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Topic 3: Strain
MEEM 5150 Spring 2008

One-dimensional strain measures


Take a 1D bar which can only be streched axially. The bar had an initial length L and area A that is stretched to a final length of l and area a. The engineering strain E can be given as

l a

E =

l l L = L L l l L = l l
(l L)

The true strain T can be given as

E =

For both of these measures, if strain is small the small strain quantity is recovered.

= l / l


For the small strain case, they all converge to small strain definition. As an example, for the Green strain

( L + L) 2 L2 G (l L) 2 L2 (l + l ) 2 l 2 2l 2 0 1 l 2 + l 2 + 2l l l 2 = l2 2 l l

Deformation concept
t=0 X3 u P0

x3 P


e3 X E3 O E2 E1 X1 X2 x1 b o e1

x e2 spatial coordinates x2

material coordinates

Vector b serves to locate the origin o wrt O. From the figure u=b+xX Very often in continuum mechanics it is possible to consider the coordinate systems OX1X2X3 and ox1x2x3 superimposed so that b = 0. So u=x-X


Strain concept

Lagrangian Tensor
Position function of a specific point: Displacement gradient tensor with respect to material coordinates

Deformation gradient tensor


Lagrangian Tensor
The change in the square of the length of the vector dX

Lagrangian strain tensor:

Lagrangian Tensor
Infinitesimal lagrangian strain sensor (Green stain tensor)

Right Cauchy-Green strain tensor

Left Cauchy-Green strain tensor


Physical stain components

Deformation of an orthogonal triad

Extensional strain components Shear strain components

Physical stain components

Extensional strain components Shear strain components



Volume dilation
Volume dilation is defined as

For the case of infinitesimal stains,

Principal Strains
The values of principal strains are the three roots of the determinant equation:


Principal Strains
Three principal strain directions are obtained from these equations:

If (x,y,z) are principal strain axes, the three invariants are reduced as

Normal Strain Transformation


Shear Strain Transformation

Strain-displacement relations for small displacement theory


Strain-displacement relations for orthogonal curvilinear coordinates

Cylindrical coordinates (3D)

Spherical Coordinates (3D)

Polar Coordinates (2D)

Strain Compatibility


Strain measurements
Strain gage
Circuit bridges Gage mounting and types

Example 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11