..? . $uss. 8 8 8 enter into an3 A#reement or )om'a$t !ith another State8 8 87 --National )onstitution. and not for hire87 -esser )% 1ichita& 4(#('6 #: .A .an% <7$8 =owa Motor >ehicle ?sso% )% .

6No 'ubli$ policy o" a state $an be allo!ed to o erride the 'ositi e #uarantees o" the +8S8 )onstitution87 --.Pa#e .DA8. S$o'e o" the rules in this 'art8 . as the3 ma3 deem desirable "or ma%in# e""e$ti e su$h a#reements and $om'a$ts8 4b5 *or the 'ur'ose o" this se$tion. and the . the <ir#in (slands. is em'lo3ed or used as a dri er b3 more than one otor carrier8 Operator* See driver. !ho in an3 'eriod o" B $onse$uti e da3s. the interstate $om'a$t "or the en"or$ement o" tra""i$ in"ra$tions 4The Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t5.e*ulations . Hoint or other!ise. $asual./ . and to establish su$h a#en$ies. in an3 'eriod o" B $onse$uti e da3s. Ha!aii. in this sub$ha'terI )river eans any person who operates any co ercial otor )ehicle% Multiple-e ployer dri)er means a dri)er. the )ommon!ealth o" Puerto Ri$o. )onst8 La!. !ith re#ard to the Ri#ht to Tra el and the de$laration in subse$tion 4a5 abo e. is e ployed or used as a dri)er solely by a sin*le otor carrier% This ter includes a dri)er who operates a co ercial otor )ehicle on an intermittent. Sin*le-e ployer dri)er eans a dri)er who.@ Am8Jur8 4And5. Se$t8 B08 Motor <ehi$le )om'a$t E&$er'ts The *ederal Motor )arrier Sa"et3 Administration 4*M)SA5 -ri)er-related .4a5 The $onsent o" )on#ress is hereb3 #i en to an3 t!o or more States to enter into a#reements or co pacts "or $oo'erati e e""ort and mutual assistan$e in the 're ention o" $rime and in the enforce ent of their respecti)e cri inal laws and policies.OT M)S-. eans the se)eral States and Alas%a./0 Letter .e*ulations Sub'art A U 2eneral :. or o$$asional basis8 >ehicle-.! "#$ General !"#$%' -efinitions% +nless s'e$i"i$all3 de"ined else!here. the term “States.elated . 2uam.istri$t o" )olumbia8 (t is undis'uted that tra""i$ in"ra$tions are NOT $rimes1 there"ore.. is NOT the en"or$ement o" 6$riminal la!s7 but the en"or$ement o" mere 'oli$iesQ AN.

as amended at @0 *R . it $har#ed or $olle$ted a "ee "or a ehi$le identi"i$ation stam' or a number 'ursuant to the 'ro isions o" the 'rede$essor to this 'art8 Motor <ehi$le Sa"et3 A$t Motor >ehicle Safety ?ct& see +ational Safety and Motor "ehicle Safety .9.@ . operation& or dri)in* of co ercial otor )ehicles.@B8A Parti$i'ation b3 States8 4a5 A state is eli#ible to 'arti$i'ate as a re*istration State and to re$ei e "ee re enue onl3 i". shall be instru$ted in and $om'l3 !ith the rules in this 'art8 K/. et se5. or dis'at$hin# o" dri)ers. or the hirin#. .. a#ents.9B?B.D99.09@0. .DD.ct of -. . ..DD/L8 !":@%( -efinitions% 4$5 Motor )ehicle U ? selfCpropelled or otor dri)en )ehicle operated by a otor carrier in interstate or forei*n co erce under authorit3 issued b3 the Se$retar38 :. Jul3 A9.9./ +8S8)8 :: . assi#nin#. an a$t to 'ro ide "or a $oordinated national sa"et3 'ro#ram and establishment o" sa"et3 standards for motor vehicles in interstate commerce to redu$e a$$idents in ol in# motor ehi$les and to redu$e the deaths and inHuries o$$urrin# in su$h a$$idents8 .OT M)S-. !as re'ealedI ...//.90/B. re'resentati es.D@@5.DD/L8 )ase La! )on"irms 6(t !ill be obser ed "rom the lan#ua#e o" the ordinan$e that a distin$tion is to be dra!n bet!een the terms Oo'eratorN and Odri erN1 the Oo'eratorN o" the ser i$e $ar bein# the 'erson !ho is li$ensed to ha e the $ar on the streets in the business o" $arr3in# 'assen#ers "or hire1 !hile the Odri erN is the one !ho a$tuall3 dri es the $ar8 Ho!e er.9 4.9B?@. and em'lo3ees res'onsible "or the mana#ement. trainin#.. as therea"ter amended8 . as o" Januar3 .DB0. Ma3 . National Safety and Motor >ehicle Safety ?ct of (#:: . Jul3 .D. its o""i$ers. maintenan$e. *R .@ 9se of seat belts% A co ercial otor )ehicle !hi$h has a seat belt assembl3 installed at the dri)erBs seat shall not be dri en unless the dri)er has 'ro'erl3 restrained himsel">hersel" !ith the seat belt assembl38 K./0 Letter . 90 Stat8 B. it !as 'ossible "or the same 'erson to be both O operator* and O#river*87 --Newbill vs. Jul3 A9./ +S) . su'er isin#. .E er3 otor carrier.Pa#e ./ *R . as amended at @0 *R . @0 SE8Ad @/98 :.. in the a$tual 'rose$ution o" business.DA8. 2nion )n#emnit Co8.

other than an automobile sta#e.B . )HATTEL PAPER PART . @0 A8Ad .% Goods are 4.9./0 Letter .Pa#e . Seattle. vs..0.8 Re'ealed8 Pub8 L8 .A0 6The term Omotor vehicleN is di""erent and broader than the word Oautomobile8N7 66Cit of Da ton vs.0. A. ..0. Automobile NOT Motor <ehi$le There is a $lear distin$tion bet!een an automobile and a motor ehi$le8 An automobile has been de"ined asI 6The !ord OautomobileN $onnotes a pleasure vehicle desi#ned "or the trans'ortation o" 'ersons on hi#h!a3s87 --American %(t(al Liabilit )ns. but it still a''lies ONLY to interstate $ommer$eQ A# 9S/ ! "$($(8 Pur'ose and 'oli$3 The 'ur'ose o" this $ha'ter is to redu$e tra""i$ a$$idents and deaths and inHuries resultin# "rom tra""i$ a$$idents8 There"ore it is ne$essar3U 4. .A01 D/ NH A008 The distin$tion is made $lear bet!een the t!o as the $ourts ha e statedI EA motor ehi$le or automobile "or hire is a motor ehi$le. i" the3 are used or bou#ht for use pri arily for personal& fa ily or household purposes1 .8 “=n)entory.5 to 'res$ribe motor ehi$le sa"et3 standards for motor vehicles and motor vehicle e0uipment in interstate commerce. Co. NE8Ad @?B. @/01 @A Ohio A''8 A.SE)+RE.8 SHORT T(TLE..5 “consu er *oods. A/.BD and re-$odi"ied at ?D +8S8)8 : ..8 “Equip ent.09 Stat8 . P8 . : B4b5.MABA.: . . APPL()AB(L(TY AN.A8 M3 *amil3 )ar (s )onsumer 2oods NOT E=ui'ment +8)8)8 .DD?. TRANSA)T(ONS1 SALES O* A))O+NTS AN. Jul3 /.rosse.ART()LE D .9. vs. used "or the trans'ortation o" 'ersons "or !hi$h remuneration is re$ei ed8E --)nternational %otor +ransit Co.8 “3ar Products. De.OT M)S-. .E*(N(T(ONS ! #-($#% /lassification of GoodsD “/onsu er Goods. Chap(t.

automobile "or trans'ortation to and "rom !or%8 The use of a )ehicle by its owner for purposes of tra)elin* to and fro his e ploy ent is a personal& as opposed to a business use& as that ter is used in 9// ! #-($#4l6& and the )ehicle will be classified as consu er *oods rather than equip ent% The 'hraseolo#3 o" : D-. "amil3.0D are mutuall3 e&$lusi e87 --M$*adden Mer$antile-Sa"e . (n$8 Administrator.?B 4Tenn8 A''8.D9 4.D? A8Ad 9A0./. that are bou#ht 'rimaril3 "or 'ersonal..DBA Ban%ru't$3 No8 BK BA-. "arm 'rodu$ts or $onsumer #oods1 . A8Ad . ./0 Letter . Se'tember .0D there is a real distin$tion bet!een #oods 'ur$hased "or 'ersonal use and those 'ur$hased "or business use8 The t!o are mutuall3 e&$lusi e and the 'rin$i'al use to !hi$h the 'ro'ert3 is 'ut should be $onsidered as determinati e87 --James Tal$ott. .. ?.istri$t )ourt.D@@58 6The 'ro isions o" +)) :A-. !hether ne! or used. The a''ro'riate "ilin# 'la$e turns u'on the $lassi"i$ation o" the $ollateral as $onsumer #oods or e=ui'ment8 The +ni"orm )ommer$ial )ode $lassi"ies #oods as $onsumer #oods .0A91 A@@ )al8A''8Ad . (n$8 2ee. / +)) Re' Ser ..ele)ant applicable stare decisis case cites relatin* directly to 9// #-($#D 6+nder +)) :D-. AB.0DL )onsumer #oods ..OT M)S-. Md A'' B 4. BA )al8R'tr8 .0D4A5 de"inin# e=ui'ment as #oods used or bou#ht "or use 'rimaril3 in business seems to $ontem'late a distin$tion bet!een the use o" $ollateral 6 in business7 and the mere use o" the $ollateral "or some $ommer$ial.9 .DB. 9 +)) Re' Ser B@@1 A@0 Md @0. A/ +)) Re' Ser @DD1 .58 6Automobile 'ur$hased "or the 'ur'ose o" trans'ortin# bu3er to and "rom his 'la$e o" em'lo3ment !as O$onsumer #oodsN as de"ined in +)) :D-.D@958 6The $lassi"i$ation o" #oods in +)) :D-.ADN.9?. Maine./1 ?.0. or household use587 --Mar3land (nde'endent Automobile .DB958 *ederal )ase La! )on"irms (N RE BARNES +nited States .@ o" the Mar3land +)) do not a''l3 to sales o" $onsumer #oods 4a term !hi$h in$ludes automobiles./ S8W8Ad . +)) Re' Ser . Motor <ehi$le Admin8. KD.e'osit G Trust )o8. . e$onomi$ or in$ome'rodu$in# 'ur'ose b3 one not en*a*ed “in business8. .ON.@9 4.4A5 6equip ent7 i" the3 are used or bou#ht "or use 'rimaril3 in business 4in$ludin# "armin# or a 'ro"ession5 or b3 a debtor !ho is a non-'ro"it or#aniCation or a #o ernmental subdi ision or a#en$3 or i" the #oods are not in$luded in the de"initions o" in entor3.Pa#e . No8 EK BA-.0D87 --Malli$oat <olunteer *inan$e G Loan )or'8.ealers Asso$8.

@? 4And )ir8 .DA/ 4Stats8 ./0 Letter .D0B58 6A soldierFs 'ersonal automobile is 'art o" his 6household #oodsK8L7 +8S8 Bomar.& % % % it is +O a type of vehicle re0uired to be registered and “use ta0.DD. paid of which the tab is e)idence of receipt of the ta087 Ban% o" Boston 8 Jones. A. Third Edition. 9 *8. ehi$lesI )ONS+MER 2OO.d AA@. e$onomi$ or in$ome-'rodu$in# 'ur'ose b3 one not en#a#ed 6in business87 Tra elin# to and "rom !or% is a PERSONAL use NOT a B+S(NESS useQ This rulin# is $onsistent !ith the undis'uted "a$t that 6 The classification of *oods is deter ined by its pri ary use7 4BarronNs La! . / S8)t8 A?. .0D4.. A. TO BE RE2(STERE.5 and not b3 the t3'e o" #oods.Q “? )ehicle not used for co ercial acti)ity is a “consu er *oods. .D .Pa#e . and !e see no reason that auto obiles should not be similarl3 dis'osed o"87 Hillhouse +nited States.i$tionar3. +)) PP D-.5 in "a or o" those who solely transport their own property or e ployees./A *8 .S ARE NOT REV+(RE.. as that term is used in +)) : D-. in$ludin#.OT M)S-. .. "amil3 or household 'ur'oses8 4A58 *n 4A5 .@ AAd ?9?. in Arthur 8 Mor#an. as opposed to a business use .DA/. but not limited to. ha e been determined in the Ba$on Ser i$e )or'oration $ase to be la!"ul e&em'tions8 -.0D 4.?9 NW A08 6The Su'reme )ourt. ? +)) Re'8 Ser 8 . held that $arria#es !ere properly classified as household effects .DA Words and Phrases . ?@8 6The ri*ht o" a $itiCen to tra el u'on the 'ubli$ hi#h!a3s and to trans'ort his 'ro'ert3 thereon in the ordinary course of life and business is a co on ri*ht which he has under his ri*ht to en5oy life and liberty 8888 (t in$ludes the ri*ht in so doin* to use the ordinary and usual con)eyances of the day8 and under e&istin# modes o" tra el in$ludes .@. .68 8 8 i" the3 are used or bou#ht "or use 'rimaril3 "or 'ersonal. or both. and o" those who transport no persons or property for hire or co pensation& by otor )ehicle . MRSA : D-.. . '8 9. de"inin# 6e=ui'ment7 as #oods used or bou#ht "or use 'rimaril3 6in business7 seems to $ontem'late a distin$tion bet!een the use o" $ollateral 6in business. E& Parte Ho""ert. )8A8/4Te&85.58 The 'hraseolo#3 o" +)) : D-.7 and the mere use o" the $ollateral "or some $ommer$ial.0A.A +8S8 ?D/.0D 4A5. o" the Motor <ehi$le Trans'ortation Li$ense A$t o" ../7 .?8 “Thus self-dri)en )ehicles are classified accordin* to the use to which they are put rather than accordin* to the eans by which they are propelled%.%n re Schmol1e 4.58 (t is the $ourtFs o'inion that the use of a )ehicle by its owner for purposes of tra)elin* to and fro his e ploy ent is a “personal&.Permanent Edition 4West5 'o$%et 'art D?8 6888 KTLhe e0e ptions 'ro ided "or in se$tion .DD )al8 ?A.. A9 L8Ed8 9A/.DA@5 .0D8.

the hi#h!a3s ma3 be $om'letel3 mono'oliCed.. Department of P(blic Works.oise Cit . -6State v. 'a#e /9./? S8E8 /BD8 6(n ie! o" this rule a statutor3 'ro ision that the su'er isin# o""i$ials “may. BA98 Also see Smallwoo# v. STATES )O. that the STATES are re$ei in# "ederal hi#h!a3 "unds.. i"../0 Letter . standards. !hi$h the $it3 ma3 'ermit or 'rohibit at !ill87 --+hompson v. under an a$t li%e this. arbitraril3 administered.OT M)S-. v. 'ursuant to ?D +S) : .0B. there"ore. . e0e pt su$h 'ersons !hen the transportation is not on a co ercial basis eans that they “must.ERAL *+N.?B8 )O. .Pa#e A0 .. and 3et. A?..@D8 . it is bound b3 the $lear and unambi#uous terms and de"initions in the "ederal statutes 4+N(TE. Smith.90 Wash .9 P8Ad BA. e0e pt the %.obertson vs. .0A abo e.1 @0 )8J8S8 se$tion D?.8 )on$lusi e Presum'tion o" Ri#ht o" *ree Passa#e E)om'lete "reedom o" the hi#h!a3s is so old and !ell established a blessin# that !e ha e "or#otten the da3s o" the Robber Barons and toll roads. .(*()AT(ON O* STATE (N<OL<EMENT (N THE )OMMER)(AL <EH()LE )OMPA)T M *E. and orders8 it is undis'uted.. the 'eo'le submit. b3 more or less ra'id en$roa$hment8E --. and compatible State re*ulations. ?A (daho . or trans'ortin# 'ersons or 'ro'ert3 for hire alon# the street.. 4ohnson.(N2 M )OMPAT(BLE RE2+LAT(ONS ?D +S) : . 4eter. or to o'erate an auto obile thereon for the usual and ordinary purposes of life and business 8 (t is not a mere pri)ile*e.the ri#ht to dri e a horse-dra!n $arria#e or !a#on thereon.. its re#ulations must be 6$om'atible7 !ith "ederal re#ulations1 and. then the3 ma3 loo% to see the most sa$red o" their liberties ta%en "rom them one b3 one. P8 .0A M 2rants to States 4a5 2eneral Authorit38 SubHe$t to this se$tion and the a ailabilit3 o" amounts.. throu#h la$% o" interest.. li%e the 'ri ile#e o" mo in# a house in the street. the Se$retar3 o" Trans'ortation ma3 ma%e grants to States "or the de elo'ment or im'lementation o" 'ro#rams "or im'ro in# otor carrier sa"et3 and the enforce ent of re*ulations& standards& and orders of the 9nited States Go)ern ent on commercial otor )ehicle safety& haCardous materials trans'ortation sa"et3.E5 and $odes o" "ederal re#ulations 4)*Rs5 $ontained in the bod3 o" this Table o" Authorities8 LO)AL LAW 6The right to travel o er a street or hi#h!a3 is a primary absolute right o" e er3one87 -oster*s )nc. o'eratin# a business stand in the street.

whether out of society or in it 8 The ri#hts o" 'ersonal se$urit3.@D. )r8 R8 .i$tionar3. which belong to them independently of all government. EStatutor3 )onstru$tion8E5 .B0 4=uotin# .@1 Peo'le 8 To3nbee 4N8 Y85 A Par%er.A-. and the ri#ht to a$=uire and enHo3 'ro'ert38 These ri#hts are de$lared to be natural. $ase D/8 .8. or the government was organi2ed8 These are !hat are termed the E absolute rightsE o" indi iduals. Atlantic C.OT M)S-. /.. and !hi$h every man is entitled to enjoy.e$8 /. . . . inherent. And ed8 EA ested ri#ht o" a$tion is Pro'ert3 in the same sense in !hi$h tan#ible thin#s are 'ro'ert3.roitural .B. and private property do not depend upon the &onstitution for their existence8 hey existed before the &onstitution was made. on the #round o" ha in# hitherto had the uninterru'ted and immemorial enHo3ment o" it8 (m'res$ri'tible Ri#hts8 Su$h ri#hts as a 'erson ma3 use or not. . ?0. AAD1 M$)artee 8 Or'han As3lum So$8 4N8 Y85 D )o!8 ?.ABSOL+TE R(2HTS The absolute rights o" indi iduals ma3 be resol ed into the ri#ht o" 'ersonal se$urit3.058 4)ase note to North )arolina 28S8 . it is not $om'etent "or the le#islature to ta%e it a!a38E --Williams v. @D S8E8 ?0A 4.. En#lish E&$he=uer. sin$e the3 $annot be lost to him b3 the $laims o" another "ounded on 'res$ri'tion8 (m'res$ri'tibilit38 The state or =ualit3 o" bein# in$a'able o" 'res$ri'tion1 not o" su$h a $hara$ter that a ri#ht to it $an be #ained b3 'res$ri'tion8 MBla$%Ns La! . @ Neb8 .AD..L.. . and which all governments which derive their power from the consent of the governed were instituted to protect 8 Peo'le 8 Berberri$h 4N8 Y85 A0 Barb8 AA?. su$h as !ould belon# to their 'ersons merel3 in a state of nature.e$laration o" (m'res$ri'tible Ri#hts 7Droit ne poet pas morier87 Ri#ht $annot die8 --Jen%Ns Ei#ht )enturies o" Re'orts.58 Words and Phrases.. West Publishin# )om'an38 .. the ri#ht o" 'ersonal libert3. N8)8 ./.9 Am8 . Bl8 )omm8 .A.D.00. or "rom the 'rin$i'les o" $ommon la!./@8 B3 the Eabsolute rightsE o" indi iduals is meant those !hi$h are so in their primary and strictest sense. /. o" personal liberty. and unalienable 8 At$hison G N8 R8 )o8 8 Bat3.roitural8 What belon#s o" ri#ht81 relatin# to ri#ht1 Pres$ribe8 To assert a ri#ht or title to the enHo3ment o" a thin#. . and is e=uall3 'rote$ted a#ainst inter"eren$es8 Where it s'rin#s "rom $ontra$t..Pa#e A. AD Am8 Re'8 . at 'leasure.B.@0./0 Letter .

o" m3 ri#hts.acon Service Corporation $ase to be la!"ul. and o" those !ho trans'ort no 'ersons or 'ro'ert3 "or hire or $om'ensatio n& by otor )ehicle% These andatory e0e ptions ha)e been determined in the .ue to the nature o" m3 inherent. em'lo3ees and o""i$ers must not re"use m3 $laim o" #uaranteed e&em'tion.A L Ed8 B0A8 *inall3. as "reel3 as in their o!n state87 --Smith v. State. 3our assistan$e is re=uested and this letter and Table o" <alid La!"ul Authorities and Memorandum o" the La! shall ser e as le#al 'ubli$% noti$e that an3 6interru'tion7 or im'ediment o" m3 "or!ard 'ro#ress !hile ( am on m3 !a3 in the e&er$ise o" those ri#hts !ill be $onstrued as a blatant and !ill"ul disre#ard o" m3 de$laration o" status.7 su'er isin# o""i$ials m(st e&em't me "rom an3 dri er li$ensure or ehi$le re#istration re=uirements. re#ulations. this is 3our Hob des$ri'tion1 there"ore. are instituted "or the sole 'ur'ose o" se$urin# "or the 'eo'le their unalienable ri#hts as de$lared in our sa$red Ameri$an do$uments and in this letter1 as an ele$ted re'resentati e. as a 6dishonor7 in $ommer$e. a#ents.08 Publi$ o""i$ials. and "rom an3 and all statutes in pari materia. nor im'ede m3 "or!ard 'ro#ress !hile ( am on m3 !a38 6All )itiCens o" the +nited States o" Ameri$a ha e a ri#ht to 'ass and re-'ass throu#h e er3 'art o" it !ithout interru'tion.)ON)L+S(ON This Table and Memorandum is $lear and unambi#uous. %asse . le#islati e ena$tments. natural. !hi$h does not e&ist !ithout it87 --Pa ne v..5 is the statutor3 'ro ision that 'ro ides "or mandator3 e&em'tions in "a or o" those !ho solel3 trans'ort their o!n 'ro'ert3 or em'lo3ees & or both. $onstitutional e&em'tions1 there"ore. . as !ell as a 6la$% o" "aith"ul 'er"orman$e7 o" 3our dut3 under oath8 Than% 3ou "or 3our $onsideration and "or 3our 'rom't attention to this matter8 +8)8)8 . it is a Rule o" La! that all *ederal.Pa#e AA . as in our #uaranteed re'ubli$an "orm. and $onstitutes the 6la! o" the $ase7 under the rule o" la!8 (t de"initi el3 establishes the $on$lusi e 'resum'tion that m3 6trans'ortation7 is 6not on a $ommer$ial basis87 Se$tion . o" The Motor <ehi$le Trans'ortation Li$ense A$t o" . administrati e determinations or "rom an3 other la! or 6$olor o" la!7 that !ould tend to de'ri e me o" m3 ri#hts or to dero#ate those ri#hts in an3 !a3 !hatsoe er8 (n sim'le termsI 6To li$ense means to $on"er on a 'erson the ri#ht to do somethin# !hi$h other!ise he !ould not ha e the ri#ht to do87 --Cit of Lo(isville v Sebree. unalienable.8 6Those !ho ha e the ri#ht to do somethin# $annot be li$ensed "or !hat the3 alread3 ha e the ri#ht to do as su$h li$ense !ould be meanin#less87 --Cit of Chicago v Collins /.-. . '8 9.09 M Reser ation o" Ri#hts .. o" the Rule o" La! as e&'ressed $learl3 herein. 2o ernments. or in the inter'retation o" the la! as e&'ressed8 . em'lo3ee./0 Letter . and as a TORT 4inHur35 a#ainst me. o""i$ers. A. im'res$ri'tible ri#hts and o" m3 6trans'ortation.DA/. )ount3 or )it3 su'er isin# o""i$ials. on 'oint.OT M)S-. +(rner. D.. o""i$er or a#ent.D@ SW And ?D. ?9 +8S8 A9. NE D0B. a#ents and em'lo3ees ha e no dis$retion in this matter.?/ Te& AB.09 K3 ?A08 6The obHe$t o" a li$ense is to $on"er a ri#ht or 'o!er.DA/ 4Stats8 . .? SW And A?91 . and>or "rom an3 other rules.

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