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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATIOM SYSTEM

Introduction Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system used to digitally represent and analyse the geographic features present on the Earth' surface and the events (non-spatial attributes linked to the geography under study) that taking place on it. he meaning to represent digitally is to convert analog (smooth line) into a digital form. !Every ob"ect present on the Earth can be geo-referenced!# is the fundamental key of associating any database to GIS. $ere# term 'database' is a collection of information about things and their relationship to each other# and 'geo-referencing' refers to the location of a layer or coverage in space defined by the co-ordinate referencing system. %ork on GIS began in late &'()s# but first GIS soft*are came only in late &'+)s from the lab of the ES,I. -anada *as the pioneer in the development of GIS as a result of innovations dating back to early &'.)s. /uch of the credit for the early development of GIS goes to ,oger omilson. Evolution of GIS has transformed and revolutioni0ed the *ays in *hich planners# engineers# managers etc. conduct the database management and analysis. Some Interesting Links : &. %hat is GIS 1 2 complete compilation of information on GIS 3. GIS guide to Good 4ractice 2 brief introduction to GIS and 2rchaeology 5. 2n Introduction to GIS in ,eal Estate Gil -astle's final draft of the real estate column appearing in ,eal Estate Issues# 2ugust &''( 6. 2 7rief Introduction to GIS echnology Enhancing -ommunity -apacity to use Spatial Information e!ining GIS 2 GIS is an information system designed to *ork *ith data referenced by spatial 8 geographical coordinates. In other *ords# GIS is both a database system *ith specific capabilities for spatially referenced data as *ell as a set of operations for *orking *ith the data. It may also be considered as a higher order map. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as 9uery and statistical analysis *ith the uni9ue visuali0ation and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. hese abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a *ide range of public and private enterprises for e:plaining events# predicting outcomes# and planning strategies. (ES,I) 2 Geographic Information System is a computer based system *hich is used to digitally

reproduce and analyse the feature present on earth surface and the events that take place on it. In the light of the fact that almost +); of the data has geographical reference as it's denominator# it becomes imperative to underline the importance of a system *hich can represent the given data geographically. 2 typical GIS can be understood by the help of various definitions given belo*< 2 geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analy0ing things that e:ist and events that happen on Earth 7urrough in &'=. defined GIS as# !Set of tools for collecting# storing# retrieving at *ill# transforming and displaying spatial data from the real *orld for a particular set of purposes! 2rnoff in &'=' defines GIS as# !a computer based system that provides four sets of capabilities to handle geo-referenced data <

data input data management (data storage and retrieval) manipulation and analysis data output. !

$ence GIS is looked upon as a tool to assist in decision-making and management of attributes that needs to be analysed spatially. Some Interesting Links : &. %hat is GIS 1 Geographical Information Systems >efinition by GIS.-om 3. 2 revised >efinition of GIS ?or the purpose of E:ploring Geographical Information Systems 5. >efinitions of GIS -ompiled by @enneth E. ?oote and /argaret Aynch# he Geographer's -raft 4ro"ect# >epartment of Geography# Bniversity of e:as at 2ustin. 6. >efinition Cf GIS< he /anager's 4erspective 4aper presented at the International %orkshop on >ynamic and /ulti>imensional GIS held at $ong @ong# 3(-3.th 2ugust &''+ (. GIS < >efinition >efinition of GIS by the Dorth*est GIS Services Inc. Ans"ers GIS c#n gi$e ill no* GIS has been described in t*o *ays< &. hrough formal definitions# and 3. hrough technology's ability to carry out spatial operations# linking data sets together. $o*ever there is another *ay to describe GIS by listing the type of 9uestions the technology can (or should be able to) ans*er. Aocation# -ondition# rends# patterns# /odelling# 2spatial 9uestions# Spatial 9uestions. here are five type of 9uestions that a

sophisticated GIS can ans*er< Loc#tion %&#t is #t''''() he first of these 9uestions seeks to find out *hat e:ists at a particular location. 2 location can be described in many *ays# using# for e:ample place name# post code# or geographic reference such as longitude8latitude or :8y. Condition %&ere is it''''() he second 9uestion is the converse of the first and re9uires spatial data to ans*er. Instead of identifying *hat e:ists at a given location# one may *ish to find location(s) *here certain conditions are satisfied (e.g.# an unforested section of at-least 3))) s9uare meters in si0e# *ithin &)) meters of road# and *ith soils suitable for supporting buildings) Trends %&#t &#s c&#nged since''''(() he third 9uestion might involve both the first t*o and seeks to find the differences (e.g. in land use or elevation) over time. P#tterns %&#t s*#ti#+ *#tterns e,ists''''(() his 9uestion is more sophisticated. Cne might ask this 9uestion to determine *hether landslides are mostly occurring near streams. It might be "ust as important to kno* ho* many anomalies there are that do not fit the pattern and *here they are located. Mode++ing %&#t i!'''''(() !%hat ifE! 9uestions are posed to determine *hat happens# for e:ample# if a ne* road is added to a net*ork or if a to:ic substance seeps into the local ground *ater supply. 2ns*ering this type of 9uestion re9uires both geographic and other information (as *ell as specific models). GIS permits spatial operation. A s*#ti#+ -uestions !%hat's the average number of people *orking *ith GIS in each location1! is an aspatial 9uestion - the ans*er to *hich does not re9uire the stored value of latitude and longitudeF nor does it describe *here the places are in relation *ith each other. S*#ti#+ -uestions ! $o* many people *ork *ith GIS in the ma"or centres of >elhi! C, ! %hich centres lie *ithin &) @ms. of each other1 !# C, ! %hat is the shortest route passing through all these centres!. hese are spatial 9uestions that can only be ans*ered using latitude and longitude data and other information such as the radius of earth. Geographic Information Systems can ans*er such 9uestions. Need o! GIS) /any professionals# such as foresters# urban planners# and geologists# have recogni0ed the importance of spatial dimensions in organising G analysing information. %hether a discipline is concerned *ith the very practical aspects of business# or is concerned *ith

purely academic research# geographic information system can introduce a perspective# *hich can provide valuable insights as &. +); of the information has geographic location as it's denominator making spatial analysis an essential tool. 3. 2bility to assimilate divergent sources of data both spatial and non-spatial (attribute data). 5. Hisuali0ation Impact 6. 2nalytical -apability (. Sharing of Information F#ctors Aiding t&e rise o! GIS( ,evolution in Information echnology.

-omputer echnology. ,emote Sensing. Global 4ositioning System.

-ommunication echnology. ,apidly declining cost of -omputer $ard*are# and at the same time# e:ponential gro*th of operational speed of computers. Enhanced functionality of soft*are and their user-friendliness. Hisuali0ing impact of GIS corroborating the -hinese proverb !a picture is *orth a thousand *ords.! Geographical feature and data describing it are part of our everyday lives G most of our everyday decisions are influenced by some facet of Geography.

P&i+oso*&. o! GIS he proliferation of GIS is e:plained by its uni9ue ability to assimilate data from *idely divergent sources# to analyse trends over time# and to spatially evaluate impacts caused by development. ?or an e:perienced analyst# GIS is an e:tension one's o*n analytical thinking. he system has no in-built solutions for any spatial problemsF it depends upon the analyst. he importance of different factors of GIS in decreasing order is as under< Spatial 2nalysis >atabase Soft*are $ard*are GIS involves complete understanding about patterns# space# and processes or methodology needed to approach a problem. It is a tool acting as a means to attain certain ob"ective 9uickly and efficiently. Its applicability is reali0ed *hen the user fully understands the overall spatial concept under *hich a particular GIS is established and analyses his specific application in the light of those established parameters.

7efore the GIS implementation is considered the ob"ectives# both immediate and long term# have to be considered. Since the effectiveness and efficiency (i.e. benefit against cost) of the GIS *ill depend largely on the 9uality of initial field data captured# organi0ational design has to be decided upon to maintain this data continuously. his initial data capture is most important. Some Interesting Links : 4hilosophy of GIS 2n article by DC22 Dational >ata -enters# DG>-2 Implementing GIS in Aebanon Implementing GIS in Aebanon - 2 -ase Study by Iac9ues Ekmek"i# >irector GIS Services >ivision82ssociate @hatib G 2lami - -onsolidated Engineering -ompany 7eirut - Aebanon Ad$#nt#ges o! GIS he Geographic Information System has been an effective tool for implementation and monitoring of municipal infrastructure. he use of GIS has been in vogue primarily due to the advantage mentioned belo*< 4lanning of pro"ect /ake better decisions Hisual 2nalysis Improve Crgani0ational Integration P+#nning O! Pro/ect 2dvantage of GIS is often found in detailed planning of pro"ect having a large spatial component# *here analysis of the problem is a pre re9uisite at the start of the pro"ect. hematic maps generation is possible on one or more than one base maps# e:ample< the generation of a land use map on the basis of a soil composition# vegetation and topography. he uni9ue combination of certain features facilitates the creation of such thematic maps. %ith the various modules *ithin GIS it is possible to calculate surface# length# *idth and distance. M#king ecisions he adage !better information leads to better decisions! is as true for GIS as it is for other information systems. 2 GIS# ho*ever# is not an automated decision making system but a tool to 9uery# analy0e# and map data in support of the decision making process. GIS technology has been used to assist in tasks such as presenting information at planning in9uiries# helping resolve territorial disputes# and siting pylons in such a *ay as to minimi0e visual intrusion. 0isu#+ An#+.sis >igital errain /odeling (> /) is an important utility of GIS. Bsing > /85> modeling# landscape can be better visuali0ed# leading to a better understanding of certain relations in the landscape. /any relevant calculations# such as (potential) lakes and *ater volumes# soil erosion volume (E:ample< landslides)# 9uantities of earth to be moved

(channels# dams# roads# embankments# land leveling) and hydrological modeling becomes easier. Dot only in the previously mentioned fields but also in the social sciences GIS can prove e:tremely useful. 7esides the process of formulating scenarios for an Environmental Impact 2ssessment# GIS can be a valuable tool for sociologists to analy0e administrative data such as population distribution# market locali0ation and other related features. Im*ro$ing Org#ni1#tion#+ Integr#tion /any organi0ations that have implemented a GIS have found that one of its main benefits is improved management of their o*n organi0ation and resources. 7ecause GIS has the ability to link data sets together by geography# it facilitates interdepartmental information sharing and communication. 7y creating a shared database one department can benefit from the *ork of another--data can be collected once and used many times. 2s communication increases among individuals and departments# redundancy is reduced# productivity is enhanced# and overall organi0ational efficiency is improved. hus# in a utility company the customer and infrastructure databases can be integrated so that *hen there is planned maintenance# affected people can be informed by computer-generated letters. Some Interesting Links: Geographical Information Systems 2dvantages of GIS over /anual /ethods he Geo>ata Institute he GIS 2*arness 7ooklet by Bniversity of Southampton P+#nning O! Pro/ect 2dvantage of GIS is often found in detailed planning of pro"ect having a large spatial component# *here analysis of the problem is a pre re9uisite at the start of the pro"ect. hematic maps generation is possible on one or more than one base maps# e:ample< the generation of a land use map on the basis of a soil composition# vegetation and topography. he uni9ue combination of certain features facilitates the creation of such thematic maps. %ith the various modules *ithin GIS it is possible to calculate surface# length# *idth and distance. M#king ecisions he adage !better information leads to better decisions! is as true for GIS as it is for other information systems. 2 GIS# ho*ever# is not an automated decision making system but a tool to 9uery# analy0e# and map data in support of the decision making process. GIS technology has been used to assist in tasks such as presenting information at planning in9uiries# helping resolve territorial disputes# and siting pylons in such a *ay as to minimi0e visual intrusion.

0isu#+ An#+.sis >igital errain /odeling (> /) is an important utility of GIS. Bsing > /85> modeling# landscape can be better visuali0ed# leading to a better understanding of certain relations in the landscape. /any relevant calculations# such as (potential) lakes and *ater volumes# soil erosion volume (E:ample< landslides)# 9uantities of earth to be moved (channels# dams# roads# embankments# land leveling) and hydrological modeling becomes easier. Dot only in the previously mentioned fields but also in the social sciences GIS can prove e:tremely useful. 7esides the process of formulating scenarios for an Environmental Impact 2ssessment# GIS can be a valuable tool for sociologists to analy0e administrative data such as population distribution# market locali0ation and other related features. Im*ro$ing Org#ni1#tion#+ Integr#tion /any organi0ations that have implemented a GIS have found that one of its main benefits is improved management of their o*n organi0ation and resources. 7ecause GIS has the ability to link data sets together by geography# it facilitates interdepartmental information sharing and communication. 7y creating a shared database one department can benefit from the *ork of another--data can be collected once and used many times. 2s communication increases among individuals and departments# redundancy is reduced# productivity is enhanced# and overall organi0ational efficiency is improved. hus# in a utility company the customer and infrastructure databases can be integrated so that *hen there is planned maintenance# affected people can be informed by computer-generated letters. Some Interesting Links: Geographical Information Systems 2dvantages of GIS over /anual /ethods he Geo>ata Institute he GIS 2*arness 7ooklet by Bniversity of Southampton

Com*onents o! GIS GIS constitutes of five key components< $ard*are Soft*are >ata 4eople /ethod H#rd"#re It consists of the computer system on *hich the GIS soft*are *ill run. he choice of

hard*are system range from 5))/$0 4ersonal -omputers to Super -omputers having capability in era ?AC4S. he computer forms the backbone of the GIS hard*are# *hich gets it's input through the Scanner or a digiti0er board. Scanner converts a picture into a digital image for further processing. he output of scanner can be stored in many formats e.g. I??# 7/4# I4G etc. 2 digiti0er board is flat board used for vectorisation of a given map ob"ects. 4rinters and plotters are the most common output devices for a GIS hard*are setup. So!t"#re GIS soft*are provides the functions and tools needed to store# analy0e# and display geographic information. GIS soft*ares in use are /apInfo# 2,-8Info# 2uto-2> /ap# etc. he soft*are available can be said to be application specific. %hen the lo* cost GIS *ork is to be carried out desktop /apInfo is the suitable option. It is easy to use and supports many GIS feature. If the user intends to carry out e:tensive analysis on GIS# 2,-8Info is the preferred option. ?or the people using 2uto-2> and *illing to step into GIS# 2uto-2> /ap is a good option. Data Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in-house or purchased from a commercial data provider. The digital map forms the basic data input for GIS. Tabular data related to the map objects can also be attached to the digital data. A GIS will integrate spatial data with other data resources and can even use a DB S! used b" most organi#ation to maintain their data! to manage spatial data. People GIS users range from technical specialists who design and maintain the s"stem to those who use it to help them perform their ever"da" wor$. The people who use GIS can be broadl" classified into two classes. The %AD&GIS operator! whose wor$ is to vectorise the map objects. The use of this vectorised data to perform 'uer"! anal"sis or an" other wor$ is the responsibilit" of a GIS engineer&user. Method And above all a successful GIS operates according to a well-designed plan and business rules! which are the models and operating practices uni'ue to each organi#ation. There are various techni'ues used for map creation and further usage for an" project. The map creation can either be automated raster to vector creator or it can be manuall" vectorised using the scanned images. The source of these digital maps can be either map prepared b" an" surve" agenc" or satellite imager". GIS Applications %omputeri#ed mapping and spatial anal"sis have been developed simultaneousl" in several related fields. The present status would not have been achieved without close interaction between various fields such as utilit" networ$s! cadastral mapping! topographic mapping! thematic cartograph"! surve"ing and photogrammeter" remote sensing! image processing! computer science! rural and urban planning! earth science! and geograph". The GIS technolog" is rapidl" becoming a standard tool for management of natural resources. The effective use of large spatial data volumes is dependent upon the e(istence of an efficient geographic handling and

processing s"stem to transform this data into usable information. The GIS technolog" is used to assist decision-ma$ers b" indicating various alternatives in development and conservation planning and b" modelling the potential outcomes of a series of scenarios. It should be noted that an" tas$ begins and ends with the real world. Data are collected about the real world. )f necessit"! the product is an abstraction* it is not possible +and not desired, to handle ever" last detail. After the data are anal"sed! information is compiled for decision-ma$ers. Based on this information! actions are ta$en and plans implemented in the real world. Major areas of application Different streams of planning -rban planning! housing! transportation planning architectural conservation! urban design! landscape. Street Network Based Application It is an addressed matched application! vehicle routing and scheduling. location and site selection and disaster planning. Natural Resource Based Application anagement and environmental impact anal"sis of wild and scenic recreational resources! flood plain! wetlands! ac'uifers! forests! and wildlife. View Shed Analysis /a#ardous or to(ic factories siting and ground water modelling. 0ild life habitat stud" and migrational route planning. Land Parcel Based 1oning! sub-division plans review! land ac'uisition! environment impact anal"sis! nature 'ualit" management and maintenance etc. Facilities anagement %an locate underground pipes and cables for maintenance! planning! trac$ing energ" use.

Fund#ment#+s o! GIS
/apping -oncepts# ?eatures G 4roperties 2 map represents geographic features or other spatial phenomena by graphically conveying information about locations and attributes. Aocational information describes

the position of particular geographic features on the Earth's surface# as *ell as the spatial relationship bet*een features# such as the shortest path from a fire station to a library# the pro:imity of competing businesses# and so on. 2ttribute information describes characteristics of the geographic features represented# such as the feature type# its name or number and 9uantitative information such as its area or length. hus the basic ob"ective of mapping is to provide descriptions of geographic phenomenon spatial and non spatial information map features like 4oint# Aine# G 4olygon. /ap ?eatures Aocational information is usually represented by points for features such as *ells and telephone pole locations# lines for features such as streams# pipelines and contour lines and areas for features such as lakes# counties and census tracts. 4oint feature 2 point feature represents as single location. It defines a map ob"ect too small to sho* as a line or area feature. 2 special symbol of label usually depicts a point location. Aine feature 2 line feature is a set of connected# ordered coordinates representing the linear shape of a map ob"ect that may be too narro* to display as an area such as a road or feature *ith no *idth such as a contour line. 2rea feature 2n area feature is a closed figure *hose boundary encloses a homogeneous area# such as a state country soil type or lake. /ap -haracteristics In addition to feature locations and their attributes# the other technical characteristics that define maps and their use includes< /ap Scale /ap 2ccuracy /ap E:tent and >ata 7ase E:tent Scale o sho* a portion of the Earth's surface on a map# the scale must be sufficiently ad"usted to cover the ob"ective. /ap scale or the e:tent of reduction is e:pressed as a ratio. he unit on the left indicates distance on the map and the number on the right indicates distance on the ground. he follo*ing three statements sho* the same scale. & inch J 3.))) feet JK & inch J 36.))) inches JK &<36.))) he latter is kno*n as a representative fraction (,?) because the amounts on either side of the colon are e9uivalent< that is &<36.))) means &inch e9uals 36.))) inches or& foot e9uals 36.))) feet or & meter e9uals 36.))) meters and so on.

/ap scale indicates ho* much the given area has been reduced. ?or the same si0e map# features on a small-scale map (&<&#)))#))))) *ill be smaller than those on a large-scale map (&<&#3))). 2 map *ith less detail is said to be of a smaller scale than one *ith more detail. -artographers often divide scales into three different categories. Small-scale maps have scales smaller than & < &#)))#))) and are used for maps of *ide areas *here not much detail is re9uired. /edium-scale maps have scales bet*een & < +(#))) and & < &#)))#))). Aarge-scale maps have scales larger than & < +(#))). hey are used in applications *here detailed map features are re9uired. So each scale represents a different tradeoff. %ith a small-scale map# you'll be able to sho* a large area *ithout much detail. Cn a large-scale map# you'll be able to sho* a lot of detail but not for a large area. he small-scale map can sho* a large area because it reduces the area so much that the large-scale map can only sho* a portion of one street# but in such detail that you can see shapes of the houses. o convert this statement to a representative fraction# the units of measure on both the sides being compared must be the same. ?or this e:ample# both measurements *ill be in meters. o do this< &. -onvert &.. inches into meters &.. inches : ).)3(6 meters8inch J ).)6 meters 3. Aet us suppose that ).)6 units on the map J &)#))) units on the ground hen# you can no* state the scale as a representative fraction (,?)< ).)6<&)#))) hough it is a valid statement of scale# most cartographers may find it clumsy. raditionally# the first number in the representative fraction is made e9ual to &< ).)6 8 ).)6 J & units on the map J &)#))) 8 ).)6 units on the ground & unit on the map J 3()#))) units on the ground Scale in >igital /aps %ith digital maps# the traditional concept of scale in terms of distance does not apply

because digital maps do not remain fi:ed in si0e. hey can be displayed or plotted at any possible magnification. Let *e still speak of the scale of a digital map. In digital mapping# the term scale is used to indicate the scale of the materials from *hich the map *as made. ?or e:ample# if a digital map is said to have a scale of &<&))#)))# it *as made from a &<&))#)))-scale paper map. $o*ever# a digital map's scale still allo*s you to make some educated guesses about its contents because# generally# digital maps retain the same accuracy and characteristics as their source maps. So it is still true that a large-scale digital map *ill usually be more accurate and less general than a small-scale digital map. 7ecause the display si0e of a computer-based map is not fi:ed# users are often tempted to blo* up maps to very large si0es. ?or e:ample# a &<&))#)))-scale map can easily be plotted at a si0e of &<36#))) or even &<3#)))-but it usually is not a good idea to do so. It encourages the user to make measurements that the underlying data does not support. Lou cannot measure positions to the nearest foot if your map is only accurate to the nearest mile. Lou *ill end up looking for information that does not e:ist. /ap ,esolution /ap resolution refers to ho* accurately the location and shape of map features can be depicted for a given map scale. Scale affects resolution. In a larger-scale map# the resolution of features more closely matches real-*orld features because the e:tent of reduction from ground to map is less. 2s map scale decrease# the map resolution diminishes because features must be smoothed and simplified# or not sho*n at all. /ap 2ccuracy /any factors besides resolution# influence ho* accurately features can be depicted# including the 9uality of source data# the map scale# your drafting skill and the *idth of lines dra*n on the ground. 2 fine drafting pen *ill dra* line's &8&)) of an inch *ide. Such a line represents a corridor on the ground# *hich is almost (5 feet *ide In addition to this# human drafting errors *ill occur and can be compounded by the 9uality of your source maps and materials. 2 map accurate for one purpose is often inaccurate for others since accuracy is determined by the needs of the pro"ect as much as it is by the map itself. Some measurements of a map's accuracy are discussed belo*. 2bsolute accuracy of a map refers to the relationship bet*een a geographic position on a map (a street corner# for instance) and its real-*orld position measured on the surface of the earth. 2bsolute accuracy is primarily important for comple: data re9uirements such as those for surveying and engineeringbased applications. ,elative accuracy refers to the displacement bet*een t*o points on a map (both distance and angle)# compared to the displacement of those same points in the real *orld. ,elative accuracy is often more important and easier to obtain than

absolute accuracy because users rarely need to kno* absolute positions. /ore often# they need to find a position relative to some kno*n landmark# *hich is *hat relative accuracy provides. Bsers *ith simple data re9uirements generally need only relative accuracy. 2ttribute accuracy refers to the precision of the attribute database linked to the map's features. ?or e:ample# if the map sho*s road classifications# are they correct1 If it sho*s street addresses# ho* accurate are they1 2ttribute accuracy is most important to users *ith comple: data re9uirements. it 2 map's -urrency refers to ho* up-to-date is. -urrency is usually e:pressed in terms of a revision date# but this information is not al*ays easy to find. 2 map is -omplete if it includes all the features a user *ould e:pect it to contain. ?or e:ample# does a street map contain all the streets1 -ompleteness and currency usually are related because a map becomes less complete as it gets older.

he most important issue to remember about map accuracy is that the more accurate the map# the more it costs in time and money to develop. ?or e:ample# digital maps *ith coordinate accuracy of about &)) feet can be purchased ine:pensively. If &-foot accuracy is re9uired# a custom survey is often the only *ay to get it# *hich drives up data-ac9uisition costs by many orders of magnitude and can significantly delay pro"ect implementation - by months or even years. herefore# too much accuracy can be as detrimental to the success of a GIS pro"ect as too little. ,ather than focusing on the pro"ect's benefits# a sponsoring organi0ation may focus on the costs that result from a level of accuracy not "ustified for the pro"ect. 4ro"ect support inevitably erodes *hen its original ob"ectives are forgotten in a flurry of cost analyses. 2 far better strategy is to start the pro"ect *ith *hatever data is readily available and sufficient to support initial ob"ectives. Cnce the GIS is up and running# producing useful results# pro"ect scope can be e:panded. he 9uality of its data can be improved as re9uired. Even though no maps are entirely accurate# they are still useful for decision-making and analysis. $o* ever# it is important to consider map accuracy to ensure that your data is not used inappropriately. 2ny number of factors can cause error. Dote these sources can have at cumulative effect. E J f(f) M f(&) M f(e) M f(d) M f(a) M f(m) M f(rms) M f(mp) M u %here# f J flattening the round Earth onto a t*o - dimensional surface (transformation from spherical to planar geometry) I J accurately measuring location on Earth (correct pro"ect and datum information)

c J cartographic interpretation (correct interpretation of features) d J drafting error (accuracy in tracing of features and *idth of drafting pen) a J analog to digital conversion (digiti0ing board calibration) m J media stability (*arping and stretching# folding. %rinkling of map) p J digiti0ing processor error (accuracy of cursor placement) rms J ,oot /ean S9uare (registration accuracy of ties) mp J machine precision (coordinate rounding by computer in storing and transforming) u J additional une:plained source error /ap E:tent he aerial e:tent of map is the area on the Earth's surface represented on the map. It is the limit of the area covered# usually defined by rectangle "ust large enough to include all mapped features. he si0e of the study area depends on the map scale. he smaller the scale the larger the area covered. >atabase E:tent 2 critical first step in building a geographic database is defining its e:tent. he aerial e:tent of a database is the limit of the area of interest for your GIS pro"ect. his usually includes the areas directly affected by your organi0ation's responsibility (such as assigned administrative units) as *ell as surrounding areas that either influence or are influenced by relevant activities in the administrative area. >ata 2utomation /ap features are logically organi0ed into a set of layers or themes of information. 2 base map can be organi0ed into layers such as streams# soils# *ells or boundaries. /ap data# regardless of ho* a spatial database *ill be applied# is collected# automated and updated as series of ad"acent map sheets or aerial photograph. $ere each sheet is mounted on the digiti0er and digiti0ed# one sheet at a time. In order to be able to combine these smaller sheets into larger units or study areas# the co-ordinates of coverage must be transformed into a single common co-ordinate system. Cnce in a common co-ordinate system# attributes are associated *ith features. hen as needed map sheets for layer are edge matched and "oined into a single coverage for your study area. ypes of Information in a >igital /ap 2ny digital map is capable of storing much more information than a paper map of the same area# but it's generally not clear at first glance "ust *hat sort of information the map includes. ?or e:ample# more information is usually available in a digital map than *hat you see on-screen. 2nd evaluating a given data set simply by looking at the screen can be difficult< %hat part of the image is contained in the data and *hat part is created by the GIS program's interpretation of the data1 Lou must understand the types of data in your map so you can use it appropriately. hree general types of information can be included in digital maps<

Geographic information# *hich provides the position and shapes of specific geographic features. 2ttribute information# *hich provides additional non-graphic information about each feature. >isplay information# *hich describes ho* the features *ill appear on the screen.

Some digital maps do not contain all three types of information. ?or e:ample# raster maps usually do not include attribute information# and many vector data sources do not include display information. Geographic Information he geographic information in a digital map provides the position and shape of each map feature. ?or e:ample# a road map's geographic information is the location of each road on the map. In a vector map# a feature's position is normally e:pressed as sets of N# L pairs or N# L# O triples# using the coordinate system defined for the map (see the discussion of coordinate systems# belo*). /ost vector geographic information systems support three fundamental geometric ob"ects< 4oint< 2 single pair of coordinates. Aine< *o or more points in a specific se9uence. 4olygon< 2n area enclosed by a line. Some systems also support more comple: entities# such as regions# circles# ellipses# arcs# and curves. 2ttribute Information 2ttribute data describes specific map features but is not inherently graphic. ?or e:ample# an attribute associated *ith a road might be its name or the date it *as last paved. 2ttributes are often stored in database files kept separately from the graphic portion of the map. 2ttributes pertain only to vector mapsF they are seldom associated *ith raster images. GIS soft*are packages maintain internal links tying each graphical map entity to its attribute information. he nature of these links varies *idely across systems. In some# the link is implicit# and the user has no control over it. Cther systems have e:plicit links that the user can modify. Ainks in these systems take the form of database keys. Each map feature has a key value stored *ith itF the key identifies the specific database record that contains the feature's attribute information. >isplay Information he display information in a digital-map data set describes ho* the map is to be displayed or plotted. -ommon display information includes feature colours# line *idths and line types (solid# dashed# dotted# single# or double)F ho* the names of roads and other features are sho*n on the mapF and *hether or not lakes# parks# or other area features are colour coded.

$o*ever# many users do not consider the 9uality of display information *hen they evaluate a data set. Let map display strongly affects the information you and your audience can obtain from the map - no matter ho* simple or comple: the pro"ect. 2 technically fla*less# but unattractive or hard-to-read map *ill not achieve the goal of conveying information easily to the user. -artographic 2ppeal -learly# ho* a map looks - especially if it is being used in a presentation - determines its effectiveness. 2ppropriate color choices# linetypes# and so on add the professional look you *ant and make the map easier to interpret. Since display information often is not included in the source data set or is filtered out by conversion soft*are# you may need to add it yourself or purchase the map from a vendor *ho does it for you. /ap display information should convey the meaning of its underlying attribute data. In a vector map# a feature's position is normally e:pressed as sets of N# L pairs or N# L# O triples# using the coordinate system defined for the map (see the discussion of coordinate systems# belo*). /ost vector geographic information systems support three fundamental geometric ob"ects< 4oint< 2 single pair of coordinates. Aine< *o or more points in a specific se9uence. 4olygon< 2n area enclosed by a line. Some systems also support more comple: entities# such as regions# circles# ellipses# arcs# and curves. 2ttribute Information 2ttribute data describes specific map features but is not inherently graphic. ?or e:ample# an attribute associated *ith a road might be its name or the date it *as last paved. 2ttributes are often stored in database files kept separately from the graphic portion of the map. 2ttributes pertain only to vector mapsF they are seldom associated *ith raster images. GIS soft*are packages maintain internal links tying each graphical map entity to its attribute information. he nature of these links varies *idely across systems. In some# the link is implicit# and the user has no control over it. Cther systems have e:plicit links that the user can modify. Ainks in these systems take the form of database keys. Each map feature has a key value stored *ith itF the key identifies the specific database record that contains the feature's attribute information. >isplay Information he display information in a digital-map data set describes ho* the map is to be displayed or plotted. -ommon display information includes feature colours# line *idths and line types (solid# dashed# dotted# single# or double)F ho* the names of roads and other features are sho*n on the mapF and *hether or not lakes# parks# or other area features are colour coded.

$o*ever# many users do not consider the 9uality of display information *hen they evaluate a data set. Let map display strongly affects the information you and your audience can obtain from the map - no matter ho* simple or comple: the pro"ect. 2 technically fla*less# but unattractive or hard-to-read map *ill not achieve the goal of conveying information easily to the user. -artographic 2ppeal -learly# ho* a map looks - especially if it is being used in a presentation - determines its effectiveness. 2ppropriate color choices# linetypes# and so on add the professional look you *ant and make the map easier to interpret. Since display information often is not included in the source data set or is filtered out by conversion soft*are# you may need to add it yourself or purchase the map from a vendor *ho does it for you. /ap display information should convey the meaning of its underlying attribute data. /aps and /ap 2nalysis 2utomated /apping -omputer 2ided /apping has its limitations. Goal of GIS is not only to prepare a good map but also perform map analysis. /aps are the main source of data for GIS. GIS# though an accurate mapping tool# re9uires error management. /24 is a representation on a medium of a selected material or abstract material in relation to the surface of the earth (defined by -artographic association). /aps originated from mathematics. he term /ap is often used in mathematics to convey the motion of transferring the information from one form to another "ust as -artographers transfer information from the surface of the earth to a sheet of paper. /ap is used in a loose fashion to refer to any manual display of information particularly if it is abstract# generalised or schematic. 4rocess involved in the production of /aps< Selection of fe* features of the real *orld. -lassification of selected features in to groups eg. ,ail*ay in to different lines. -lassification depends upon the purpose. Simplification of "aggered lines like the coast lines. E:aggeration of features. Symbolisation to represent different classes of features. >ra*ing >igiti0ation of /aps. /aps can be broadly classified in to t*o groups< &. opographical maps 3. hematic maps opographical /aps It is a reference map sho*ing the outline of selected man-made and natural features of the earth. It often acts as a frame for other features opography refers to the shape of

surface represented by contours or shading. It also sho*s lands# rail*ay and other prominent features. hematic maps hematic maps are an important source of GIS information. hese are tools to communicate geographical concepts such as >ensity of population# -limate# movement of goods and people# land use etc. It has many classifications. Geographic >ata ypes 2lthough the t*o terms# data and information# are often used indiscriminately# they both have a specific meaning. >ata can be described as different observations# *hich are collected and stored. Information is that data# *hich is useful in ans*ering 9ueries or solving a problem. >igiti0ing a large number of maps provides a large amount of data after hours of painstaking *orks# but the data can only render useful information if it is used in analysis. Spatial and Don-spatial data Geographic data are organised in a geographic database. his database can be considered as a collection of spatially referenced data that acts as a model of reality. here are t*o important components of this geographic database< its geographic position and its attributes or properties. In other *ords# spatial data (*here is it1) and attribute data (*hat is it1) 2ttribute >ata he attributes refer to the properties of spatial entities. hey are often referred to as non-spatial data since they do not in themselves represent location information. >istrict Dame 2rea 4opulation Doida 5'( s9. @m. .#+(#56& Gha0iabad 5=( s9. @m. 3#(+#)=. /ir0apur &&' s9. @m. &#+3#'(3 Spatial data Geographic position refers to the fact that each feature has a location that must be specified in a uni9ue *ay. o specify the position in an absolute *ay a coordinate system is used. ?or small areas# the simplest coordinate system is the regular s9uare grid. ?or larger areas# certain approved cartographic pro"ections are commonly used. Internationally there are many different coordinate systems in use. Geographic ob"ect can be sho*n by ?CB, type of representation vi0.# points# lines# areas# and continuous surfaces. 4oint >ata 4oints are the simplest type of spatial data. hey are-0ero dimensional ob"ects *ith only a position in space but no length.

Aine >ata Aines (also termed segments or arcs) are one-dimensional spatial ob"ects. 7esides having a position in space# they also have a length. 2rea >ata 2reas (also termed polygons) are t*o-dimensional spatial ob"ects *ith not only a position in space and a length but also a *idth (in other *ords they have an area). -ontinuous Surface -ontinuous surfaces are three-dimensional spatial ob"ects *ith not only a position in space# a length and a *idth# but also a depth or height (in other *ords they have a volume). hese spatial ob"ects have not been discussed further because most GIS do not include real volumetric spatial data. Geographic >ata -- Ainkages and /atching Ainkages 2 GIS typically links different sets. Suppose you *ant to kno* the mortality rate to cancer among children under &) years of age in each country. If you have one file that contains the number of children in this age group# and another that contains the mortality rate from cancer# you must first combine or link the t*o data files. Cnce this is done# you can divide one figure by the other to obtain the desired ans*er.

E,#ct M#tc&ing E:act matching occurs *hen you have information in one computer file about many geographic features (e.g.# to*ns) and additional information in another file about the same set of features. he operation to bring them together is easily achieved by using a key common to both files -- in this case# the to*n name. hus# the record in each file *ith the same to*n name is e:tracted# and the t*o are "oined and stored in another file.

N#me 2 7 > E

Po*u+#iton 6)5= +)5) &)+++ (+'= (.). 2 7 > E

N#me

A$g( &ousing Cost 5)#()) 33#))) &))#))) 36#))) 36#)))

N#me 2 7 > E

Po*u+#tion 6)5= +)5) &)+++ (+'= (.).

A$g( Housing Cost 5)#()) 33#))) &))#&)) 36#))) 36#)))

Hier#rc&ic#+ M#tc&ing Some types of information# ho*ever# are collected in more detail and less fre9uently than other types of information. ?or e:ample# financial and unemployment data covering a large area are collected 9uite fre9uently. Cn the other hand# population data are collected in small areas but at less fre9uent intervals. If the smaller areas nest (i.e.# fit e:actly) *ithin the larger ones# then the *ay to make the data match of the same area is to use hierarchical matching -- add the data for the small areas together until the grouped areas match the bigger ones and then match them e:actly. he hierarchical structure illustrated in the chart sho*s that this city is composed of several tracts. o obtain meaningful values for the city# the tract values must be added together.
Tr#ct &)& &)3 &)5 &)6 To"n 4 P , S Po*u+#tion .)#))) 6(#))) 5(#))) 5.#)))

&)( &). &)+ Dakkhu @upondole

(+#))) 3(#))) (=#))) ract &)& ract &)3 ract &)5 ract &)6 ract &)( ract &)+ ract &).

Fu11. M#tc&ing Cn many occasions# the boundaries of the smaller areas do not match those of the larger ones. his occurs often *hile dealing *ith environmental data. ?or e:ample# crop boundaries# usually defined by field edges# rarely match the boundaries bet*een the soil types. If you *ant to determine the most productive soil for a particular crop# you need to overlay the t*o sets and compute crop productivity for each and every soil type. In principle# this is like laying one map over another and noting the combinations of soil and productivity. 2 GIS can carry out all these operations because it uses geography# as a common key bet*een the data sets. Information is linked only if it relates to the same geographical area.

Geogr#*&ic#+

#t# Sets

%hy is data linkage so important1 -onsider a situation *here you have t*o data sets for a given area# such as yearly income by county and average cost of housing for the same area. Each data might be analysed and8or mapped individually. 2lternatively# they may be combined. %ith t*o data sets# only one valid combination e:ists. Even if your data sets may be meaningful for a single 9uery you *ill still be able to ans*er many more 9uestions than if the data sets *ere kept separate. 7y bringing them together# you add value to the database. o do this# you need GIS.

Figure 2

Princi*#+ Functions o! GIS #t# C#*ture >ata used in GIS often come from many types# and are stored in different *ays. 2 GIS provides tools and a method for the integration of different data into a format to be compared and analysed. >ata sources are mainly obtained from manual digiti0ation and scanning of aerial photographs# paper maps# and e:isting digital data sets. ,emotesensing satellite imagery and G4S are promising data input sources for GIS. #t#2#se M#n#gement #nd 3*d#te 2fter data are collected and integrated# the GIS must provide facilities# *hich can store and maintain data. Effective data management has many definitions but should include all of the follo*ing aspects< data security# data integrity# data storage and retrieval# and data maintenance abilities. Geogr#*&ic An#+.sis >ata integration and conversion are only a part of the input phase of GIS. %hat is re9uired ne:t is the ability to interpret and to analy0e the collected information 9uantitatively and 9ualitatively. ?or e:ample# satellite image can assist an agricultural scientist to pro"ect crop yield per hectare for a particular region. ?or the same region# the scientist also has the rainfall data for the past si: months collected through *eather station observations. he scientists also have a map of the soils for the region *hich sho*s fertility and suitability for agriculture. hese point data can be interpolated and *hat you get is a thematic map sho*ing isohyets or contour lines of rainfall. Presenting Resu+ts Cne of the most e:citing aspects of GIS technology is the variety of different *ays in *hich the information can be presented once it has been processed by GIS. raditional methods of tabulating and graphing data can be supplemented by maps and three dimensional images. Hisual communication is one of the most fascinating aspects of GIS technology and is available in a diverse range of output options.

#t# C#*ture #n Introduction he functionality of GIS relies on the 9uality of data available# *hich# in most developing countries# is either redundant or inaccurate. 2lthough GIS are being used *idely# effective and efficient means of data collection have yet to be systematically established. he true value of GIS can only be reali0ed if the proper tools to collect spatial data and integrate them *ith attribute data are available. M#nu#+ igiti1#tion /anual >igiti0ing still is the most common method for entering maps into GIS. he map to be digiti0ed is affi:ed to a digiti0ing table# and a pointing device (called the digiti0ing cursor or mouse) is used to trace the features of the map. hese features can be boundary lines bet*een mapping units# other linear features (rivers# roads# etc.) or point features (sampling points# rainfall stations# etc.) he digiti0ing table electronically encodes the position of the cursor *ith the precision of a fraction of a millimeter. he most common digiti0ing table uses a fine grid of *ires# embedded in the table. he vertical *ires *ill record the L-coordinates# and the hori0ontal ones# the N-coordinates. he range of digiti0ed coordinates depends upon the density of the *ires (called digiti0ing resolution) and the settings of the digiti0ing soft*are. 2 digiti0ing table is normally a rectangular area in the middle# separated from the outer boundary of the table by a small rim. Cutside of this so-called active area of the digiti0ing table# no coordinates are recorded. he lo*er left corner of the active area *ill have the coordinates : J ) and y J ). herefore# make sure that the (part of the) map that you *ant to digiti0e is al*ays fi:ed *ithin the active area. Sc#nning S.stem he second method of obtaining vector data is *ith the use of scanners. Scanning (or scan digiti0ing) provides a 9uicker means of data entry than manual digiti0ing. In scanning# a digital image of the map is produced by moving an electronic detector across the map surface. he output of a scanner is a digital raster image# consisting of a large number of individual cells ordered in ro*s and columns. ?or the -onversion to vector format# t*o types of raster image can be used. Q In the case of -hloropleth maps or thematic maps# such as geological maps# the individual mapping units can be separated by the scanner according to their different colours or grey tones. he resulting images *ill be in colours or grey tone images. Q In the case of scanned line maps# such as topographic maps# the result is a blackand-*hite image. 7lack lines are converted to a value of &# and the *hite areas in bet*een lines *ill obtain a value of ) in the scanned image. hese images# *ith only t*o possibilities (& or )) are also called binary images. he raster image is processed by a computer to improve the image 9uality and is then edited and checked by an operator. It is then converted into vector format by special

computer programmes# *hich are different for colour8grey tone images and binary images. Scanning *orks best *ith maps that are very clean# simple# relate to one feature only# and do not contain e:traneous information# such as te:t or graphic symbols. ?or e:ample# a contour map should only contain the contour line# *ithout height indication# drainage net*ork# or infrastructure. In most cases# such maps *ill not be available# and should be dra*n especially for the purpose of scanning. Scanning and conversion to vector is therefore# only beneficial in large organi0ations# *here a large number of comple: maps are entered. In most cases# ho*ever# manual digiti0ing *ill be the only useful method for entering spatial data in vector format.

Figure 3

#t# Con$ersion %hile manipulating and analy0ing data# the same format should be used for all data. his Scanning System implies that# *hen different layers are to be used simultaneously# they should all be in vector or all in raster format. Bsually the conversion is from vector to raster# because the biggest part of the analysis is done in the raster domain. Hector data are transformed to raster data by overlaying a grid *ith a user-defined cell si0e. Sometimes the data in the raster format are converted into vector format. his is the

case especially if one *ants to achieve data reduction because the data storage needed for raster data is much larger than for vector data. 2 digital data file *ith spatial and attribute data might already e:ist in some *ay or another. here might be a national database or specific databases from ministries# pro"ects# or companies. In some cases a conversion is necessary before these data can be do*nloaded into the desired database. he commonly used attribute databases are d7ase and Cracle. Sometimes spreadsheet programmes like Aotus# Puattro# or E:cel are used# although these cannot be regarded as real database soft*ares. ,emote-sensing images are digital datasets recorded by satellite operating agencies and stored in their o*n image database. hey usually have to be converted into the format of the spatial (raster) database before they can be do*nloaded. S*#ti#+ #t# M#n#gement

Geo4Re+#tion#+ #t# Mode+ 2ll spatial data files *ill be geo-referenced. Geo-referencing refers to the location of a layer or coverage in space defined by the coordinate referencing system. he geo relational approach involves abstracting geographic information into a series of independent layers or coverages# each representing a selected set of closely associated geographic features (e.g.# roads# land use# river# settlement# etc). Each layer has the theme of a geographic feature and the database is organi0ed in the thematic layers. %ith this approach users can combine simple feature sets representing comple: relationships in the real *orld. his approach borro*s heavily on the concepts of relational >7/S# and it is typically closely integrated *ith such systems. his is fundamental to database organi0ation in GIS. To*o+ogic#+ #t# Structure( opology is the spatial relationship bet*een connecting and ad"acent coverage features (e.g.# arc# nodes# polygons# and points). ?or instance# the topology of an arc includes from and to nodes (beginning of the arc and ending of the arc representing direction) and its left and right polygon. opological relationships are built from simple elements into comple: elements< points (simplest elements)# arcs (sets of connected points)# and areas (sets of connected arcs). opological data structure# in fact# adds intelligence to the GIS database. Attri2ute #t# M#n#gement 2ll >ata *ithin a GIS (spatial data as *ell as attribute data) are stored *ithin databases. 2 database is a collection of information about things and their relationships to each other. ?or e:ample# you can have an engineering geological database# containing information about soil and rock types# field observations and measurements# and

laboratory results. his is interesting data# but not very useful if the laboratory data# for e:ample# cannot be related to soil and rock types. he ob"ective of collecting and maintaining information in a database is to relate facts and situations that *ere previously separate. he principle characteristics of a >7/S are< -entrali0ed control over the database is possible# allo*ing for better 9uality management and operator-defined access to parts of the databaseF >ata can be shared effectively by different applicationsF he access to the data is much easier# due to the use of a user-interface and the uservie*s (especially designed formula for entering and consulting the database)F >ata redundancy (storage of the same data in more than one place in the database) can be avoided as much as possibleF redundancy or unnecessary duplication of data are an annoyance# since this makes updating the database much more difficultF one can easily overlook changing redundant information *henever it occursF and he creation of ne* applications is much easier *ith >7/S. he disadvantages relate to the higher cost of purchasing the soft*are# the increased comple:ity of management# and the higher risk# as data are centrally managed. Re+#tion#+ #t#2#se 44 Conce*ts 5 Mode+ he relational data model is conceived as a series of tables# *ith no hierarchy nor any predefined relations. he relation bet*een the various tables should be made by the user. his is done by identifying a common field in t*o tables# *hich is assigned as the fle:ibility than in the other t*o data models. $o*ever# accessing the database is slo*er than *ith the other t*o models. >ue to its greater fle:ibility# the relational data model is used by nearly all GIS systems C&oosing geogr#*&ic d#t# he main purpose of purchasing a geographic information system (GIS)R is to produce results for your organi0ation. -hoosing the right GIS8mapping data *ill help you produce those results effectively. he role of base-map data in your GIS# he common characteristics of geographic data# he commonly available data sources Guidelines for evaluating the suitability of any data set for your pro"ect. he *orld of GIS data is comple:# by choosing the right data set# you can save significant amounts of money and# even more importantly# 9uickly begin your GIS

pro"ect. #t#: T&e Core o! Your M#**ing 6 GIS Pro/ect %hen most people begin a GIS pro"ect# their immediate concern is *ith purchasing computer hard*are and soft*are. hey enter into lengthy discussions *ith vendors about the merits of various components and carefully budget for ac9uisitions. Let they often give little thought to the core of the system# the data that goes inside it. hey fail to recogni0e that the choice of an initial data set has a tremendous influence on the ultimate success of their GIS pro"ect. >ata# the core of any GIS pro"ect# must be accurate - but accuracy is not enough. $aving the appropriate level of accuracy is vital. Since an increase in data accuracy increases ac9uisition and maintenance costs# data that is too detailed for your needs can hurt a pro"ect "ust as surely as inaccurate data can. 2ll any GIS pro"ect needs is data accurate enough to accomplish its ob"ectives and no more. ?or e:ample# you *ould not purchase an engineering *orkstation to run a simple *ord-processing application. Similarly# you *ould not need third-order survey accuracy for a GIS-based population study *hose smallest unit of measurement is a county. 4urchasing such data *ould be too costly and inappropriate for the pro"ect at hand. Even more critically# collecting overly comple: data could be so time-consuming that the GIS pro"ect might lose support *ithin the organi0ation. Even so# many people argue that# since GIS data can far outlast the hard*are and soft*are on *hich it runs# no e:pense should be spared in its creation. 4erfection# ho*ever# is relative. 4ro"ects and data re9uirements evolve. ,ather than overinvest in data# invest reasonably in a *ell-documented# *ell-understood data foundation that meets today's needs and provides a path for future enhancements. his approach is a key to successful GIS pro"ect implementation. Are Your #t# Needs Sim*+e or Com*+e,) 7efore you start your pro"ect# take some time to consider your ob"ectives and your GIS data needs. 2sk yourself# !2re my data needs comple: or simple1! RItalici0ed *ords can be found in the Glossary at the end of this document e:cept for *ords used for emphasis or *ords italici0ed for reasons of copyediting convention or layout. If you "ust need a map as a backdrop for other information# your data re9uirements are simple. Lou are building a map for your specific pro"ect# and you are primarily interested in displaying the necessary information# not in the map itself. Lou do not need highly accurate measurements of distances or areas or to combine maps from different sources. Dor do you *ant to edit or add to the map's basic geographic information. 2n e:ample of simple data re9uirements is a map for a ne*spaper story that sho*s the location of a fire. Good presentation is importantF absolute accuracy is not.

If you have simple data needs# read this paper to get the overall picture of *hat GIS data is and ho* it fits into your pro"ect. 2 pro"ect *ith simple data re9uirements can be started *ith ine:pensive maps. Lour primary interests *ill be 9uality graphic- display characteristics and finding maps that are easy to use *ith your soft*are. Lou need not be as concerned *ith technical mapping issues. $o*ever# basic kno*ledge of concepts such as coordinate systems# absolute accuracy# and file formats *ill help you understand your choices and help you make informed decisions *hen it's time to add to your system. %hat issues suggest more comple: GIS data needs1 7uilding a GIS to be used by many people over a long period of time. Storing and maintaining database information about geographic features. /aking accurate engineering measurements from the map. Editing or adding to the map. -ombining a variety of information from different sources. 2n e:ample of a system re9uiring comple: data *ould be a GIS built to manage infrastructure for an electric utility. If your data re9uirements are comple:# you ought to pay particular attention to the sections of this paper that discuss data accuracy# coordinate systems# layering# file formats# and the issues involved in combining data from different sources. 2lso keep in mind that pro"ects evolve# and simple data needs e:pand into comple: ones as your pro"ect moves beyond its original ob"ectives. If you understand the basics of your data set# you *ill make better decisions as your pro"ect gro*s. 7#sics o! igit#+ M#**ing 0ector $s( R#ster M#*s he most fundamental concept to grasp about any type of graphic data is making the distinction bet*een vector data and raster data. hese t*o data types are as different as night and day# yet they can look the same. ?or e:ample# a 9uestion that commonly comes up is !$o* can I convert my I?? files into >N? files1! he ans*er is !%ith difficulty#! because I?? is a raster data format and >N?S (data interchange file) is a vector format. 2nd converting from raster to vector is not simple. ,aster maps are best suited to some applications *hile vector maps are suited to others.

Figure 4

,aster data represents a graphic ob"ect as a pattern of dots# *hereas vector data represents the ob"ect as a set of lines dra*n bet*een specific points. -onsider a line dra*n diagonally on a piece of paper. 2 raster file *ould represent this image by subdividing the paper into a matri: of small rectangles-similar to a sheet of graph papercalled cells (figure &). Each cell is assigned a position in the data file and given a value based on the color at that position. %hite cells could be given the value )F black cells# the value &F grays *ould fall in-bet*een. his data representation allo*s the user to easily reconstruct or visuali0e the original image.

Figure 5

2 vector representation of the same diagonal line *ould record the position of the line by simply recording the coordinates of its starting and ending points. Each point *ould be e:pressed as t*o or three numbers (depending on *hether the representation *as 3> or 5># often referred to as N#L or N#L#O coordinates (figure 3). he first number# N# is the distance bet*een the point and the left side of the paperF L# the distance bet*een the point and the bottom of the paperF O# the point's elevation above or belo* the paper. he vector is formed by "oining the measured points. Some basic properties of raster and vector data are outlined belo*. Each entity in a vector file appears as an individual data ob"ect. It is easy to record information about an ob"ect or to compute characteristics such as its e:act length or surface area. It is much harder to derive this kind of information from a raster file because raster files contain little (and sometimes no) geometric information.

Some applications can be handled much more easily *ith raster techni9ues than *ith vector techni9ues. ,aster *orks best for surface modeling and for applications *here individual features are not important. ?or e:ample# a raster surface model can be very useful for performing cut-and-fill analyses for roadbuilding applications# but it doesn't tell you much about the characteristics of the road itself. errain elevations can be recorded in a raster format and used to construct digital elevation models (>E/s) (figure 5). Some land-use information comes in raster format.

Figure 6

,aster files are often larger than vector files. he raster representation of the line in the e:ample above re9uired a data value for each cell on the page# *hereas the vector representation only re9uired the positions of t*o points.

he si0e of the cells in a raster file is an important factor. Smaller cells improve image 9uality because they increase detail. 2s cell si0e increases# image definition decreases or blurs. In the e:ample# the position of the line's edge is defined most clearly if the cells are very small. $o*ever# there is a trade-off< >ividing the cell si0e in half increases file si0e by a factor of four. -ell si0e in a raster file is referred to as resolution. ?or a given resolution value# the raster cost does not increase *ith image comple:ity. hat is# any scanner can 9uickly make a raster file. It takes no more effort to scan a map of a dense urban area than to scan a sparse rural one. Cn the other hand# a vector file re9uires careful measuring and recording of each point# so an urban map *ill be much more time-consuming to dra* than a rural map. he process of making vector maps is not easily automated# and cost increases *ith map comple:ity. 7ecause raster data is often more repetitive and predictable# it can be compressed more easily than vector data. /any raster formats# such as I??# have compression options that drastically reduce image si0es# depending upon image comple:ity and variability. ,aster files are most often used<

?or digital representations of aerial photographs# satellite images# scanned paper maps# and other applications *ith very detailed images. %hen costs need to be kept do*n. %hen the map does not re9uire analysis of individual map features. %hen !backdrop! maps are re9uired.

In contrast# vector maps are appropriate for< $ighly precise applications. %hen file si0es are important. %hen individual map features re9uire analysis. %hen descriptive information must be stored. ,aster and vector maps can also be combined visually. ?or e:ample# a vector street map could be overlaid on a raster aerial photograph. he vector map *ould provide discrete information about individual street segments# the raster image# a backdrop of the surrounding environment. igit#+ M#* Form#ts4 Ho" #t# Is Stored he term file format refers to the logical structure used to store information in a GIS file. ?ile formats are important in part because not every GIS soft*are package supports all formats. If you *ant to use a data set# but it isn't available in a format that your GIS supports# you *ill have to find a *ay to transform it# find another data set# or find another GIS. 2lmost every GIS has its o*n internal file format. hese formats are designed for optimal use inside the soft*are and are often proprietary. hey are not designed for use outside their native systems. /ost systems also support transfer file formats. ransfer formats are designed to bring data in and out of the GIS soft*are# so they are usually standardi0ed and *ell documented. If your data needs are simple# your main concern *ill be *ith the internal format that your GIS soft*are supports. If you have comple: data needs# you *ill *ant to learn about a *ider range of transfer formats# especially if you *ant to mi: data from different sources. ransfer formats *ill be re9uired to import some data sets into your soft*are. 0ector Form#ts /any GIS applications are based on vector technology# so vector formats are the most common. hey are also the most comple: because there are many *ays to store coordinates# attributes# attribute linkages# database structures# and display information. Some of the most common formats are briefly described belo*
Common 0ector Fi+e Form#ts Form#t N#me 2rc E:port So!t"#re P+#t!orm 2,-8ID?CR Intern#+ or Tr#ns!er ransfer e$e+o*er Environmental Systems Comments ransfers data across

,esearch Institute# Inc. 2,-8ID?CR platforms. (ES,I) 2,-8ID?CR -overages 2uto-2> >ra*ing ?iles (>%G) 2utodesk >ata Interchange ?ile (>N?S) >igital Aine graphs (>AG) $e*lett-4ackard Graphic Aanguage ($4GA) /apInfo >ata ransfer ?iles (/I?8/I>) /apInfo /ap ?iles /icroStation >esign ?iles (>GD) Spatial >ata ransfer System (S> S) 2,-8ID?CR 2uto-2>R /any Internal Internal ransfer ES,I 2utodesk 2utodesk Bnited States Geological Survey (BSGS) $e*lett-4ackard /apInfo -orp. /apInfo -orp. 7entley Systems# Inc. De* BS standard for vector and raster geographic data. Bsed to publish BS -ensus 7ureau maps. Bsed to publish >igital -hart of the %orld. %idely used graphics transfer standard. Bsed to publish BSGS digital maps. Bsed to control $4 plotters.

/any

ransfer

/any /apInfoR /apInfoR /icroStationR /any (in the future)

Internal ransfer Internal Internal

ransfer

BS Government

opologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and /any ,eferencing ( IGE,) Hector 4roduct ?ormat (H4?)

ransfer

BS -ensus 7ureau

/ilitary mapping 7oth systems

BS >efense /apping 2gency

R#ster Form#ts ,aster files generally are used to store image information# such as scanned paper maps or aerial photographs. hey are also used for data captured by satellite and other airborne imaging systems. Images from these systems are often referred to as remotesensing data. Bnlike other raster files# *hich e:press resolution in terms of cell si0e and dots per inch (dpi)# resolution in remotely sensed images is e:pressed in meters# *hich indicates the si0e of the ground area covered by each cell.
Some common r#ster !orm#ts #re descri2ed 2e+o" Form#t N#me 2rc >igiti0ed ,aster Graphics (2>,G) 7and Interleaved So!t"#re P+#t!orm /ilitary mapping systems /an Intern#+ or Tr#ns!er 7oth 7oth e$e+o*er BS >efense /apping 2gency -ommon remoteComments

by Aine (7IA) 7and Interleaved by 4i:el (7I4) 7and Se9uential (7SP) >igital Elevation /odel for (>E/) 4- 4aintbrush E:change (4-N) /any /any 7oth 7oth

sensing standard. -ommon remotesensing standard. -ommon remotesensing standard. Bnited States Geological Survey (BSGS) Osoft BS ?ederal Government 2ldus BSGS standard format digital terrain models. %idely used raster format. De* BS standard for both raster and vector geographic dataF raster version still under development. %idely used raster format.

/any

ransfer

4- 4aintbrush 7oth

Spatial >ata /any (in the ransfer Standard future) (S> S) agged Image 4age/aker ?ile ?ormat ( I??)

ransfer

7oth

An E,#m*+e o! R#ster #nd 0ector Integr#tion

Figure 7: An Example of Raster and Vector Integration

0ectors 5 R#ster #t# Mode+s 4 Merits 5 emerits(

RASTER MO EL

0ECTOR MO EL

Ad antages Simple data structure Easy and efficient overlaying -ompatible *ith ,S imagery $igh spatial variability is efficiently represented Simple for o*n programming Same grid cells for several attributes !isad antages Inefficient use of computer storage Errors in perimeter# and shape >ifficult net*ork analysis Inefficient pro"ection transformations Aoss of information *hen using large cells Aess accurate (although interactive) maps

Ad antages -ompact data structure Efficient for net*ork analysis Efficient pro"ection transformation 2ccurate map output. !isad antages -omple: data structure >ifficult overlay operations $igh spatial variability is inefficiently represented Dot compatible *ith ,S imagery

H.2rid S.stem It is an integration of the best of Hector and ,aster /odels. he GIS technology is fast moving to*ards $ybrid model GIS.
T&e Integr#tion o! 0ector #nd R#ster S.stem H.2ird S.stem

Figure ": #$e Integration of Vector and Raster %&stem '&(ird %&stem

An#+.sis o! Geogr#*&ic

#t#

ANALYSIS 4 %&#t) 5 %&.) he heart of GIS is the analytical capabilities of the system. %hat distinguish the GIS system from other information system are its spatial analysis functions. 2lthough the data input is# in general# the most time consuming part# it is for data analysis that GIS is used. he analysis functions use the spatial and non-spatial attributes in the database to ans*er 9uestions about the real *orld. Geographic analysis facilitates the study of real-*orld processes by developing and applying models. Such models illuminate the underlying trends in geographic data and thus make ne* information available. ,esults of geographic analysis can be communicated *ith the help of maps# or both. he organi0ation of database into map layers is not simply for reasons of organi0ational clarity# rather it is to provide rapid access to data elements re9uired for geographic analysis. he ob"ective of geographic analysis is to transform data into useful information to satisfy the re9uirements or ob"ectives of decision-makers at all levels in terms of detail. 2n important use of the analysis is the possibility of predicting events in the another location or at another point in time. ANALYSIS 4 Ho") 7efore commencing geographic analysis# one needs to assess the problem and establish an ob"ective. he analysis re9uires step-by-step procedures to arrive at the conclusions. he range of geographical analysis procedures can be subdivided into the follo*ing categories. >atabase Puery. Cverlay. 4ro:imity analysis. Det*ork analysis. >igital errain /odel. Statistical and abular 2nalysis. S*#ti#+ An#+.sis It helps us to< Identify trends on the data. -reate ne* relationships from the data. Hie* comple: relationships bet*een data sets. /ake better decisions. Geogr#*&ic An#+.sis 2nalysis of problems *ith some Geographic 2spects. 2lternatives are geographic locations or areas. >ecisions *ould affect locations or areas. Geographic relationships are important in decision-making or modelling.

Some e:amples of its application< Dearest Deighbour. Det*ork distances. 4lanar distances. S*#ti#+ An#+.sis 4 An A**+ic#tion

Image )

%here should *e build a road from a point 2 to point 71 $o* do *e minimise the impacts of building this road1 Re+#tions&i* o! Mode++ing to An#+.sis >ecision /odels search through potential alternatives to arrive at a recommendation. >ecision support models process ra* data into forms that are directly relevant to decision making. >ata characterisation models are used to develop a better understanding of a system to help characterise a problem or potential solutions. i!!icu+ties o! Geogr#*&ic An#+.sis 4lenty of data. Spatial relationships are important but difficult to measure. Inherent uncertainty due to scale. any data sources.

>ifficult to make data sources compatible. >ifficult mathematics. Puantity vs. Puality Puestions. /ultiple ob"ectives. GIS can address some (but not all) of these difficulties.

Net"ork An#+.sis Det*ork models are based on interconnecting logical components# of *hich the most important are< &. !Dodes! define start# end# and intersections 3. !-hains! are line features "oining nodes 5. !Ainks! "oin together points making up a chain. his net*ork can be analy0ed using GIS.2 simple and most apparent net*ork analysis applications are< Street net*ork analysis# raffic flo* modelling# elephone cable net*orking# 4ipelines etc. he other obvious applications *ould be service centre locations based on travel distance. 7asic forms of net*ork analysis simply e:tract information from a net*ork. /ore comple: analysis# process information in the net*ork model to derive ne* information. Cne e:ample of this is the classic shortest-path bet*een t*o points. he vector mode is more suited to net*ork analysis than the raster model.
A Ro#d Net"ork

Image

T#2u+#r St#tistic#+ An#+.sis If in the above road net*ork *e have categorised the streets then in such a case the statistical analysis ans*ers 9uestions like %hat uni9ue categories do I have for streets1 $o* many features do I have for each uni9ue category1 Summari0e by using any attribute1 #t#2#se -uer. he selective display and retrieval of information from a database are among the fundamental re9uirements of GIS. he ability to selectively retrieve information from GIS is an important facility. >atabase 9uery simply asks to see already stored information. 7asically there are t*o types of 9uery most general GIS allo*< vi0.# Puery by attribute# Puery by geometry. /ap features can be retrieved on the basis of attributes# ?or e:ample# sho* all the urban areas having the population density greater than &#))) per s9uare kilometer# /any GIS include a sophisticated function of ,>7/S kno*n as Standard Puery Aanguage (SPA)# to search a GIS database. he attribute database# in general# is stored in a table (relational database mode.) *ith a uni9ue code linked to the geometric data. his database can be searched *ith specific characteristics. $o*ever# more comple: 9ueries can be made *ith the help of SPA. GIS can carry out a number of geometric 9ueries. he simplest application# for e:ample# is to sho* the attributes of displayed ob"ects by identifying them *ith a graphical cursor. here are five forms of primitive geometric 9uery< vi0.# Puery by point# Puery by rectangle# Puery by circle# Puery by line# Puery by polygon# 2 more comple: 9uery still is one that uses both geometric and attributes search criteria together. /any GIS force the separation of the t*o different types of 9uery. $o*ever# some GIS# using databases to store both geometric and attribute data# allo* true hybrid spatial 9ueries. O$er+#. O*er#tions he hallmark of GIS is overlay operations. Bsing these operations# ne* spatial elements are created by the overlaying of maps. here are basically t*o different types of overlay operations depending upon data structures<

Raster o erla& It is a relatively straightfor*ard operation and often many data sets can be combined and displayed at once. Vector o erla& he vector overlay# ho*ever is far more difficult and comple: and involves more processing. Logic#+ O*er#tors he concept of map logic can be applied during overlay. he logical operators are 7oolean functions. here are basically four types of 7oolean Cperators< vi0.# C,# 2D># DC # and NC,. %ith the use of logical# or 7oolean# operators spatial elements 8 or attributes are selected that fulfill certain condition# depending on t*o or more spatial elements or attributes. 0ector O$er+#. >uring vector overlay# map features and the associated attributes are integrated to produce ne* composite maps. Aogical rules can be applied to ho* the maps are combined. Hector overlay can be performed on different types of map features< vi0.# 4olygon-on-polygon overlay Aine-in-polygon overlay 4oint-on-polygon overlay >uring the process of overlay# the attribute data associated *ith each feature type id merged. he resulting table *ill contain both the attribute data. he process of overlay *ill depend upon the modelling approach the user needs. Cne might need to carry out a series of overlay procedures to arrive at the conclusion# *hich depends upon the criterion.
Po+.gon4on4Po+.gon O$er+#.

*ol&gon+on+*ol&gon , erla&

i!!erence 2et"een # To*o+ogic O$er+#. #nd # Gr#*&ic O$er *+ot

!ifference (et-een a #opologic , erla& and a .rap$ic , er plot

R#ster O$er+#. In raster overlay# the pi:el or grid cell values in each map are combined using arithmetic and 7oolean operators to produce a ne* value in the composite map. he maps can be treated as arithmetical variables and perform comple: algebraic functions. he method is often described as map algebra. he raster GIS provides the ability to perform map layers mathematically. his is particularly important for the modelling in *hich various maps are combined using various mathematical functions. -onditional operators are the basic mathematical functions that are supported in GIS. Condition#+ O*er#tors -onditional operators *ere already used in the e:amples given above. he all evaluate *hether a certain condition has been met. J e9 'e9ual' operator TK ne 'non-e9ual' operator T lt 'less than' operator TJ le 'less than or e9ual' operator

K gt 'greater than' operator KJ ge 'greater than or e9ual' operator /any systems no* can handle both vector and raster data. he vector maps can be easily draped on to the raster maps.
R#ster O$er+#.

Raster , erla&

7u!!er O*er#tion Bsing these operations# the characteristics of an area surrounding in a specified location are evaluated. his kind of analysis is called pro:imity analysis and is used *henever analysis is re9uired to identify surrounding geographic features. he buffer operation *ill generate polygon feature types irrespective of geographic features and delineates spatial pro:imity. ?or e:ample# *hat are the effects on urban areas if the road is e:panded by a hundred meters to delineate a five-kilometer buffer 0one around the national park to protect it from gra0ing.
3sing 7u!!er

/sing 0uffer

igit#+ Terr#in Mode+ he ob"ect of >igital errain analysis is to represent a surface and its properties accurately. his is normally achieved by creating a digital terrain model# often kno*n as > /# formed by sampling the surface. 2 digital terrain model can be vie*ed in t*o different *ays< as an isoline map# as an isometric model. Isolines "oin points of e9ual value on a surface. he shading defines bands# including all heights# bet*een the isolines. Isometric models can be sho*n in three-dimensional models. hese models sho* the terrain in perspective so that the apparent height is proportional to the value of the point. Hisualisation techni9ues are used to pro"ect the model from the given eyepoint.
S*#ti#+ An#+.sis 4 # Process

%patial Anal&sis a *rocess

Im#ge Processing #nd An#+.sis Introduction Image 4rocessing and 2nalysis can be defined as the !act of e:amining images for the purpose of identifying ob"ects and "udging their significance! Image analyst study the remotely sensed data and attempt through logical process in detecting# identifying# classifying# measuring and evaluating the significance of physical and cultural ob"ects# their patterns and spatial relationship. igit#+ #t# In a most generali0ed *ay# a digital image is an array of numbers depicting spatial distribution of a certain field parameters (such as reflectivity of E/ radiation# emissivity# temperature or some geophysical or topographical elevation. >igital image consists of discrete picture elements called pi:els. 2ssociated *ith each pi:el is a number represented as >D (>igital Dumber)# that depicts the average radiance of relatively small area *ithin a scene. he range of >D values being normally ) to 3((. he si0e of this area effects the reproduction of details *ithin the scene. 2s the pi:el si0e is reduced more scene detail is preserved in digital representation. ,emote sensing images are recorded in digital forms and then processed by the

computers to produce images for interpretation purposes. Images are available in t*o forms - photographic film form and digital form. Hariations in the scene characteristics are represented as variations in brightness on photographic films. 2 particular part of scene reflecting more energy *ill appear bright *hile a different part of the same scene that reflecting less energy *ill appear black. >igital image consists of discrete picture elements called pi:els. 2ssociated *ith each pi:el is a number represented as >D (>igital Dumber)# that depicts the average radiance of relatively small area *ithin a scene. he si0e of this area effects the reproduction of details *ithin the scene. 2s the pi:el si0e is reduced more scene detail is preserved in digital representation. #t# Form#ts For igit#+ S#te++ite Im#ger. >igital data from the various satellite systems supplied to the user in the form of computer readable tapes or ->-,C/. 2s no *orld*ide standard for the storage and transfer of remotely sensed data has been agreed upon# though the -ECS (-ommittee on Earth Cbservation Satellites) format is becoming accepted as the standard. >igital remote sensing data are often organised using one of the three common formats used to organise image data . ?or an instance an image consisting of four spectral channels# *hich can be visualised as four superimposed images# *ith corresponding pi:els in one band registering e:actly to those in the other bands. hese common formats are< 7and Interleaved by 4i:el (7I4) 7and Interleaved by Aine (7IA) 7and Se9uential (7SP)

>igital image analysis is usually conducted using ,aster data structures - each image is treated as an array of values. It offers advantages for manipulation of pi:el values by image processing system# as it is easy to find and locate pi:els and their values. >isadvantages becomes apparent *hen one needs to represent the array of pi:els as discrete patches or regions# *here as Hector data structures uses polygonal patches and their boundaries as fundamental units for analysis and manipulation. hough vector format is not appropriate to for digital analysis of remotely sensed data. Im#ge Reso+ution ,esolution can be defined as !the ability of an imaging system to record fine details in a distinguishable manner!. 2 *orking kno*ledge of resolution is essential for understanding both practical and conceptual details of remote sensing. 2long *ith the actual positioning of spectral bands# they are of paramount importance in determining the suitability of remotely sensed data for a given applications. he ma"or characteristics of imaging remote sensing instrument operating in the visible and infrared spectral region are described in terms as follo*< Spectral resolution ,adiometric resolution Spatial resolution emporal resolution

%pectral Resolution refers to the *idth of the spectral bands. 2s different material on the earth surface e:hibit different spectral reflectances and emissivities. hese spectral characteristics define the spectral position and spectral sensitivity in order to distinguish materials. here is a tradeoff bet*een spectral resolution and signal to noise. he use of *ell -chosen and sufficiently numerous spectral bands is a necessity# therefore# if different targets are to be successfully identified on remotely sensed images. Radiometric Resolution or radiometric sensitivity refers to the number of digital levels used to e:press the data collected by the sensor. It is commonly e:pressed as the number of bits (binary digits) needs to store the ma:imum level. ?or e:ample Aandsat / data are 9uantised to 3(. levels (e9uivalent to = bits). $ere also there is a tradeoff bet*een radiometric resolution and signal to noise. here is no point in having a step si0e less than the noise level in the data. 2 lo*-9uality instrument *ith a high noise level *ould necessarily# therefore# have a lo*er radiometric resolution compared *ith a high9uality# high signal-to-noise-ratio instrument. 2lso higher radiometric resolution may conflict *ith data storage and transmission rates. %patial Resolution of an imaging system is defines through various criteria# the geometric properties of the imaging system# the ability to distinguish bet*een point targets# the ability to measure the periodicity of repetitive targets ability to measure the spectral properties of small targets. he most commonly 9uoted 9uantity is the instantaneous field of vie* (I?CH)# *hich is the angle subtended by the geometrical pro"ection of single detector element to the Earth's surface. It may also be given as the distance# > measured along the ground# in *hich case# I?CH is clearly dependent on sensor height# from the relation< > J hb# *here h is the height and b is the angular I?CH in radians. 2n alternative measure of the I?CH is based on the 4S?# e.g.# the *idth of the 4>? at half its ma:imum value. 2 problem *ith I?CH definition# ho*ever# is that it is a purely geometric definition and does not take into account spectral properties of the target. he effective resolution element (E,E) has been defined as !the si0e of an area for *hich a single radiance value can be assigned *ith reasonable assurance that the response is *ithin (; of the value representing the actual relative radiance!. 7eing based on actual image data# this 9uantity may be more useful in some situations than the I?CH. Cther methods of defining the spatial resolving po*er of a sensor are based on the ability of the device to distinguish bet*een specified targets. Cf the concerns the ratio of the modulation of the image to that of the real target. /odulation# /# is defined as< / J Ema: -Emin 8 Ema: M Emin %here Ema: and Emin are the ma:imum and minimum radiance values recorded over the image. #emporal resolution refers to the fre9uency *ith *hich images of a given geographic

location can be ac9uired. Satellites not only offer the best chances of fre9uent data coverage but also of regular coverage. he temporal resolution is determined by orbital characteristics and s*ath *idth# the *idth of the imaged area. S*ath *idth is given by 3htan(?CH83) *here h is the altitude of the sensor# and ?CH is the angular field of vie* of the sensor. Ho" to Im*ro$e Your Im#ge) 2nalysis of remotely sensed data is done using various image processing techni9ues and methods that includes< 2nalog image processing >igital image processing. Visual or Analog processing tec$ni1ues is applied to hard copy data such as photographs or printouts. Image analysis in visual techni9ues adopts certain elements of interpretation# *hich are as follo*< he use of these fundamental elements of depends not only on the area being studied# but the kno*ledge of the analyst has of the study area. ?or e:ample the te:ture of an ob"ect is also very useful in distinguishing ob"ects that may appear the same if the "udging solely on tone (i.e.# *ater and tree canopy# may have the same mean brightness values# but their te:ture is much different. 2ssociation is a very po*erful image analysis tool *hen coupled *ith the general kno*ledge of the site. hus *e are adept at applying collateral data and personal kno*ledge to the task of image processing. %ith the combination of multi-concept of e:amining remotely sensed data in multispectral# multitemporal# multiscales and in con"unction *ith multidisciplinary# allo*s us to make a verdict not only as to *hat an ob"ect is but also its importance. 2part from these analog image processing techni9ues also includes optical photogrammetric techni9ues allo*ing for precise measurement of the height# *idth# location# etc. of an ob"ect.
E+ements o! Im#ge Inter*ret#tion 7lack and %hite one 4rimary Elements -olor Stereoscopic 4aralla: Si0e Spatial 2rrangement of one G -olor Shape e:ture 4attern 7ased on 2nalysis of 4rimary Elements -onte:tual Elements $eight Shado* Site 2ssociation

>igital Image 4rocessing is a collection of techni9ues for the manipulation of digital images by computers. he ra* data received from the imaging sensors on the satellite platforms contains fla*s and deficiencies. o overcome these fla*s and deficiencies inorder to get the originality of the data# it needs to undergo several steps of processing. his *ill vary from image to image depending on the type of image format# initial condition of the image and the information of interest and the composition of the image scene. >igital Image 4rocessing undergoes three general steps< 4re-processing >isplay and enhancement Information e:traction

Flo-c$art

*re+processing consists of those operations that prepare data for subse9uent analysis that attempts to correct or compensate for systematic errors. he digital imageries are sub"ected to several corrections such as geometric# radiometric and atmospheric# though all these correction might not be necessarily be applied in all cases. hese errors are systematic and can be removed before they reach the user. he investigator should decide *hich pre-processing techni9ues are relevant on the basis of the nature of the information to be e:tracted from remotely sensed data. 2fter pre-processing is complete# the analyst may use feature e:traction to reduce the dimensionality of the data. hus feature e:traction is the process of isolating the most useful components of the data for further study *hile discarding the less useful aspects (errors# noise etc).

?eature e:traction reduces the number of variables that must be e:amined# thereby saving time and resources. Image En$ancement operations are carried out to improve the interpretability of the image by increasing apparent contrast among various features in the scene. he enhancement techni9ues depend upon t*o factors mainly he digital data (i.e. *ith spectral bands and resolution) he ob"ectives of interpretation 2s an image enhancement techni9ue often drastically alters the original numeric data# it is normally used only for visual (manual) interpretation and not for further numeric analysis. -ommon enhancements include image reduction# image rectification# image magnification# transect e:traction# contrast ad"ustments# band ratioing# spatial filtering# ?ourier transformations# principal component analysis and te:ture transformation. Information Extraction is the last step to*ard the final output of the image analysis. 2fter pre-processing and image enhancement the remotely sensed data is sub"ected to 9uantitative analysis to assign individual pi:els to specific classes. -lassification of the image is based on the kno*n and unkno*n identity to classify the remainder of the image consisting of those pi:els of unkno*n identity. 2fter classification is complete# it is necessary to evaluate its accuracy by comparing the categories on the classified images *ith the areas of kno*n identity on the ground. he final result of the analysis consists of maps (or images)# data and a report. hese three components of the result provide the user *ith full information concerning the source data# the method of analysis and the outcome and its reliability. Pre4Processing o! t&e Remote+. Sensed Im#ges %hen remotely sensed data is received from the imaging sensors on the satellite platforms it contains fla*s and deficiencies. 4re-processing refers to those operations that are preliminary to the main analysis. 4reprocessing includes a *ide range of operations from the very simple to e:tremes of abstractness and comple:ity. hese categori0ed as follo*< &. ?eature E:traction 3. ,adiometric -orrections 5. Geometric -orrections 6. 2tmospheric -orrection he techni9ues involved in removal of un*anted and distracting elements such as image8system noise# atmospheric interference and sensor motion from an image data occurred due to limitations in the sensing of signal digiti0ation# or data recording or transmission process. ,emoval of these effects from the digital data are said to be !restored! to their correct or original condition# although *e can# of course never kno* *hat are the correct values might be and must al*ays remember that attempts to correct data *hat may themselves introduce errors. hus image restoration includes the efforts to correct for both radiometric and geometric errors.

Fe#ture E,tr#ction ?eature E:traction does not mean geographical features visible on the image but rather !statistical! characteristics of image data like individual bands or combination of band values that carry information concerning systematic variation *ithin the scene. hus in a multispectral data it helps in portraying the necessity elements of the image. It also reduces the number of spectral bands that has to be analy0ed. 2fter the feature e:traction is complete the analyst can *ork *ith the desired channels or bands# but inturn the individual band*idths are more potent for information. ?inally such a preprocessing increases the speed and reduces the cost of analysis. R#diometric Corrections ,adiometric -orrections are carried out *hen an image data is recorded by the sensors they contain errors in the measured brightness values of the pi:els. hese errors are referred as radiometric errors and can result from the &. Instruments used to record the data 3. ?rom the effect of the atmosphere ,adiometric processing influences the brightness values of an image to correct for sensor malfunctions or to ad"ust the values to compensate for atmospheric degradation. ,adiometric distortion can be of t*o types< &. he relative distribution of brightness over an image in a given band can be different to that in the ground scene. 3. he relative brightness of a single pi:el from band to band can be distorted compared *ith spectral reflectance character of the corresponding region on the ground. he follo*ing methods defines the outline the basis of the cosmetic operations for the removal of such defects< Line4 ro*outs 2 string of ad"acent pi:els in a scan line contain spurious >D. his can occur *hen a detector malfunctions permanently or temporarily. >etectors are loaded by receiving sudden high radiance# creating a line or partial line of data *ith the meaningless >D. Aine dropouts are usually corrected either by replacing the defective line by a duplicate of preceding or subse9uent line# or taking the average of the t*o. If the spurious pi:el# sample :# line y has a value >D:#y then the algorithms are simply< >D:#y J >D:#y-& >D:#y J (>D:#y-& M >D:#yM&)83 e4Stri*ing 7anding or striping occurs if one or more detectors go out of ad"ustment in a given band. he systematic hori0ontal banding pattern seen on images produced by electromechanical scanners such as Aandsat's /SS and / results in a repeated patterns of

lines *ith consistently high or lo* >D. *o reasons can be thus put for*ard in favor of applying a 'de-striping' correction < &. he visual appearance and interpretability of the image are thereby improved. 3. E9ual pi:el values in the image are more likely to represent areas of e9ual ground leaving radiance# other things being e9ual. he t*o different methods of de-striping are as follo*< First method entails a construction of histograms for each detector of the problem band# i.e.# histograms generated from by the si: detectors< these histograms are calculated for the lines &#+#&5#EE# lines 3# =# &6# EE# etc. hen the means and standard deviation are calculated for each of the si: histograms. 2ssuming the proportion of pi:els representing different soils# *ater# vegetation# cloud# etc. are the same for each detector# the means and standard deviations of the . histograms should be the same. Stripes# ho*ever are characterised by distinct histograms. >e-striping then re9uires e9ualisation of the means and standard deviation of the si: detectors by forcing them to e9ual selected values - usually the mean and standard deviation for the *hole image. he process of histogram matching is also utilised before mosaicking image data of ad"acent scenes (recorded at diferent times) so as to accommodate differences in illumination levels# angles etc. 2 further application is resolution merging# in *hich a lo* spatial resolution image is sharpened by merging *ith high spatial resolution image. Second method is a non-linear in the sense that relationship bet*een radiance rin(received at the detector) and rout (output by the sensor) is not describable in terms of a single linear segments. R#ndom Noise Cdd pi:els that have spurious >D crop up fre9uently in images - if they are particularlt distracting# they can be suppressed by spatial filtering. 7y definition# these defects can be identified by their marked differences in >D from ad"acent pi:els in the affected band. Doisy pi:els can be replaced by substituting for an average value of the neighborhood >D. /oving *indo*s of 5 : 5 or ( : ( pi:els are typically used in such procedures. Geometric Corrections ,a* digital images often contain serious geometrical distortions that arise from earth curvature# platform motion# relief displacement# non-linearities in scanning motion. he distortions involved are of t*o types< &. Don-systematic >istortion 3. Systematic >istortions ,ectification is the process of pro"ecting image data onto a plane and making it conform to a map pro"ection system. ,egistration is the process of making image data conform to another image. 2 map coordinate system is not necessarily involved. $o*ever

rectification involves rearrangement of the input pi:els onto a ne* grid *hich conforms to the desired map pro"ection and coordinate system. ,ectification and ,egistration therefore involve similar sets of procedures for both the distortions. Non4S.stem#tic istortions hese distortions are caused due to variations in spacecraft variables. hese distortion can be evaluated as follo*< istortion E$#+u#ted !rom Tr#cking
>ue to (?ig.&).

#t#

he amount of earth rotation during 3. sec re9uired to scan an image results in distortion. he correction for this distortion can be done by scanning &. successive group of lines# offset to*ards the *est to compensate for the earth rotation# *hich causes the parallelogram outline of the restored image. Its is true for / Image. (?ig.3)

istortion E$#+u#ted !rom Ground Contro+ -aused during the spacecraft scan of the ground .

2ltitude Hariation (?ig.5)

2ttitude Hariation - pitch# roll G ya* (?ig.6)

-orrection 4rocess for Don-systematic >istortions &. Loc#ting Ground Contro+ Points his process employs identification of geographic features on the image called ground control points (G-4s)# *hose position are kno*n such as intersection of streams# high*ays# airport# run*ays etc. Aongitude and latitude of G-4s can be determined by accurate base maps *here maps are lacking G4S is used to determine the Aatitude and Aongitude from navigation satellites. hus a G-4 is located in the field and determing its position using G4S. 2ccurate G-4s are essential to accurate rectification. G-4s should be 3. ,eliably matched bet*een source and reference (e.g.# coastline features# road intersection# etc.) 5. %idely disperced throughout the source image 6. Res#m*+ing Met&ods he location of output pi:els derived from the ground control points (G-4s) is used to establish the geometry of the output image and its relationship to the input image. >ifference bet*een actual G-4 location and their position in the image are used to determine the geometric transformation re9uired to restore the image. his transformation can be done by different resampling methods *here original pi:els are resampled to match the geometric coordinates. Each resampling method employs a different strategy to estimate values at output grid for given kno*n values for the input grid. (. Nearest Neighbor he simplest strategy is simply to assign each corrected pi:el# the value from the nearest uncorrected pi:el. It has the advantages of simplicity and the ability to preserve original values in the altered scene# but it may create noticeable errors# *hich may be severe in linear features

*here the realignment of pi:els is obvious. (?ig. ().

.. Bilinear Interpolation he strategy for the calculation of each output pi:el value is based on a *eighted average of the four nearest input pi:els. he output image gives a natural look because each output value is based on several input values. here are some changes occurred *hen bilinear interpolation creates ne* pi:el value. (?ig..)

+. 7rightness values in the input image are lost =. 2s the output image is resampled by averaging over areas# it decreases the spatial resolution of the image '. Cubic Convolution It is the most sophisticated and comple: method of resampling. -ubic convolution uses a *eighted average of values *ithin a neighborhood of 3( ad"acent pi:els. he images produced by this method are generally more attractive but are drastically altered than nearest neighbor and

bilinear interpolation.(?ig.+).

&). Im#ge Correction using M#**ing Po+.nomi#+ 4olynomial e9uations are used to convert the source coordinates to rectified coordinate# using &st and 3nd order transformation . he coffiecients of the polynomial such as ai and bi are calculated by the least s9uare regression method# that *ill help in relating any point in the map to its corresponding point in the image. :) J b& M b3:i M b5yi y) J a& M a3:i M a5yi %here (:I yI ) are the input coordinates and (:) y) ) are the output coordinates. Initially fe* G-4s cofficients are re9uired to calculate the transformation matri: and the inverse transformation that could convert the reference coordinates of the G-4s back to the source coordinate system. his enables determination of ,/S error for chosen transformation. he best order of transformation can be obtained using trial and error process *hile ignoring the highest ,/S error from the least s9uare computation.

S.stem#tic istortions Geometric systematic distortions are those effects that are constant and can be predicted in advance. hese are of t*o types< Sc#n Ske" It is caused by for*ard motion of the spacecraft during the time of each mirror s*eep. In this case the ground s*ath scanned is not normal to the ground track. (?ig.=).

8no"n Mirror 0e+ocit. 0#ri#tion he kno*n mirror velocity variation are used to correct the minor distortion due to the velocity of the scan mirror not being constant from start to finish of each scan line. (?ig.')

Cross Tr#ck istortion hese generally occur in all the unrestored images acc9uired by the cross track scanners. hey result from sampling pi:els along a scan line at constant time intervals. he *idth of a pi:el is proportional to the tangent of the scan angle and therefore is *ider at the either margins of the scan line that compresses the pi:el. his distortion is restored using trignometric functions.(?ig.&))

Systematic >istortions are *ell understood ands easily corrected by applying formulas derived by modelling the sources of distortions mathematically. Atmos*&eric Corrections he output from the instrument on satellite depends on the intensity and spectral distribution of energy that is received at the satellite. he intensity and spectral distribution of energy8radiation has traveled some distance through the atmosphere and accordingly has suffered both attenuation and augmentation in the course of "ourney. he problem comes *henone is not able to regenerate the correct radiation properties of the target body on the earth surface *ith the data generated by the remote sensing E!!ect O! T&e Atmos*&ere on R#di#tion 9R#di#ti$e Tr#ns!er T&eor.: ?ig.&&. Effect of the atmosphere in determining various paths for energy to illuminate a pi:el and reach the sensor he path radiation coming from the sun to the ground pi:el and then being reflected to the sensor. In this on going process# absorption by atmospheric molecules takes place that converts incoming energy into heat. In particular# molecules of o:ygen# carbon-di-o:ide# o0one and *ater attenuate the radiation very strongly in certain *avelengths. Scattering by these atmospheric particles is also the dominant mechanism that leads to radiometric distortion in image data.

,adiative ransfer theory is used to make 9uantitative calculations of the difference bet*een the satellite received radiance and earth leaving radiance.

,adiation traveling in a certain direction is specified by the angle f bet*een that direction and the vertical a:is 0 and setting a differential e9uation for a small hori0ontal element of the transmitting medium (the atmosphere) *ith thickness d0. he resulting differential e9uation is called the radiative transfer e9uation. he e9uation *ill therefore be different for different *avelengths of electromagnetic radiation because of the different relative importance of different physical process at different *avelength. Need !or Atmos*&eric Correction %hen an image is to be utili0ed# it is fre9uently necessary to make corrections in brightness and geometry for accuracy during interpretation and also some of the application may re9uire correction to evaluate the image accurately. he various reason for *hich correction should be done< >erive ratios in 3 bands of multi spectral image since the effect of atmospheric scattering depends on the *avelength# the t*o channels *ill be une9ually affected and the computed ratio *ill not accurately reflect the true ratio leaving the earth's surface %hen land surface reflectance or sea surface temperature is to be determined. %hen t*o images taken at different times and needed to be compared or mosaic the images Correction Met&ods ,ectifying the image data for the degrading effects of the atmosphere entails modeling the scattering and absorption processes that take place. here are number of *ays of correcting the image data for atmospheric correction Ignore the atmosphere

-ollecting the ground truth measurements of target temperature# reflectance etc and calibrating these values or 9uantities on the ground and the radiance values by the sensor. /odeling the absorption or scattering effects for the measurement of the composition and temperature profile of the atmosphere. Btili0ing the information about the atmosphere inherent to remotely sensed data i.e use the image to correct itself.

Correcting For Atmos*&eric Sc#ttering his correction is done *hen the t*o bands of image are sub"ected to ratio analysis. 2tmospheric scattering scatters short *avelength and causes ha0e and reduces the contrast ratio of images. his follo*s t*o techni9ues for e:ample / bands & G +# *here / & has the highest component of & and the /+ (infrared) has the least. 7oth techni9ues are >D value dependent as / band + is free from scattering effect there it has >D value either ) or & (shado*s). &. In / + the shado*s having >D value ) G &. Do* for each pi:el the >D in / + is plotted against / & and a straight line is fitted through the plot using least s9uare techni9ues. If there *as no ha0e in / & then the line *ould pass through the origin. 7ut as there is ha0e the intercept is offset along the band &. $a0e has an additive effect on scene brightness. herefore to correct the ha0e effect on / &# the value of the intercept offset is subtracted from the >D of each band & pi:el for the entire image.(?ig &3)

3.

he second techni9ue also uses the areas *ith >D as ) or & in / +. he histogram of / + has pi:els *ith ) *here as the histogram of / & lacks the pi:el in the range from ) to 3) appro:imately because of light scattered into the detector by atmosphere thus this abrupt increase in pi:els in / & is subtracted from all the >Ds in band & to restore effects of atmospheric scattering.(?ig &5)

he amount of atmospheric correction depends upon %avelength of the bands 2tmospheric conditions Short *avelength cause more severe scattering. $umid# smoggy and dusty cause more scattering than clear and dry atmospheres. Im*+ementing t&e Mode+s >ocumented information on the atmospheric conditions is used to estimate atmospheric using computer codes in standard 2tmospheric /odels. AC% ,2D# /C> ,2D and $I ,2D are some standard models providing them *ith type of sensor# target altitudes and look# the atmospheric correction could be done. Im#ge En&#ncement Tec&ni;ues Image Enhancement techni9ues are instigated for making satellite imageries more informative and helping to achieve the goal of image interpretation. he term enhancement is used to mean the alteration of the appearance of an image in such a *ay that the information contained in that image is more readily interpreted visually in terms of a particular need. he image enhancement techni9ues are applied either to single-band images or separately to the individual bands of a multiband image set. hese techni9ues can be categori0ed into t*o< Spectral Enhancement echni9ues /ulti-Spectral Enhancement echni9ues S*ectr#+ En&#ncement Tec&ni;ues !ensit& %licing >ensity Slicing is the mapping of a range of contiguous grey levels of a single band image to a point in the ,G7 color cube. he >Ds of a given band are !sliced! into distinct classes. ?or e:ample# for band 6 of a / = bit image# *e might divide the )-3(( continuous range into discrete intervals of )-.5# .6-&3+# &3=-&'& and &'3-3((. hese

four classes are displayed as four different grey levels. his kind of density slicing is often used in displaying temperature maps. 2ontrast %tretc$ing he operating or dynamic # ranges of remote sensors are often designed *ith a variety of eventual data applications. ?or e:ample for any particular area that is being imaged it is unlikely that the full dynamic range of sensor *ill be used and the corresponding image is dull and lacking in contrast or over bright. Aandsat / images can end up being used to study deserts# ice sheets# oceans# forests etc.# re9uiring relatively lo* gain sensors to cope *ith the *idely varying radiances up*elling from dark# bright # hot and cold targets. -onse9uently# it is unlikely that the full radiometric range of brand is utilised in an image of a particular area. he result is an image lacking in contrast - but by remapping the >D distribution to the full display capabilities of an image processing system# *e can recover a beautiful image. -ontrast Stretching can be displayed in three catagories< 3inear 2ontrast %tretc$ his techni9ue involves the translation of the image pi:el values from the observed range >Dmin to >Dma: to the full range of the display device(generally )-3((# *hich is the range of values representable in an =bit display devices) his techni9ue can be applied to a single band# grey-scale image# *here the image data are mapped to the display via all three colors AB s. It is not necessary to stretch bet*een >Dma: and >Dmin - Inflection points for a linear contrast stretch from the (th and '(th percentiles# or U 3 standard deviations from the mean (for instance) of the histogram# or to cover the class of land cover of interest (e.g. *ater at e:pense of land or vice versa). It is also straightfor*ard to have more than t*o inflection points in a linear stretch# yielding a piece*ise linear stretch 'istogram E1ualisation he underlying principle of histogram e9ualisation is straightfor*ard and simple# it is assumed that each level in the displayed image should contain an appro:imately e9ual number of pi:el values# so that the histogram of these displayed values is almost uniform (though not all 3(. classes are necessarily occupied). he ob"ective of the histogram e9ualisation is to spread the range of pi:el values present in the input image over the full range of the display device. .aussian %tretc$ his method of contrast enhancement is base upon the histogram of the pi:el values is called a Gaussian stretch because it involves the fitting of the observed histogram to a normal or Gaussian histogram. It is defined as follo*< ?(:) J (a8p)).( e:p(-a:3) Mu+ti4S*ectr#+ En&#ncement Tec&ni;ues

Im#ge Arit&metic O*er#tions he operations of addition# subtraction# multiplication and division are performed on t*o or more co-registered images of the same geographical area. hese techni9ues are applied to images from separate spectral bands from single multispectral data set or they may be individual bands from image data sets that have been collected at different dates. /ore complicated algebra is sometimes encountered in derivation of sea-surface temperature from multispectral thermal infrared data (so called split-*indo* and multichannel techni9ues). Addition of images is generally carried out to give dynamic range of image that e9uals the input images. 0and %u(traction Cperation on images is sometimes carried out to co-register scenes of the same area ac9uired at different times for change detection. 4ultiplication of images normally involves the use of a single'real' image and binary image made up of ones and 0eros. 0and Ratioing or >ivision of images is probably the most common arithmetic operation that is most *idely applied to images in geological# ecological and agricultural applications of remote sensing. ,atio Images are enhancements resulting from the division of >D values of one spectral band by corresponding >D of another band. Cne instigation for this is to iron out differences in scene illumination due to cloud or topographic shado*. ,atio images also bring out spectral variation in different target materials. /ultiple ratio image can be used to drive red# green and blue monitor guns for color images. Interpretation of ratio images must consider that they are !intensity blind!# i.e# dissimilar materials *ith different absolute reflectances but similar relative reflectances in the t*o or more utilised bands *ill look the same in the output image. Princi*#+ Com*onent An#+.sis Spectrally ad"acent bands in a multispectral remotely sensed image are often highly correlated. /ultiband visible8near-infrared images of vegetated areas *ill sho* negative correlations bet*een the near-infrared and visible red bands and positive correlations among the visible bands because the spectral characteristics of vegetation are such that as the vigour or greenness of the vegetation increases the red reflectance diminishes and the near-infrared reflectance increases. hus presence of correlations among the bands of a multispectral image implies that there is redundancy in the data and Principal Component Analysis aims at removing this redundancy. Principal Components Analysis (4-2) is related to another statistical techni9ue called factor analysis and can be used to transform a set of image bands such that the ne* bands (called principal components) are uncorrelated *ith one another and are ordered in terms of the amount of image variation they e:plain. he components are thus a statistical abstraction of the variability inherent in the original band set.

o transform the original data onto the ne* principal component a:es# transformation coefficients (eigen values and eigen vectors) are obtained that are further applied in alinear fashion to the original pi:el values. his linear transformation is derived from the covariance matri: of the original data set. hese transformation coefficients describe the lengths and directions of the principal a:es. Such transformations are generally applied either as an enhancement operation# or prior to classification of data. In the conte:t of 4-2# information means variance or scatter about the mean. /ultispectral data generally have a dimensionality that is less than the number of spectral bands. he purpose of 4-2 is to define the dimensionality and to fi: the coefficients that specify the set of a:es# *hich point in the directions of greatest variability. he bands of 4-2 are often more interpretable than the source data. !ecorrelation %tretc$ *rincipal 2omponents can (e stretc$ed and transformed (ac5 into R.0 colours + a process 5no-n as decorrelation stretc$ing6 If the data are transformed into principal components space and are stretched *ithin this space# then the three bands making up the ,G7 color composite images are sub"ected to stretched *ill be at the right angles to each other. In ,G7 space the threecolor components are likely to be correlated# so the effects of stretching are not independent for each color. he result of decorrelation stretch is generally an improvement in the range of intensities and saturations for each color *ith the hue remaining unaltered. >ecorrelation Stretch# like principal component analysis can be based on the covariance matri: or the correlation matri:. he resultant value of the decorrelation stretch is also a function of the nature of the image to *hich it is applied. he method seems to *ork best on images of semi-arid areas and it seems to *ork least *ell *here the area is covered by the image includes both land and sea. C#nonic#+ Com*onents 4-2 is appropriate *hen little prior information about the scene is available. -anonical component analysis# also referred to as multiple discriminant analysis# may be appropriate *hen information about particular features of interest is available. -anonical component a:es are located to ma:imi0e the separability of different user-defined feature types. Hue< S#tur#tion #nd Intensit. 9HIS: Tr#ns!orm $ues is generated by mi:ing red# green and blue light are characterised by coordinates on the red# green and blue a:es of the color cube. he hue-saturation-intensity he:cone model# *here hue is the dominant *avelength of the perceived color represented by angular position around the top of a he:cone# saturation or purity is given by distance from the central# vertical a:is of the he:cone and intensity or value is represented by distance above the ape: of the he:cone. $ue is *hat *e perceive as color. Saturation is the degree of purity of the color and may be considered to be the amount of *hite mi:ed in *ith the color. It is sometimes useful to convert from ,G7 color cube coordinates to $IS he:cone coordinates and vice-versa

he hue# saturation and intensity transform is useful in t*o *ays< first as method of image enhancement and secondly as a means of combining co-registered images from different sources. he advantage of the $IS system is that it is a more precise representation of human color vision than the ,G7 system. his transformation has been 9uite useful for geological applications. Fourier Tr#ns!orm#tion he ?ourier ransform operates on a single -band image. Its purpose is to break do*n the image into its scale components# *hich are defined to be sinusoidal *aves *ith varying amplitudes# fre9uencies and directions. he coordinates of t*o-dimensional space are e:pressed in terms of fre9uency (cycles per basic interval). he function of ?ourier ransform is to convert a single-band image from its spatial domain representation to the e9uivalent fre9uency-domain representation and vice-versa. he idea underlying the ?ourier ransform is that the grey-scale valuea forming a single-band image can be vie*ed as a three-dimensional intensity surface# *ith the ro*s and columns defining t*o a:es and the grey-level value at each pi:el giving the third (0) dimension. he ?ourier ransform thus provides details of he fre9uency of each of the scale components of the image he proportion of information associated *ith each fre9uency component S*#ti#+ Processing S*#ti#+ Fi+tering Spatial Filtering can be described as selectively emphasi0ing or suppressing information at different spatial scales over an image. ?iltering techni9ues can be implemented through the ?ourier transform in the fre9uency domain or in the spatial domain by convolution. Con$o+ution Fi+ters ?iltering methods e:ists is based upon the transformation of the image into its scale or spatial fre9uency components using the ?ourier transform. he spatial domain filters or the convolution filters are generally classed as either high-pass (sharpening) or as lo*pass (smoothing) filters. 3o-+*ass 7%moot$ing8 Filters Ao*-pass filters reveal underlying t*o-dimensional *aveform *ith a long *avelength or lo* fre9uency image contrast at the e:pense of higher spatial fre9uencies. Ao*fre9uency information allo*s the identification of the background pattern# and produces an output image in *hich the detail has been smoothed or removed from the original. 2 3-dimensional moving-average filter is defined in terms of its dimensions *hich must be odd# positive and integral but not necessarily e9ual# and its coefficients. he output >D is found by dividing the sum of the products of corresponding convolution kernel and image elements often divided by the number of kernel elements.

2 similar effect is given from a median filter *here the convolution kernel is a description of the 4S? *eights. -hoosing the median value from the moving *indo* does a better "ob of suppressing noise and preserving edges than the mean filter. 2daptive filters have kernel coefficients calculated for each *indo* position based on the mean and variance of the original >D in the underlying image. 'ig$+*ass 7%$arpening8 Filters Simply subtracting the lo*-fre9uency image resulting from a lo* pass filter from the original image can enhance high spatial fre9uencies. $igh -fre9uency information allo*s us either to isolate or to amplify the local detail. If the high-fre9uency detail is amplified by adding back to the image some multiple of the high fre9uency component e:tracted by the filter# then the result is a sharper# de-blurred image. $igh-pass convolution filters can be designed by representing a 4S? *ith positive centre *eightr and negative surrounding *eights. 2 typical 5:5 Aaplacian filter has a kernal *ith a high central value# ) at each corner# and -& at the centre of each edge. Such filters can be biased in certain directions for enhancement of edges. 2 high-pass filtering can be performed simply based on the mathematical concepts of derivatives# i.e.# gradients in >D throughout the image. Since images are not continuous functions# calculus is dispensed *ith and instead derivatives are estimated from the differences in the >D of ad"acent pi:els in the :#y or diagonal directions. >irectional first differencing aims at emphasising edges in image. Fre;uenc. om#in Fi+ters he ?ourier transform of an image# as e:pressed by the amplitude spectrum is a breakdo*n of the image into its fre9uency or scale components. ?iltering of these components use fre9uency domain filters that operate on the amplitude spectrum of an image and remove# attenuate or amplify the amplitudes in specified *avebands. he fre9uency domain can be represented as a 3-dimensional scatter plot kno*n as a fourier spectrum# in *hich lo*er fre9uencies fall at the centre and progressively higher fre9uencies are plotted out*ard. ?iltering in the fre9uency domain consists of 5 steps< ?ourier transform the original image and compute the fourier spectrum Select an appropriate filter transfer function (e9uivalent to the C ? of an optical system) and multiply by the elements of the fourier spectrum. 4erform an inverse fourier transform to return to the spatial domain for display purposes. Im#ge C+#ssi!ic#tion Image -lassification has formed an important part of the fields of ,emote Sensing# Image 2nalysis and 4attern ,ecognition. In some instances# the classification itself may form the ob"ect of the analysis. >igital Image -lassification is the process of sorting all

the pi:els in an image into a finite number of individual classes. he classification process is based on follo*ing assumptions< Patterns of their >D# usually in multichannel data (Spectral -lassification). Spatial relationship *ith neighbouring pi:els ,elationships bet*een the data acc9uired on different dates.
Pattern Recognition, Spectral Classification, e!tural Analysis and Change "etection are different forms of classification that are focused on 5 main ob"ectives< &. >etection of different kinds of features in an image. 3. >iscrimination of distinctive shapes and spatial patterns 5. Identification of temporal changes in image

?undamentally spectral classification forms the bases to map ob"ectively the areas of the image that have similar spectral reflectance8emissivity characteristics. >epending on the type of information re9uired# spectral classes may be associated *ith identified features in the image (supervised classification) or may be chosen statistically (unsupervised classification). -lassification has also seen as a means to compressing image data by reducing the large range of >D in several spectral bands to a fe* classes in a single image. -lassification reduces this large spectral space into relatively fe* regions and obviously results in loss of numerical information from the original image. here is no theoretical limit to the dimensionality used for the classification# though obviously the more bands involved# the more computationally intensive the process becomes. It is often *ise to remove redundant bands before classification. -lassification generally comprises four steps< *re+processing# e.g.# atmospheric# correction# noise suppression# band ratioing# 4rincipal -omponent 2nalysis# etc. #raining - selection of the particular features *hich best describe the pattern !ecision - choice of suitable method for comparing the image patterns *ith the target patterns. Assessing t$e accurac& of the classification he informational data are classified into systems< Supervised Bnsupervised %uper ised 2lassification In this system each pi:el is supervised for the categori0ation of the data by specifying to the computer algorithm# numerical descriptors of various class types. here are three basic steps involved in typical supervised classification Tr#ining St#ge he analyst identifies the training area and develops a numerical description of the spectral attributes of the class or land cover type. >uring the training stage the location# si0e# shape and orientation of each pi:el type for each class.

C+#ssi!ic#tion St#ge Each pi:el is categorised into landcover class to *hich it closely resembles. If the pi:el is not similar to the training data# then it is labeled as unkno*n. Dumerical mathematical approaches to the spectral pattern recognition have been classified into various categories. &. Me#surements on Sc#tter i#gr#m Each pi:el value is plotted on the graph as the scatter diagram indicating the category of the class. In this case the 3-dimensional digital values attributed to each pi:el is plottes on the graph 3. Minimum ist#nce to Me#n C+#ssi!ier6Centroid C+#ssi!ier his is a simple classification strategies. ?irst the mean vector for each category is determined from the average >D in each band for each class. 2n unkno*n pi:el can then be classified by computing the distance from its spectral position to each of the means and assigning it to the class *ith the closest mean. Cne limitation of this techni9ue is that it overlooks the different degrees of variation. 5. P#r#++e+*i*ed C+#ssi!ier ?or each class the estimate of the ma:imum and minimum >D in each band is determine. hen parallelpiped are constructeds o as to enclose the scatter in each theme. hen each pi:el is tested to see if it falls inside any of the parallelpiped and has limitation 6. 2 pi:el may fall outside the parallelpiped and remained unclassified. (. heme data are so strongly corrected such that a pi:el vector that plots at some distance from the theme scatter may yet fall *ithin the decision bo: and be classified erroneously. .. Sometimes parallelpiped may overlap in *hich case the decision becomes more complicated then boundary are slipped. +. G#ussi#n M#,imum Like+i&ood C+#ssi!ier his method determines the variance and covariance of each theme providing the probability function. his is then used to classify an unkno*n pi:el by calculating for each class# the probability that it lies in that class. he pi:el is then assigned to the most likely class or if its probability value fail to reach any close defined threshold in any of the class# be labeled as unclassified. ,educing data dimensionally before hand is aVone approach to speeding the process up.

/nsuper ised 2lassification his system of classification does not utili0e training data as the basis of classification. his classifier involves algorithms that e:amine the unkno*n pi:els in the image and aggregate them into a number of classes based on the natural groupings or cluster present in the image. he classes that result from this type of classification are spectral classes. Bnsupervised classification is the identification# labeling and mapping of these natural classes. his method is usually used *hen there is less information about the data before classification.

here are several mathematical strategies to represent the clusters of data in spectral space. &. Se;uenti#+ C+ustering In this method the pi:els are analysed one at a time pi:el by pi:el and line by line. he spectral distance bet*een each analysed pi:el and previously defined cluster means are calculated. If the distance is greater than some threshold value# the pi:el begins a ne* cluster other*ise it contributes to the nearest e:isting clusters in *hich case cluster mean is recalculated. -lusters are merged if too many of them are formed by ad"usting the threshold value of the cluster means. 3. St#tistic#+ C+ustering It overlooks the spatial relationship bet*een ad"acent pi:els. he algorithm uses 5:5 *indo*s in *hich all pi:els have similar vector in space. he process has t*o steps
1. 2.

esting for homogeneity *ithin the *indo* of pi:els under consideration. -luster merging and deletion

$ere the *indo*s are moved one at time through the image avoiding the overlap. he mean and standard derivation are calculated for each band of the *indo*. he smaller the standard deviation for a given band the greater the homogenity of the *indo*. hese values are then compared by the user specified parameter for delineating the upper and lo*er limit of the standard deviation. If the *indo* passes the homogenity test it forms cluster. -lusters are created untill then number e:ceeds the user defined ma:imum number of clusters at *hich point some are merged or deleted according to their *eighting and spectral distances. =( Iso #t# C+ustering 9Iter#ti$e Se+! Org#nising #t# An#+.sis Tec&ni;ues:

Its repeatedly performs an entire classification and recalculates the statistics. he procedure begins *ith a set of arbitrarily defined cluster means# usually located evenly through the spectral space. 2fter each iteration ne* means are calculated and the process is repeated until there is some difference bet*een iterations. his method produces good result for the data that are not normally distributed and is also not biased by any section of the image. 5. RG7 C+ustering It is 9uick method for 5 band# = bit data. he algorithm plots all pi:els in spectral space and then divides this space into 53 : 53 : 53 clusters. 2 cluster is re9uired to have minimum number of pi:els to become a class. ,G7 -lustering is not baised to any part of the data.

Pro/ection S.stem /aps are flat# but the surfaces they represent are curved. ransforming# threedimensional space onto a t*o dimensional map is called !pro"ection!. his process inevitably distorts at least one of the follo*ing properties< Shape# 2rea# >istance# >irection# and often more. It is kno*n that a globe is a true representation of the earth# *hich is divided into various sectors by the lines of latitudes and longitudes. his net*ork is called 'graticule'. 2 map pro"ection denotes the preparation of the graticule on a flat surface. heoretically map pro"ection might be defined as !a systematic dra*ing of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitudes on a plane surface for the *hole earth or a part of it on a certain scale so that any point on the earth surface may correspond to that on the dra*ing.! Necessit. o! M#* Pro/ection 2n ordinary globe is rendered useless for reference to a small country. It is not possible to make a globe on a very large scale. Say# if anyone *ants to make a globe on a scale of one inch to a mile# the radius *ill be 55) ft. It is difficult to make and handle such a globe and uncomfortable to carry it in the field for reference. Dot only topographical maps of different scales but also atlas and *all maps *ould not have been possibly made *ithout the use of certain pro"ections. So a globe is least useful or helpful in the field of practical purposes. /oreover it is neither easy to compare different regions over the globe in detail# nor convenient to measure distances over it. herefore for different types of maps different pro"ections have been evolved in accordance *ith the scale and purpose of the map. Se+ection o! M#* Pro/ection here is no ideal map pro"ection# but representation for a given purpose can be achieved. he selection of pro"ection is made on the basis of the follo*ing< he location and the e:tension of the feature of the globe. &. he shape of the boundary to be pro"ected. 3. he deformations or distortions of a map to be minimi0ed. 5. he mathematical model to be applied to preserve some identity of graphical features. 7ased on these characteristics the utility of the pro"ection is ascertained. Some Interesting Links :

/ap 4ro"ection Cvervie* 2n 2rticle by 4eter $. >ana /ap 4ro"ections 2n 2rticle by 7rian @linkenberg /ap 4ro"ection 7y %orlfram ,esearch /ap 4ro"ection utorial %hy are map pro"ections an issue in GIS1 - 7ritish -olumbia

C+#ssi!ic#tion 4otentially there e:its an unlimited number of map pro"ections possessing one property or the other. he natures of these properties are so comple: that they often possess one or more common properties. here is no pro"ection# *hich can be grouped# in a single class. /oreover# if one attempts to obtain a rational classification of map pro"ection# it *ill be rather difficult to achieve it. here can be as many classifications as many bases. >epending on different bases the follo*ing classifications may be suggested<
7#sis &. /ethod of -onstruction 3. 4reserved 9ualities 5. >evelopable surface area &. 4erspective 3. Don-perspective &. $omolographic 8 E9ual 2rea 3. Crthomorphic 8 -onformal &. -ylindrical 3. -onical 5. 20imuthal 8 Oenithal 6. -onventional &. 4olar 3. E9uation8Dormal 5. Cbli9ue &. Gnomonic 3. Stereographic 5. Crthographic 6. Cthers C+#sses

6. 4osition of tangent surface

(. 4osition of vie*point or light

C+#ssi!ic#tion 2#sed on met&ods o! construction /athematically the term 'pro"ection' means the determination of points on the plane as vie*ed from a fi:ed point. 7ut in cartography it may not be necessarily restricted to 'perspective' or geometrical pro"ection. Cn the globe the meridians and parallels are circles. %hen they are transferred on a plane surface# they become intersecting lines# curved or straight. If *e stick a flat paper over the globe# it *ill not coincide *ith it over a large surface *ithout being creased. he paper *ill touch the globe only at one point# so that the other sectors *ill be pro"ected over plane in a distorted form. he pro"ection *ith the help of light *ill give a shado*ed picture of the globe *hich is distorted in those

parts *hich are farther from the point *here the paper touches it. he amount of distortion increases *ith the increase in distance from the tangential point. 7ut only a fe* of the pro"ections imply this perspective method. he ma"ority of pro"ections represent an arrangement of lines of latitude and longitude in conformity *ith some principles so as to minimi0e the amount of distortion. %ith the help of mathematical calculations true relation bet*een latitude and longitudes is maintained. hus various processes of non-perspective pro"ections have been devised. Some Interesting Links : -lassification of /ap 4ro"ection 2n 2rticle from Bniversity of %aterloo

C+#ssi!ic#tion 2#sed on *reser$ed ;u#+ities %hile transferring the globe on a plane surface some facts should be kept in vie*< &. 4reservation of area# 3. 4reservation of shape# 5. 4reservation of bearing i.e. direction and distance. It is# ho*ever# very difficult to make such a pro"ection even for a small country# in *hich all the above 9ualities may be *ell preserved. 2ny one 9uality may be thoroughly achieved by a certain map pro"ection only at the cost of others. According to t&e ;u#+it. t&e. *reser$e< *ro/ections m#. 2e c+#ssi!ied into t&ree grou*s :4 &. E9ual area ($omolographic pro"ection)# 3. -orrect shape (Crthomorphic or -onformal pro"ection)# 5. rue bearing (20imuthal pro"ection). C+#ssi!ic#tion 2#sed on de$e+o*#2+e sur!#ce #re# here are some surfaces over *hich the sphere may be pro"ected. 2fter pro"ection such surfaces may be cut open onto flat surface. hese developable surfaces include &. -ylinder and 3. -one. C.+indric#+ Pro/ection %hen the graticule is prepared on the surface of a hollo* cylinder it is called -ylindrical 4ro"ection. &. Dormal -ylindrical 4ro"ection - his is a perspective cylindrical pro"ection. %hen a cylinder is *rapped round the globe so as to touch it along the e9uator# and the light is placed at the centre# the true cylindrical pro"ection is obtained. Aimitations<

he scale is true only along the e9uator. he e:aggeration of the parallel scale as *ell as the meridian scale *ould be very greatly increasing a*ay from the e9uator. he poles can't be sho*n# because their distances from the e9uator becomes infinite. 3. Simple -ylindrical 4ro"ection - It is also called E9uidistant -ylindrical 4ro"ection as both the parallels and meridians are e9uidistant. he *hole net*ork represents a series of e9ual s9uares. 2ll the parallels are e9ual to the e9uator and all the meridians are half of the e9uator in length. he pro"ection is neither e9ual area nor orthomorphic. Aimitations < he scale along the e9uator is true. he meridian scale is correct every*here because the parallels are dra*n at their true distances. Aatitudinal scale increases a*ay from the e9uator. his leads to great distortion in shape and e:aggeration of area in high latitudes. 5. -ylindrical E9ual 2rea 4ro"ection - his cylindrical pro"ection *as introduced by Aambert. he properties are almost the same. he area bet*een t*o parallels is made e9ual to the corresponding surface on the sphere at the cost of great distortion in shape to*ards higher latitudesF this is *hy it is an e9ual area pro"ection. Aimitations< Same as (ii). Gener#+ Pro*erties o! C.+indric#+ Pro/ection -ylindricals are true at the e9uator and the distortion increases as on moves to*ards the poles. Good for areas in the tropics Conic#+ Pro/ection 2 cone may be imagined to touch the globe of a convenient si0e along any circle (other than a great circle) but the most useful case *ill be the normal one in *hich the ape: of the cone *ill lie vertically above the pole on the earth's a:is produced and the surface of the cone *ill be tangent to the sphere along some parallel of latitude. It is called 'standard parallel'. If the selected parallel (S4) is nearer the pole the verte: of the cone *ill be closer to it and subse9uently the angle at the ape: *ill be increasing proportionately. %hen the pole itself becomes the selected parallel# the angle of the ape: *ill become &=) degrees# and the surface of the cone *ill be similar to the tangent plane of Oenithal 4ro"ection. Cn the other hand# *hen the selected parallel is nearer to the e9uator# the verte: of the cone *ill be moving farther a*ay from the pole. in case e9uator is the selected parallel# the verte: *ill be at an infinite distance# and the cone *ill become a cylinder. hus the -ylindrical and Oenithal 4ro"ections may be regarded as special cases of -onical 4ro"ections.

4roperties -onics are true along some parallel some*here bet*een the e9uator and the pole and the distortion increases a*ay from this standard. Good for emperate Oone areas >enit&#+ Pro/ection In Oenithal 4ro"ection a flat paper is supposed to touch the globe at one point and the light may be kept at another point so as to reflect or pro"ect the lines of latitude and longitude on the plane. $ere the globe is vie*ed from a point vertically above it# so these are called Oenithal 4ro"ections. hey are also called 'a0imuthal' because the bearings are all true from the central point. In respect of the plane's position touching the globe# Oenithal 4ro"ection is of three main classes <&. Dormal or E9uatorial Oenithal (*here the plane touches the globe at e9uator)# 3. 4olar Oenithal (*here the plane touches the globe at pole)# 5. Cbli9ue Oenithal (*here the plane touches the globe at any other point). 2ccording to the location of the vie* point Oenithal 4ro"ection is of three types <&. Gnomonic 8 -entral (vie* point lies at the centre of the globe)# 3. Stereographic (vie* point lies at the opposite pole) 5. Crthographic (vie* point lies at the infinity). 4roperties 20imuthals are true only at their centre point# but generally distortion is *orst at the edge of the map. Good for polar areas.