Lockheed P-38 Has Wide Range of Tactical Uses

Kept well under wraps until after African invasion – in which it played a large part – Lockheed P-38 Lightning, it is now revealed, has been in action as a high altitude fighter, low level bomber, and photographic

plane !ith a top speed of "well over #$$ mph,% it lands at but 8$ mph, the wide performance range being due to a new Lockheed-&owler flap which can be lowered in three seconds and raised in but four

maneuverability essential to successful Details just released reveal it to be everything from bomber to high combat work. Maneuverability is altitude fighter. Unusual Lockheed-Fowler flap aids maneuverability. enhanced by the fact that the propellers rotate in opposite directions, thus VERSATILITY appears to be one of loading is unusually high for a fighter eliminating torque. the outstanding characteristics of the craft. The P-38 has an effective combat Lockheed P-38 Lightning twin-engine Landing speed, however, is but 80 range of 750 mi., considerably higher fighter. Details just revealed – after the mph., the unusual range of performance than that of many modern fighter craft, plane had been in action for some time being attributed in large measure to a due to jettisonable gas tanks of 150 gal. in the Aleutian, the South Pacific, quick-acting “maneuvering flap” which capacity. These tanks, designed by Europe, and North Africa – show it has was developed by Lockheed and which Lockheed engineers – who have twice been used as both a low- and high- has been in production for many the capacity of earlier standard tanks, altitude fighter, as a dive bomber, and months. An improved version of the yet permit a 10-mph. higher cruising as a photographic ship. Lockheed-Fowler flap, it can be speed. Either gas tanks or bombs may Powered by two 1,150 hp. Allison extended into the down position in be hung from the same racks, so that inline, liquid cooled turbo-supercharged three seconds and raised in four. Use of one bomb and one extra tank may be engines, the P-38 has a ceiling above the flap is not restricted to landings and carried if the mission requires, or this 40,000 ft. and a top speed of “well over takeoffs, for it is reported that the flap extra weight-carrying ability may be 400 mph.” Its 48 lb. per sq. ft. wing can be lowered during flight to increase utilized for carrying tanks for laying

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smoke screens, to accommodate equipment for ground troops, or for some other purpose. Armament consists of four heavycalibre machine guns and one cannon mounted in the nose and firing between the propeller arcs, thus eliminating the cone of fire encountered when guns are mounted in the wings. Conforming to standard American practice, the pilot and vital parts of the plane are protected by armor plate, and the plane is equipped with self-sealing fuel tanks.

The wing has no ribs, being of double-skinned, double-stressed design. In combat operation, the P-38 has been found to possess unusual flying ability on one engine. In Coral Sea engagements, for example, a P-38 on a photographic mission with one engine disabled was able to outclimb three different groups of Jap Zeros. In another engagement in the Aleutians, a pilot flew a P-38 150 mi. back to his base with one engine shot away.

Specifications released to date include: Wing span..........52 ft. Length...............38 ft. Height................9 ft. Wing loading.....48 lb.sq.ft. Gross wt............13,500 lb. Maximum speed Above 400 mph. Landing speed. . .80 mph. Power plant........Two 1,150 hp. Allisons Propellers...........Three bladed, constant speed, electric, 11½ ft arc.

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DESIGN ANALYSIS NO. 8

The Lockheed P-38
y !"LL L. !# "$D
Vice-President and Chie En!ineer" Lockheed Aircra t Cor#.

%ne of the world&s outstanding triple-duty warplanes ' which serves as long- range high or low altitude fighter( bomber( or photo reconnaissance craft ' presented in "viation&s unmatched style. $evealed here are details of flue daring pioneering design features which have made #t one of the most controversial as well as successful combat planes. Lockheed P-38 ©2005 JL McClellan p 3 of 50

Three-$ie% si&ho'ette o Lockheed P-38 (Li!htnin!) i!hter. A&& di*ensions on %in! s'r ace are !i$en ne!&ectin! incidence and are *eas'red hori+onta&&,. Dihedra& an!&e is *eas'red at -asic chord #&ane and does not inc&'de incidence. .in! is -'i&t %ith /0 123" dihedra& and then

rotated a-o't intersection #oint o *ain -ea* center&ine and %in! chord &ine at center&ine o shi# 'nti& 40 incidence is o-tained. A&& di*ensions re errin! to e*#enna!-e $ertica& s'r aces on&, are rotated 50 5/3 co'nterc&ock%ise o $ertica& and hori+onta&" res#ecti$e&,.

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-

'( Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighter has been )uite appropriately called the most controversial airplane ever adopted by the * + armed services ,n thousands of sorties and hundreds of combat victories many of the points of controversy have been resolved, but there still persists much that is either erroneous or due to misunderstanding Perhaps some of the derogatory items in the P-38 legends are traceable to the superlative re)uirements contained in the Army s specifications -o meet or surpass those re)uirements, and more recently to modify the P-38 as war e.perience and developments re)uired, it has been necessary to do considerable pioneering Particularly is that true in the higher speed ranges And for such pioneering, the Lightning has had to accept the penalties of popular misunderstanding and the criticisms most pioneers undergo -he P-38 was the first modern fighter e)uipped with tricycle landing gear/ the first to use the Allison engine/ the first e)uipped with a turbosupercharger/ first in the "above #$$ mph % class/ first successful twin-boom design/ first twinengine "interceptor% fighter / first American airplane to have flush or butt 0oined e.ternal surfaces/ first fighter of its weight/ first to mount its guns ahead of the pilot where they fire straight ahead, rather than in a 1cone1/ first to

E6#&oded $ie% o *ain -ea* in center section" sho%in! do'-&e %e-" -o6 t,#e constr'ction. Note $ariet, o -'&kheads" and '##er and &o%er channe&s 7ri!ht8" a t" ront in-oard" and ront o't-oard %e- asse*-&ies 7center ri!ht8" '##er and &o%er %in! ittin!s 7center &e t8" and co*#&eted center section -ea* %ith end -'&kheads 7&e t8. Position o *ain -ea* in center section is sho%n at e6tre*e &e t.

9ain -ea* ittin! at %in!. :ittin!s are *'&ti- in!ered" #in ;oined" and o 51ST or stee& or!in!s de#endin! on #&ace o 'se.

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make e.tensive use of stainless steel/ first to be delivered under its own power to bases overseas/ first fighter to carry and launch torpedoes2 and first fighter to tow gliders -he list could be continued, particularly in the field of combat versatility however, these "firsts% illustrate many of the sources of P-38 legends especially those partially or entirely inaccurate ,n pioneering high altitudes and speeds for e.ample, the Lightning has had to temporarily take the blame for operational peculiarities later proven common to all airplanes at such speeds and altitudes 3ersatility now credited to the P-38 is a pure byproduct, rather than designed intent !e designed a superlatively fast, rapid climbing, hard hitting, high altitude fighter -hat fact re)uired the ultimate in clean design and great horsepower, which in turn established the plane4s other specifications -hese in turn have made possible the carrying of bombs and droppable fuel tanks for long range operation -he high speed has made possible the photographic version And the concentrated firepower has been found e.cellent for ground strafing missions -he current P-385 is the 36th development, including several designs which were never built, of the original Lockheed 7odel 88, and represents seven basic model variations -his evolution has resulted in the airplane now credited with being the fastest, most maneuverable, hardest hitting fighter with the greatest ceiling, longest range and fastest sustained climb of any now in combat operation 9imensionally the Lightning is big for a fighter, having a wing span of :8 ft, an over-all length of 3; ft <$ in, and a ma.imum height from the static ground line to upper tip of the empennage of = ft =-<<><6 in ,ts weight empty is <8,;$$ lb and its normal useful load is 8,$$$ lb 'owever, one specification alternate provides for a gross weight of appro.imately <8,$$$ lb (very design feature of the P-38, as in most successful airplanes, was originated by necessity -he distinguishing twin-booms, for e.ample, were not selected because they would be different ?either was the twin-boom design originated by Lockheed +ome previous planes of this design, it is true, had not been too successful but for reasons other than the booms ,n the Lightning they evolved as a logical development of engine nacelles made long to house the engine oil cooler

Another P-38 desi!n inno$ation" recent&, added di$e &a# de$e&o#ed to o sett co*#ressi-i&it, e ec, %hich shi ted &i t center. :&a#s are -'i&t o three &a,ers o &'sh-ri$eted sheet" attached -, #iano-t,#e hin!e. E&ectrica&&, o#erated" &a#s e6tend to an!&e o 12 de!rees.

turbosupercharger, Prestone radiators, and landing gear, @ecause of the greater nacelle length it was logical to e.tend them into booms to carry the empennage (ngineering-wise they add nothing or subtract nothing that could not have been achieved in other ways ?ecessity was truly the mother of invention in the evolution of the Lightning design -he Army specifications, laid down in <=3;, were such that power re)uirements were greater than could be obtained from any single engine then available +uperior speed, rapid climb, high ceiling, and great firepower were the principal ob0ectives demanded by the Army -o them we added placement of firepower where it would be most effectiveAahead of the pilot and below his line of vision to provide une.celled visibility and a distinct advantage in shooting -he pilot can pick up his target )uicker and need not get it at the precise ape. of a cone of fire such as is necessary when the guns are mounted in the wings -he P-38 is now credited with speeds above #8: mph -his high speed, plus great maneuverability due to new booster-type aileron control, plus added dive control obtained by specially designed wing flaps, result in a tremendous combat advantage now being demonstrated daily all over the world An all-metal, mid-wing, single seater fighter, the P-384s wing is of full cantilever design, constructed in five components2 center section, outer panels and tips -he center section, forward booms, and gondola-type fuselage are 0ig mated and bolted together 7ain structural members of the center section are a main beam,

located at 3: percent chord, front and rear shear beams, tied together with corrugated and flat 8#+- to form a bo. section in which space is provided for fuel cells -he main beam is double web, bo. type in the center section, and a single web, modified !agner type in the outer wing, the two sections being 0oined together by means of bolts A partial front shear web e.tends from the side of the fuselage to the engine nacelle and in combination with the continuous full-span rear shear beam, completes the torsion structure of the wing *pper and lower center section main beam caps are 8#+- e.trusions connected with sheet metal shear webs -he rear face of the beam is strengthened with <8 e.truded stiffeners spaced about 6 in apart, and seven bulkheads along the span act as additional stiffeners &ront face of the main beam is truss or open construction for the center 3$ in, which allows for accessibility and for location of pulleys and other connections to the cockpit -hickness of the beam caps tapers from the center toward the outboard ends to save weight where less strength is re)uired -his taper ranges from ;><6 in thickness at the inboard end to B in at the edge of the fuselage and back to almost ;><6 in again at the outboard ends -he inboard end is thinner to permit bending of cap e.trusions for the re)uired dihedral -he main beam varies from a depth of <= in at +tation $ at its inboard end, which is the center line of the airplane, to l3C in at the point of attachment of the outer panel -he bo. beam is composed of the main beam, rear shear beam, and upper

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C't-a%a, sketches sho%in! detai&s o center section 7to#8 and %in! &a# 7-otto*8. <,dra'&ic act'ation is -, *eans o #'sh-#'&& t'-es and 5=8 in. #re or*ed tinned car-on stee& ca-&es. Lockheed-:o%&er t,#e &a#s are 'sed or takeo " *ane'$erin!" a##roach" and &andin!.

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and lower surfaceAflat and corrugated Astructures +panwise corrugations stiffen the skin and help carry bending and air loads on the wing !ebs of the main beam are :C in apart and $#$ +Alclad aluminum Dorrugations in the center wing section are $6# +E- and $38 +E- Alclad -he upper and lower skin is $#$ +- aluminum with lower skin strengthened with an $#$ doubler e.tending inboard from the outboard end to a diagonal line appro.imately half way to the center line -he rear shear beam is a single-web, modified !agner type, constructed of e.truded - s and sheet stock !ing fittings which attach to the upper and lower caps of the main beam are of <#+- forgings and are formed multi-fingered, pin 0oined &or conn ection of the outer wing main beam the fittings on the outer wing are multifingered steel forgings, to reduce their siFe and increase the faces carrying shear loads Eear shear beam of the outer wing 0oint is a simple shear fitting, steel pin connection at the upper and lower caps Dorrugations of the surface structure are spliced at the outer wing 0oint by means of aluminum alloy forgings and tension bolts -he bo. structure and leading edge section forward of the main beam e.tend from the fuselage to the engine nacelles and form a two-cell torsion bo. which carries torsional loads to the fuselage -he surface structure through the center section is stabiliFed for a portion of its length from the center line outboard to the edge of the fuselage with ribs built up with sheet metal stampings -he surface structure is unsupported from that line to appro.imately where the booms attach to provide room for fuel tanks in the bo. beams and leading edge sections -he leading edge sections have chordwise formers in both upper and lower surfaces instead of ribs e.tending from the main beam to the front shear beam -he front beam is interrupted at the fuselage and nacelles and the loads are taken across by the bo. beam between the main and rear spars ,n the gas tank area $8: +- inner skin is riveted to the corrugated stiffener by means of flush rivets 9ue to the inaccessibility it was necessary for Lockheed tooling engineers to develop a magnetic bucking bar for this operation, which was typical of the many manufacturing problems posed by the pioneering done in the P-38 -railing edge of the center section consists of sheet metal ribs and inter-

This #hoto !ro'# sho%s 7to# to -otto*8 '##er and &o%er ai&eron s'r aces> %in! ti# asse*-&,> and &o%er s'r ace o o'ter %in! #ane& %ith &a# e6tended. .in!ti# o'ter skins are s#ot %e&ded to -eaded inner skins" rein orced -, t%o -ea*s. Ti#s attach to o'ter #ane& -, &'sh scre%s.

costal stiffeners which support the upper skin, and Lockheed s design of &owler flaps &laps consist of a main spar formed with a sheet metal web and formed sheet metal caps, sheet metal ribs and stringers -hey are carried on forged <#+- arms guided on tracks machined from <#+- forgings -hey e.tend from either side of the fuselage outboard to the inner end of the aileron, a distance of

appro.imately <8$ in, with the e.ception of a section appro.imately #3 in wide, omitted at each boom 'aving a total area of appro.imately #$ s) ft , the flaps are secured to the wing by means of eight carriages supported in tracks attached to the flap supporting ribs and providing for tension aft in line with the flight path so that, in e.tended position, the flap leading edge corresponds appro.i-

Pro i&e o o'ter %in! #ane&" sho%in! 758 &a# dri$e t'-e> 748 shear--ea* attachin! ar*s> 738 -ath'- ittin!s> 718 *ain -ea* ittin!s> 7/8 #itot &ine connections> 7?8 ish %ires tied to o'ter #ane& ai&eron and ai&eron ta- ca-&es> 7@8 e&ectrica& cond'it> 788 %in! en!ine *o'nt &'!> and 7A8 !enerator -&ast t'-e.

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Leadin! ed!e asse*-&," o'ter %in!" sho%in!B 758 %e&&> 7/8 corr'!ations> 7?8 ca# stri#> 7@8 in!er #iano-t,#e hin!e> 748 skin> 738 do'-&er> 718 i&ter #&ate> 788 do'-&er> 7A8 s'*# %e&&" and 7528 ri-s.

mately to the trailing edge of the wing -he flap is actuated by an irreversible screw driving a guided push-pull tube, which runs outboard from the fuselage through each wing and to which the flap carriages are connected by means of a system of G-in e.tra fle.ible, preformed tinned carbon steel cables All pulleys and other rotating parts of the flap actuating system are mounted on anti-friction type bearings -his mechanism permits the flap to be e.tended to its optimum setting or held in any intermediate position desired without loading the driving mechanism -he irreversible screw is hydraulically operated, with activation by means of controls in the pilot4s cockpit An au.iliary hydraulic hand pump provides operating power in case of failure or damage to the engine-driven hydraulic pump Huter wing panels consist of main beam, rear shear beam, and upper and lower stressed skin, forming a bo. beam, and hydro-pressed sheet 8#+ribs spaced at <8-in, centers Huter skin and corrugated stiffener are 8#+Alclad -he leading edge has no ribs

and is made up of formed inner skin and shallow chordwise corrugations of 8#+- -hese are built up of upper and lower halves, 0oined at the leading edge with piano hinge fittings, and are removable ,n earlier models the intercoolers were housed in the leading edge of the wing, which now carries fuel cells A flush type leading edge light is incorporated in the left side -he skin, of $#$ gage, 8#+- Alclad, is flush riveted and butt 0ointed 7ain beam of the outer wing panel consists of upper and lower beam caps which are 8#+- aluminum alloy e.trusions, tapering out from the center until a heavier, reinforcing section disappears and the e.trusion becomes a plain angle of sheet metal -he lower cap tapers faster than the upper and is finally replaced by a pair of sheet metal angles Hne of the interesting new cases of P-38 pioneering is the use of recently added dive flaps to offset compressibility effect which shifted center of lift from fore to aft portions of wing 9ue to the unusually high speeds attained

by the heavy P-38 in power dives, shifting of the center of lift caused loss of normal control above the "hydrodynamic% speedsAwhere air reacts much like waterAwith a resu<ting tendency of the plane to go into an outside loop +ince installation of the flaps this characteristic has been overcome -he flaps are fabricated of three layers of aluminum alloy sheet, flush riveted -hey attach, by means of a piano-type hinge, along the same line at which the leading edge of the wing is 0oined to the outer panel Actuation is electrical, with a high speed electric motor driving actuating screw mechanisms connected to a curved arm hinged to a fitting on the brace or rearmost of the two panels of the flap assembly !hen lowered, the flap stands at an angle of #$I from the lower skin surface line, and at its farthest point is :C in from the wing to the piano hinge by which it is attached to the brace panel -wo actuating mechanisms, side by side at the center, operate each flap, the actuating arms swinging downward through an opening in the wing skin -he flap and brace

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panels have a combined chord of <:C in, divided 8C in to the flap itself and ; in to the brace Length is :8 in -he mechanism is bolted to a heavy casting anchored to the lower skin structure and two wing ribs between which it is located -he wing tips are made up of smooth outer skins spotwelded to beaded inner skins and reinforced with two small spanwise beams each Attachment is made to the wing by screws A streamlined formation light is contained in both upper and lower surfaces of these structures

Hne of the performance characteristics of the LightningAfor which the tail surfaces and virtually all other parts of the airplane have taken )uite a beating from criticsAwas its apparent inability to roll as rapidly as fighter tactics re)uired 'ere again the high speed with its resultant pressure on the ailerons, necessitated another first, the aileron booster -his system uses the main hydraulic pressure to supplement the pilot s pressure on the aileron control surfaces Hperation is such that the pilot maintains the feel of the control but sup-

plies only <; percent of the force re)uired to actuate the ailerons, servo action supplying the remainder A shut-off valve in the hydraulic pressure line, controllable from the cockpit, is provided for the system 7etal-covered ailerons are of standard design, and have a total area of 8# ## s) ft, an angular movement of 8:I up and 8$I down, a differential movement of 8 3 to <, and the distance from the plane of symmetry to centroid of the aileron area is 83$ # in -hey are statically and dynamically balanced and are attached to the wing by stainless

Leadin! ed!e o %in!" ho'sin! intercoo&ers in ear&ier *ode&s o P-38" no% carries 'e& ce&& 7-&ack in &o%er $ie%8" has no ri-s" and is *ade '# o or*ed inner skin and sha&&o% chord%ise 41ST corr'!ations.

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Phanto* $ie% sho%s ai&eron contro& ca-&es &eadin! ro* contro& co&'*n -ack to dr'* asse*-&, on *ain -ea* and o't to -oosters 'sed to o$erco*e #ress're on ai&eron d'e to hi!h s#eed o #&ane. Pi&ot s'##&ies -'t one-si6th o orce necessar, to act'ate ai&erons> -ooster" 'ti&i+in! *ain s,ste* h,dra'&ic #res-s're s'##&ies additiona& orce reC'ired. :orce ro* contro& ca-&e on -ooster C'adrant 7&e t8 is trans*itted to -e&&crank and #'sh-#'&& rod" act'atin! ai&eron.

steel piano-type hinges (ngine nacelles e.tend forward from the main beam of the wing and 0oin the booms at the firewall, the latter being merely a bulkhead and not a structural member -he nacelles consist of an engine mount with two <#+- side truss forgings and steel tubular members with forged end fittings welded to them, and support bay forgings -he tubular members attach to ribs in the leading edge of the wing and the support bay attaches to the forward boom structure, giving the mount lateral support -he combined forgings and tubes form a truss providing vertical and lateral support -he mount attaches by means of four nickel steel bolts Dowling consists of mild steel lower nacelle, and )uickly removable alumi-

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Phanto* $ie% sho%in! contin'it, o r'dder contro& ca-&es ro* r'dder #eda&s -ack to *ain -ea*" o't to and -ack thro'!h -oo*s" to r'dder

hin!e -rackets and torC'e t'-es attached to rear s#ars o sta-i&i+ers. Ta-s in &'sh-ri$eted r'dders are a&so contro&&ed ro* cock#it.

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En!ine *o'nt and s'##ort asse*-&," sho%in! 758 dia!ona& t'-'&ar *e*-ers> 748 ,oke attachin! -o&t> 738 '##er dia!ona& -o&t> 718a t s'##er attachin! #oints> 7/8 dia!ona& asse*-&,> 7?8 a t dia!ona&> 7@8 and 788 attachin! -o&ts> 7A8 #ads> 7528 and 7558 or%ard attachin! -o&ts> 7548 #ads> 7538 ore dia!ona& attachin! #oint> 7518 -a, asse*-&,> 75/8 ,oke attachin! -o&t> 75?8 and 75@8 dia!ona&s> 7588 dia!ona& attachin! #oint> 75A8 &o%er tr'ss -o&t> and 7428 tr'ss.

num panels, attached by means of flush type fasteners to supporting framework of pressed aluminum alloy and steel attached to the engine itself and to the mount @ottom skin of the cowling and sections around the e.haust manifolds are of steel ,ntercoolers are below the engines and housed within the engine, cowling @ooms begin at the firewall and e.tend aft to support the empennage,

tapering from #;J in in height and 38 63 in in width at their deepest section 0ust aft of the trailing edge of the wing, to an ellipse, <3 in high and <$ in wide at the point where the empennage booms 0oin -hey are built in two sectionsAforward and aft -he turbosuperchargers are within the forward booms, in the upper section 0ust aft of the 0unction with the wing ,n the lower portions are main landing gear

Le t-hand o't-oard $ie% o #o%er#&ant sho%in!B 758 ront -'&khead s'##ort> 748 ;'nction -o6> 738 and 718 sec'rin! or center side co%& or*ers> 7/8 s#ark#&'! -&ast t'-es> 7?8 n'ts or sec'rin! oi& coo&er -rackets> 7@8 #ress're s%itch #&'! sec'rin! c&i#> 788 scre%s sec'rin! or%ard -'&khead to &o%er intake> 7A8 coo&ant ret'rn &ine> 7528 oi& ret'rn &ine> 7558 s%itch #&'!> and 7548 intercoo&er d'cts.

and the wells ,n the forward ends of the aft booms are the engine coolant radiators, with their air scoops attached outside of the booms themselves Also included in the left boom is a battery compartment and balancing it in the right boom is a luggage compartment @oom structures are of 8#+- rolled sheet of $#$ gage in the forward boom, and $38 gage in the aft boom, and e.truded bulb angles, stiffened by bulkheads of hydro-press formed 8#+- Alclad spaced appro.imately <: in apart in the forward boom and about <$ in apart in the aft boom &orward and aft booms are 0oined around their top and sides through a butt 0oint and heavy doubler and at the bottom by means of a pin and forged fitting in the ends of heavy channel sections of 8#+- hydropressed parts which form the lower edge of the wheel well and to which the landing gear doors attach -he semimonoco)ue construction of the booms gives re)uired strength and is reinforced at the edges of the gear recess Donsiderable stainless steel is used in the booms, in the areas around the superchargers and it was to fabricate this that the manufacturing divisions were forced to do considerable research and other pioneering -he empennage consists of two boomsAforming the tail coneAtwo vertical stabiliFers, two rudders and tabs, one horiFontal stabiliFer and one elevator and tab Hutboard the aft empennage boom supports the rear portions of the stabiliFer tips and is attached to the forward empennage boom by screws and plate nuts -he forward empennage boom is a formed skin reinforced by stringers and hydro-pressed bulkheads, to which is attached the horiFontal and vertical stabiliFers, the latter being divided above and below the forward empennage boom -he flush-riveted stabiliFer is built up in standard, all-metal airfoil style and is supported as a partially fi.ed ended beam from the two tail booms ,t consists of two aluminum alloy shear beams and a skin of smooth sheet suitably stiffened by means of aluminum alloy e.truded bulb angles -he rear spar carries the elevator hinge brackets and bearings, the end of the elevator tor)ue tube and the elevator tab actuating unit Hn the under surface, 3B in to the left of the airplane center line is a plate nut for plumb-bob attachment, and on the leading edge at the center line is an eye for alternate radio antenna attachment

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+tabiliFer tips are also made up with a smooth aluminum alloy skin, flushriveted to hydro-pressed 8#+- ribs and channel strips, and attach to the empennage booms by means of #$ screws around the inboard contour Eight and left stabiliFer tips are interchangeable -he elevator has an area of 8# : s) ft and angular movement of 83I up and 8CI down ,t is statically balanced by four weights, one in each boom and two at the centerline ,t is metal covered, flush-riveted and its internal structure is similar to that of the stabiliFer and other control surface units ,ts trim tab, placed at the plane of symmetry, has an area of < ;3 s) ft, and is controllable from the pilot s cockpit ,t attaches by means of stainless steel piano-type hinges 3ertical fins are full cantilever and attach rigidly to the tail booms with no e.ternal bracing -hey are made up of multiple shear webs, ribs, and covering of aluminum alloy stiffened by means of aluminum alloy e.truded bulb sections -hey are constructed in two sections each, attaching above and below the empennage boom ,n the

Desi!ned or #rod'ction as co*#&ete s'-asse*-&, are oi& coo&er and intercoo&er intake d'ct" oi& te*#erat're re!'&ator and e6it d'cts" to!ether %ith -rackets or attachin! to #o%er #&ant 'nit.

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Funda en!al "e#$%n &nfo' a!$on
Over-all length (max)..........................................37' 9-15/1”' Height (max)........................................................9' 9-15/16” Span...................................................................................52' Thickness root chord......................................................16% Thickness of tip chord....................................................12% Wing area (net)....................................................327.5 sq.ft. Taper ration (root chord/tip chord)..............................3.25:1 Length root chord........................................................117.0” Length of tip chord........................................................36.0” Fuselage depth (max).......................................................72” Fuselage width (max).......................................................38” Load factor (ultimate) ....................................................11.7 Design gross weight..............................................15,500 lb. WING GROUP: lb. Center Section.......................................................958.75 Outer Panels..........................................................612.84 Tips..........................................................................14.00 Ailerons...................................................................91.68 Flaps......................................................................136.31 Struts & Wires..........................................................none Total.....................................................................1813.58 TAIL GROUP: .......................................................... lb. Stabilizer & Tips.....................................................97.33 Elevator.................................................................113.09 Fins (2)....................................................................52.20 Rudders (2)..............................................................99.49 Boom Assembly Empennage..................................55.10 Struts & Wires..........................................................none Total.......................................................................417.21 BODY GROUP: ......................................................... lb. Fuselage, less engine section.................................667.39 Forward Boom.......................................................605.06 Aft Boom...............................................................181.19 Total.....................................................................1453.64 ALIGHTING GEAR (Land Type): lb. Main Landing Gear...............................................679.00 Nose Landing Gear................................................206.94 Total.......................................................................885.94 NACELLE GROUP..................................................... lb. Nacelles.................................................................471.00 Total.......................................................................471.00 POWER PLANT GROUP: lb. Engines as installed (2)........................................2730.00 Engine Accessories...............................................297.30 Power Plant Controls...............................................80.80 Propellers and Spinners (2)...................................827.32 Starting System........................................................82.30 Supercharger (incl. intercoolers, 130 lb.) 613.52 Cooling System...................................................1065.10 Lubricating System................................................194.11

FIXED EQUIPMENT: lb. Instruments..............................................................73.22 Surface Controls....................................................234.40 Hydraulic System..................................................208.95 Electrical................................................................321.08 Communicating (Army)........................................161.90 Armament Provisions............................................175.54 Furnishings..............................................................86.44 Anti-Icing equipment (defrosting tubes)...................1.50 Pressurizing equipment.............................................none Miscellaneous...........................................................none Total.....................................................................1262.42 TOTAL WEIGHT EMPTY..............................12,700.00 lb. lb. Crew (1 at 200 lb., including parachute)....................200.00 Oil (17 gal. at7.5 lb.)...................................................128.00 Oil Trapped in System (8 gal.)......................................60.00 Fuel Trapped in System (3.33 gal.)...............................20.00 Equipment.....................................................................35.55 Gun Camera....................................................................2.75 Useful Load (normal)......................................over 2000.00 Weight Empty.........................................................12700.00 Gross Weight (normal)...........................................15341.00 Gross Weight (first alternate).................................16376.00 Gross Weight (second alternate).....approx. 18000.00 lb. Normal Gross Weight.................................................15,341 Design Gross Weight..................................................15,500 Alternate Gross Weight (No. 1)..................................16,376 Alternate Gross Weight (No. 2)..................................18,000

(e$%h!#

)#eful Load#

*'o## (e$%h!#

)n$! (e$%h!#
lb. Wing Group (net area 327.5 sq.ft.) lb. per sq. ft................................................................5.54 Tail Group (net area 127.78 sq.ft.) lb. per sq. ft................................................................3.28 Weight of cooling system per normal hp (hp. 2200)..................................................................0.48 Weight of lubricating system per gal. oil (26 gal.).....................................................................7.47

upper sections are the rudder tab actuating units, a navigation light showing on the outboard side only, one elevator control pulley and two rudder tab control pulleys (ach lower section carries one elevator control pulley and a steel shoe to protect the lower tip against damage in the event of a tail down landing -he rudder hinge brackets and tor)ue tubes attach to the rear spars of the stabiliFers Eight and left fins or vertical stabiliFers are interchangeable -hey have a combined area of 8# #8 s) ft Eudders are of all-metal construction, flush-riveted and have a total surface area of 8< 36 s) ft and angular movement of 88I right and left -abs in the trailing edges each have an area of < 3; s) ft Eudder balance weights e.tend forward of the hinge line into recesses in the rear edge of the fins -he entire empennage assembly is manufactured as a unit and is )uickly detachable for repair -he control system consists of rudder pedal hangers of the full stirrup type, and toe type brake pedals, and half "K% built-up aluminum alloy control column for the elevator on which is mounted a control wheel for the ailerons -he control wheel has open upper and lower segments and the upper corner of each of the two closed segments has one control button on the near side and one trigger type switch on the far side 9ouble 3><6 in diameter, e.tra fle.ible preformed tinned carbon steel control

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cables e.tend from the rudder pedals and control column back through the fuselage, diverging outward at the center section main beam to each boom Hne set of control cables for both elevator and rudders e.tends aft through each boom Anti-friction type tearing pulleys and micarta or fiber guide blocks are used throughout the entire cable system All control system bell cranks and masts for actuating the control system are mounted on antifriction bearings and are housed entirely within the airplane contour ,nspection and service openings with flush-type cover plates are provided throughout &uselage or gondola of the P-38 attaches to the center section at the plane of symmetry of the airplane and its line of 0uncture is covered by fillets ,ts ma.imum height is ;8 in and its greatest width 38 in ,t is fabricated of high strength aluminum alloy and is of stiffened monoco)ue construction, e.cept where reinforcements for cutouts renders this impractical 'igh strength aluminum-coated, aluminum alloy-formed bulkheads are spaced <: in apart and form the skeleton to which the smooth Alclad skin is flush-riveted

"e#$%n "e!a$l#
WING GROUP: Wing area.......................................................327.5 sq.ft. Span.................................................................52 ft. 0 in. Root Chord.........................................................117.0 in. Tip Chord ....(extreme).........................................36.0 in. Taper Ratio.............................................................3.25:1 Incidence...............................2 deg. at root, 0 at Sta. 289 Dihedral (L.E.)..........................................5 deg. 40 min. Sweepback....................................5 deg. 11 min. 30 sec. Maximum rib spacing.............................................54 in. Shear web location: Front ..........................................................10% chord Rear............................................................70% chord Spar location...................................................35% chord Stagger at lower wing root.........................not applicable Gap at lower wing root..............................not applicable Aspect Ratio............................................................8.256 Decalage....................................................not applicable Mean Aerodynamic Chord: Length............................................................84.25 in. Location relative to L.E. Root Chord: Horizontal.............................................11.46” aft. Vertical.............................................12.50” above Wing Construction....................................Full cantilever CONTROL SURFACES Ailerons (2): Area ..... 12.22 sq.ft. each side ..........(24.44 sq. ft. total) Angular movement........................................................... Up.. .................................................................25 deg. Down...............................................................20 deg. Distance from place of symmetry to centroid of aileron area....................................................230.4 in. Type of Balance: Counterweights within wing structure Horizontal Tail Surfaces: Area: (total).....................................................78.5 sq. ft. Span.................................................................21 ft. 9 in. Maximum Chord.....................................45 in. (uniform) Distance from gross weight c.g. wheels up to 1/3 max chord point.......................................................257.54 in. ..............................305.69% M.A.C. Stabilizer: Area..................................................................54.0 sq.ft.

Normal setting: (relative to thrust).........................0 deg. Angular movement...................................................none Elevator: Area 24.5 sq.ft. Angular movement.................Up 23 deg., down 8½ deg. Type of balance: Completely statically balanced by three weights, one in each boom and one on elevator structure at centerline of airplane. Tabs: Area..................................................................1.73 sq.ft. Vertical Tail Surfaces: Fins: (2) Area (Each side, 13.71 sq.ft).....................27.42 sq.ft. Normal setting: (to path of flight)......................0 deg. Angular movement none Rudders: (2) Area(Each side, 10.68 sq.ft.) 21.36 sq.ft. Angular movement Right, 28 deg. Left, 28 deg. Type of Balance: Dynamically and statically about their respective hinge lines. Tabs: Area: (each)...........................................1.37 sq.ft. Lift and Drag Increasing Devices: Type...........................................................Fowler Area..........................................................40 sq.ft. BODY GROUP: Fuselage: Height: (Maximum cross section)......................72 in. Width: (Maximum cross section).......................38 in. ALIGHTING GEAR: Main Gear: Type......................................Retractable, single oleopneumatic shock strut Major Dimension....36 in. wheel and brake assembly Control system..............................................hydraulic Shock Strut Travel..............................................10 in. Nose Gear: Type.......................Retractable, single oleopneumatic shock strut, and half type wheel fork Major Dimension.....................27 in. wheel assembly Control System.............................................hydraulic Shock Strut Travel..............................................12 in.

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<ere is ho% tai& cone asse*-&, is -'i&t '# o B 758 -a!!a!e co*#art*ent door ra*e> 748 strin!ers> 738 skin> 718 ra*es.

Dockpit enclosure incorporates side panels which may be lowered by the pilot, a top center transparent panel hinged at the top aft edge to permit entrance of the pilot when the left side panel is lowered, and which can be instantly released by means of a )uick-

release mechanism +ide panels can be opened or closed on the ground or in flight at reduced speed and may be locked in the open, closed or any intermediate positions Denter panel of the front windshield is of bullet-proof glass -he Lightning’s tricycle landing gear is fully retractable with automatically opening and closing wheel well doors -he main gear has single oleo-pneumatic shock struts with a <$ in travel, and is hydraulically operated !heels are 36 in in diameter and are e)uipped with brakes 7ain gears retract backward and up into the forward booms

?ose gear is also of the single oleopneumatic shock strut type with a half type wheel fork ,t is hydraulic and has a shock strut travel of <8 in -he nose wheel diameter is 8; in Eetraction is backward and up into a well in the fuselage Durrent P-384s are e)uipped with turbosupercharged <8 cylinder li)uidcooled 3-<;<$ Allisons with a military and takeoff rating of <,:8$ hp to 8;,$$$ ft at 3,$$$ rpm -hey are e)uipped with three-blade full feathering constant speed Durtiss electric propellers of << ft 6 in diameter geared at a 8 $$2< ratio Low pitch setting of blade at #8 in station is 88 ;I, and high pitch is :; ;I

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with a feather angle of 8; :I Dlearances are2 to ground, level landing, appro.imately <6 in/ to fuselage, =C in/ to leading edge of wing, appro.imately 6$ in Darburetors are @endi.-+tromberg P9-<8L;, and differ from the conventional vented float chamber type in that the fuel system is closed from fuel pump to discharge noFFle &uel is delivered to the carburetor by the engine driven fuel pump at a pressure of <6 to <8 lb per s) in &uel delivered to the carburetor is metered in accordance with the mass air flow through the throat as registered by the venturi tube and automatic mi.ture control unit 7etered fuel then passes through the discharge tube to the discharge noFFle where it is sprayed into the air stream entering the internal supercharger ,gnition voltage is provided by a dual, high tension magneto and is distributed to spark plugs through two separate engine driven, high tension distributors 7agneto timing is fi.ed and fires the e.haust bank of sparkplugs si. degrees before the intake bank plugs All high tension ignition cables are shielded to prevent radio interference -wo spark plugs are used for each cylinder, the e.haust plugs being cooled by a blast of cooling air conducted from the airplane slip stream through two aluminum alloy sparkplug cooling manifolds 7agnetos are pressuriFed @endi.-+cintilla 9&L?-6,

:in and r'dder" sho%in! #ro i&e o sta-i&i+er ti#" %hich attaches -, scre%s. :in-and-r'dder 'nit attaches to tai& cone -, scre%s and #&ate n'ts.

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©2005 JL McClellan

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<ere are co*#onents !oin! to *ake '# 'se&a!e nose str'ct're" in %hich P-383s hea$, ire#o%er D o'r ./2-ca& *achine !'ns and one 42-** cannon D is concentrated. E6ce#tiona&&, hi!h s#eed o cra t *akes it in$a&'a-&e as #hoto reconnaissance #&ane desi!nated :-/E" in %hich this str'ct're is re#&aced -, one desi!ned to acco**odate an, o o'r di erent ca*era insta&&ations.

providing double ignition from a single unit, and mounted by two bolts between the cylinder banks at the upper rear section of the P-384s engines -hrottle, mi.ture and propeller governor controls are levers mounted in the side control stand at the pilot4s left in the cockpit -he starting system is composed of2 a start switch with three positions, off, E', and L'/ an engage switch with three positions, off, E',

and L'/ two starters, with manual crank e.tensions/ and two booster coils +tart and engage switches are located atop the main switch bo. ad0acent to the master ignition switch in the cockpit -he starters are located on the lower right-hand side of each engine accessory case/ and manual crank e.tensions are accessible through doors in the engine cowl panels

(ngines are cooled with ethylene glycol, +pe A?-(-8, by separate systems, each consisting of a radiator mounted on each side of each aft boom, air scoops and e.it flaps that control the flow of air through the radiators, a temperature-reactant four- way valve that automatically controls the e.it flaps by hydraulic operation of an actuating cylinder, an engine-driven coolant pump, a coolant supply tank mounted astride the engine propeller reduction gear case, an absolute-pressure valve that vents the supply tank to the atmosphere and compensates for pressure variations &ive drain cocks are installed at low points of the system and a bleed cock is located at the highest point A tee restrictor is located between the cylinder banks to prevent e.cessive coolant bypassing A coolant temperature bulb is inserted in the coolant outlet tube on the inboard side of each engine -he supply tank provides for coolant storage space and vents the system to the atmosphere through the sniffle valve which maintains a constant absolute pressure of 83 lb per s) in in the system at all altitudes An independent pressure-lubrication system provides oil for each engine
Detai&s o ar*a*ent co*#art*ent in nose o P-38" sho%in! 758 !'n si!htin! chart> 748 *achine !'n eed ch'te ad;'st*ent> 738 a**'nition tra, tracks> 718 *achine !'n case e;ection ch'te ad;'st*ent> 7/8 cannon eed ch'te ad;'st*ent> and 7?8 *achine !'n so&enoids.

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©2005 JL McClellan

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with oil gravity-fed from the reservoir tank through the hopper and the slide valve for inverted flight, to the pressure pump &low then is through a check valve which opens at < lb pressure and closes when engine is stopped, to a strainer and thence to the engine -hree oil passages distribute oil from the strainer to the supercharger and all accessory drives contained in the accessories housing &rom the strainer outlet, oil is also distributed to the moving parts of the engine &rom the main scavenger pump outlet oil flows to the temperature regulator and when the oil is hot and does not e.ceed a pressure of ;: lb per s) in, it enters the regulator and flows through the core, out of the radiator, and back to the tank Hil tanks are fabricated from 3+H aluminum alloy and are mounted on the front face of each firewall -emperature regulation is automatically controlled by an electric actuator motor connected to the air duct e.it flap +eparate fuel systems supply each engine, with the two interconnected so that fuel from any tank e.cept the outer wing tanks, is available for either engine -hree tanks supply each engine2 M,N 7ain M8N reserve and M3N outer wing leading edge ,n addition, droppable fuel tanks are carried under the center wing on both sides of the gondola and

Li!htnin! instr'*ent #ane&B 758 Co*#ass de$iation card ho&der> 748 $ac''* !a!e> 738 c&ock> 718 t'r-o %arnin!> 7/8 'e& #ress're !a!es> 7?8 radio co*#ass indicator 7o#tiona&8> 7@8 re*ote co*#ass indicator> 788 t'rn indicator> 7A8 &i!ht indicator> 7528 *ani o&d #ress're !a!es> 7558 coo&ant te*#erat're !a!e> 7548 'e& C'antit, !a!e 7 ront8> 7538 a&ti*eter> 7518 airs#eed indicator> 75/8 -ank and t'rn indicator> 75?8 rate o c&i*- indicator> 75@8 tacho*eters> 7588 car-'retor air te*#erat're> 75A8 'e& eC'ani*it, !a!e 7rear8> 7428 h,dra'&ic #ress're !a!e> 7458 -ank and t'rn re!'&atin! $a&$e> 7448 &andin! !ear and &a# indicator> 7438 en!ine !a!es> 7418 radio contactor> and 74/8 a**eter.

inboard of the engine nacelles (lectrically driven fuel boost pumps are mounted in the lower aft section of the fuselage and in the outer wing to assist the engine driven fuel pumps Air intake scoops on the outboard sides of the forward booms provide air for the induction system &rom the

scoop air passes through an intake filter, if desired, and through the intake duct to the turbosupercharger compressor ,t is discharged from the compressor into a duct leading to the intercooler and thence enters the engine induction system where it is mi.ed with fuel and distributed to the engine

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cylinders AiEesearch intercoolers are mounted on four Lord mounts bolted to the engine trusses -he cooling air flow through the intercooler radiator may be manually controlled by an electric motor-operated shutter +uperchargers are Oeneral (lectric, e.haust-driven turbo type mounted as

previously mentioned, immediately behind the rear shear beam of the wing in the forward booms Automatic electric regulators are connected through a push-pull rod and bellcrank linkage from the throttle control pulley at the firewall and operate in combination with the throttles

-he hydraulic system of the P-38 operates the landing gear, landing gear doors wing flaps, coolant radiator e.it flaps, and aileron boosters Pressure is supplied by two engine-driven variable volume pumps and maintains a fluid pressure in the system of <,3:$ lb per s) in An au.iliary hand pump with a reserve supply of fluid provides for the operation of all units should the drive system fail An emergency hydraulic system with separate lines and reservoir using the au.iliary hand pump for pressure source, provides a means of e.tending the landing gears in case the main hydraulic system fails &luid capacity of the main system is <$ gal, and aluminum alloy tubing is used throughout the airplane, with all tubes grounded by means oi bonding clips and fairleads Hil filtering is accomplished at the reservoir in such a way that no unfiltered fluid can reach Pthe system from either return line or by refilling -he hydraulic system is supercharged for ma.imum high altitude efficiency (lectrical system is 8# 3dc single wire e.cept for the <<:3 alternating current supplied by the inverter for the remote compass A 8#3 battery is
Nose %hee& retracts -ack and '# into %e&& in 'se&a!e. This e6#&oded $ie% sho%sB 758 nose !ear asse*-&,> 748 dra! str't> 738 '&cr'*> 718 torC'e &e$er> 7/8 side str't> 7?8 act'atin! c,&inder> and 7@8 4@-in %hee&.

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©2005 JL McClellan

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supplemented by two <$$-Ampere generators to provide power to drive motors and to operate radios, actuating solenoids, instruments, lights and heaters (ngine starters, oil cooler and intercooler flaps, au.iliary fuel pumps, remote compass inverter, turbo regulator, dive flaps, and propeller motors are all electrically powered (lectric solenoids control the armament, droppable tanks and bombs, and outer wing tank flow, oil dilution valves, and coolant flap override mechanism (lectrically operated instruments include the landing gear warning lights/ oil, coolant and carburetor air temperature indicators/ fuel level gages, remote compass indicator, and tachometers Armament of the P-38 is unusual in that four :$-cal machine guns and one 8$-mm cannon, firing in a 8$-in diameter, or a 8$ . 8 in rectangular pattern have been proven one of the most effective combinations ever mounted in a fighter -he small number of the guns is more than overcome by their concentration in the fuselage ahead of the pilot, where they fire straight ahead rather than in a converging fire from wing guns -he gun compartment is located in the upper forward portion of the fuselage 7achine gun ammunition is contained in four drawer-type trays Dannon ammunition is provided from a drawer type tray (.pended links and cartridge cases are discharged through chutes leading to openings in the skin below the armament compartment (.pended cannon shell cases and links are discharged into a compartment between bulkheads on the lower right hand side of the fuselage +ighting is by means of a Lynn gun sight, installed on the center line of the airplane, 0ust aft of the bullet-proof windshield @omb supports and type 9-88$ ,nterstate bomb shackles are attached to the under side of the center section, midway between the fuselage and each boom -hey carry either bombs of from <$$ to 8,$$$ lb or droppable fuel tanks Also mounted in the left droptank
9ain s%itch -o6" sho%in!B 758 &e t i!nition> 748 *aster i!nition> 738 ri!ht i!nition> 718 oi& di&'tion> 7/8 en!ine starter> 7?8 #osition &i!ht> 7@8 &e t &andin! &i!ht> 788 re*ote co*#ass s%itch> 7A8 &'orescent cock#it &i!ht rheostat> 7528 $o&t*eter> 7558 #ro#e&&er eatherin! s%itches> 7548 a'to*atic oi& coo&er &a#> 7538 !enerator> 7518 -atter, disconnect> 75/8 #itot heater> 75?8 a'to-*atic coo&ant contro& o$erride s%itch> 75@8 intercoo&er &a#> 7588 cock#it &i!ht> and 75A8 !'nsi!ht &i!ht.

Fetracta-&e nose %hee&" $ie%ed ro* a t o %e&& 'nder 'se&a!e" sho%in! hea$," -'i&t-'# constr'ction o airin! door" -'i&t to %ithstand s#eeds and hard ie&d ser$ice.

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Phanto* $ie% o %in! &a#" &andin! !ear and en!ine contro& s,ste*" sho%in!B 758 ri!ht thrott&e> 748 and 738 ri!ht *i6t're> 718 ri!ht thrott&e> 7/8 ri!ht #ro#e&&er> 7?8 ri!ht car-'retor air" center> 7@8 &e t car-'retor air" center> 788 &e t *i6t're> 7A8 &e t thrott&e> 7528 &e t #ro#e&&er> 7558 &e t *i6t're> 7548 &e t thrott&e> 7538 &e t #ro#e&&er> 7518 ri!ht #ro#e&&er> 75/8 and 75?8 &e t and ri!ht car-'retor air or%ard> 75@8 and 7588 ore and a t &a# 1-%a, $a&$es> 75A8" 7428" and 7458 &e t and ri!ht tank se&ectors> 7448 ri!ht tank se&ector> 7438 &e t se&ector> 7418 ri!ht tank se&ector> 74/8 &e t tank se&ector> 74?8 ri!ht tank se&ector> 74@8 &e t and ri!ht car-'retor air" a t> 7488 and 74A8 ri!ht and &e t car-'retor air" center> A" E and C #'&&e, -racket asse*-&ies> D" A&&ison rodG&e t thrott&e> E" rodG&e t *i6t're> :" #'&&e, -racket asse*-&,> G and < rods" &e t and ri!ht #ro#e&&er !o$ernors> I" #'&&e, -racket asse*-&,> H" A&&ison rodGri!ht thrott&e> I" rod ri!htG*i6t're> L" 9 and N" #'&&e, -racket asse*-&ies> O" #'&&e,> P" #'&&e, asse*-&,> J" and F. dr'*s.

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©2005 JL McClellan

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Phanto* $ie% o the ca*era crad&e insta&&ation on :/-E #hoto!ra#hic $ersion sho%in!B 758 ca*era set scre%s> 74" ?" 8" 51" 5@8 crad&es> 71" /" @" 55" and 588 Lord *o'nts> 7A8 -'*#er %ashers> 752 and 538 tr'ss asse*-&ies> 754" 5/" and 5?8 s'##orts and 738 ca#s on crad&es.

Dia!ra**atic &a,o't o P-38 (Li!htnin!) oi& coo&in! s,ste*" sho%in! connections r'nnin! ro* oi& radiators" thro'!h ther*ostat and ;'nction -o6es to &a# act'ator.

support fairing is a type 7-6 gun camera ,t may be operated independently or in con0unction with the guns Armor plate consists of small pieces of face-hardened steel, attached separately to facilitate handling, removal and replacement -he pilot is protected from frontal attack by armor plate mounted on the aft bulkhead of the armament compartment and by a bulletproof glass windshield -wo pieces of armor plate line the back and bottom of the pilot s seat and give protection from below and behind A single piece of armor plate mounted behind and above the seat provides additional rearward protection Armor plate on inboard

sides of the superchargers or circular deflectors on the superchargers protect the pilot against possible fragmentation of turbosupercharger blades -he photographic version, known as &-:@, is a modification of the standard P-385 -he armament compartment is redesigned to accommodate any one of four arrangements of aerial cameras Dombinations of type L-l8 with 8#-in, lens cone and type L-<; with 6, <8, or 8#-in, lens cones are used in each arrangement Dameras are remotely operated by a type A-l electrical control and the camera lens apertures are controlled by a remote diaphragm control

A +perry -ype A-# gyro pilot provides automatic control of the direction and attitude of the camera ship in flight -he control units, which are mounted in the lower center of the instrument panel give the pilot a visual check on the operation of the automatic pilot at all times in addition to serving as flight instruments when the automatic pilot is not in use ,t uses the airplane s vacuum and hydraulic systems as power sources for its operation &urnishings include, in addition to pilot4s seat, flare pistol, glare shield, and other standard items, a rearview mirror fastened to the front portion of the top hatch, a demand o.ygen system, and a

T%o $ie%s o -o*- or a'6i&iar, 'e& tank shack&es" %ith ront access doors re*o$ed. Located on each side o 'se&a!e in-oard o en!ines" these 'nits s'##ort tanks %hich ha$e !i$en P-383s ran!e eno'!h to -e &o%n ro* K.S. to En!&and> ro* there to

A rica and" consistent&," as escort i!hters co$erin! hea$, -o*-ers on &on! ran!e attacks on Ger*an,. (Li!htnin!s) no% carr, t%o 4"222-&-. -o*-s.

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Phanto* $ie% !i$in! s'#erchar!er insta&&ationB 758 scoo# Ge6ha'st *ani o&d and shro'd> 748 e6ha'st *ani o&d> 738 s#ark#&'! -&ast t'-e> 718 e&ectrica& re&a, -o6> 7/8 *a!neto> 7?8 *a!neto -&ast t'-e> 7@8 air #ress're to distri-'tor ho'sin!> 788 air #ress're to *a!neto ho'sin!> 7A8 distri-'tor ho'sin!> 7528 car-'retor intake d'ct> 7558 intensi ier t'-eGca-in and ar*a*ent heat> 7548 e6ha'st (Y) tai& #i#e> 7538 co$er asse*-&, Ds'#er-char!er -a &es> 7518 -&ast t'-e s'#erchar!er *ain -earin! and coo&in! -a &es> 75/8 coo&in! ca# s'#erchar!er> 75?8 E-33 s'#erchar!er 7 or detai& o s'#erchar!er see insert -e&o%8> 75@8 intake scoo#Goi& coo&er re!'&ator> 7588 e6it d'ctGoi& coo&er re!'&ator> 75A8 d'ct to e&ectrica& oi& coo&er re&a,> 7428 intake scoo#Gintercoo&er> 7458 e6it d'ctGintercoo&er> 7448 -&ast t'-e to tacho*eter !enerator> 7438 intercoo&er air> 7418 !enerator -&ast t'-e> 74/8 intake d'ctG intercoo&er> 74?8 air i&ter> and 74@8 s'#erchar!er air intake scoo#.

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cockpit heating system Dockpit heat is by hot air, the intensifier tube in both engine e.haust manifolds being ducted into the cockpit and directed on the pilot4s feet A fle.ible defroster tube may be used to defrost the top of the canopy !hile much of the design and e)uipment information given here probably appears as "standard% now, it should be recalled that when the P-38 first introduced it, such was not the case And every design feature, every installation, every alternate was introduced through necessity to meet the new conditions encountered at the Lightning's higher speed and ceilings !ith the recent addition of dive flaps and aileron boosters, the Lightning again pioneers through use of these devices to help combat the effects of compressibility -he P-38 thus overcomes any disadvantages of large siFe and weight -he present airplane is an improvement upon the plane the enemy so aptly named the "&ork--ailed 9evil %

S'#erchar!er insta&&ationB 758 ar*or #&ate> 748 s'#erchar!er> 738 %aste !ate> 718 oi& tank $ent &ine> 7/8 oi& tank> 7?8 stain&ess stee& str'ct're> 7@8 s'#erchar!er air intake scoo#> 788 air intake> 7A8 d'ct> 7528 air o't&et to intercoo&er> 7558 to en!ine oi& s,ste*> 7548 s'#erchar!er re!'&ator> 7538 center section rear shear -ea*> 7518 #ane& asse*-&,> 75/8 and 75?8 co$er asse*-&ies> and 75@8 in-oard deck asse*-&,.

Q )aj. $ichard ong( *outh +acific +-,- ace with ./ victories to his credit( recently inspected and flew the new Lightnings with dive flaps and aileron booster. #n the new job( he said( he found all the suggestions he had intended to offer.

Dia!ra**atic &a,o't o h,dra'&ic s,ste* '# to acc'*'&ator" sho%in!B 758 e*er!enc, reser$oir> 748 e*er!enc, #'*# check $a&$e> 738 h,dra'&ic hand #'*#> 718 hand #'*# check $a&$e> 7/8 e*er!enc, s,ste* re&ie $a&$e> 7?8 -,#ass $a&$e> 7@8 e*er!enc, ret'rn check $a&$e> 788 ri!ht hand en!ine #'*#> 7A8 ri!ht hand #'*# check $a&$e> 7528 *ain s,ste* reser$oir> 7558 &e t hand #'*# check $a&$e> 7548 s'ction test check $a&$e> 7538 &e t hand en!ine #'*#> 7518 #ress're test check $a&$e> 75/8 *ain s,ste* i&ter> 75?8 #ress're re!'&ator> 75@8 acc'*'&ator> and 7588 s,ste* #ress're !a!e.

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-

he Lockheed P-38 Lightning is uni)ue among fighter aircraft, due principally to its versatility ,t is used as a high, low and medium altitude fighter, interceptor, bomber escort, light bomber, skip bomber, dive bomber, attack bomber and strafer, supply dropping plane, smoke screen layer, and as a photo-reconnaissance plane ,t has been tried as a torpedo plane and a glider tow, and before this war is over it will be put to other important uses which for the moment must remain undisclosed 9istinctive in appearance, P-38 is among the larges and heaviest fighter planes ,t is one of the world4s fastest also and at its best altitude, it outspeeds any other production fighter ,ts single engine speed is in e.cess of 3$$ mph, and

its service ceiling, where it still climbs <$$ fpm is considerably in e.cess of #$,$$$ ft P-38, first conceived in <=3;, has evolved through <6 ma0or modifications to the P-385, latest of the series to actually be delivered, although others are in process of engineering, e.perimental work or testing @asically, it is an all-metal, midwing, twin-engined single seater having twin boom nacelles and fuselage of semi-monoco)ue, stressed skin type -he wing is full cantilever, stressed skin type and consists of a center section, two outer panels, and wing tips -o the wing are attached the two engine nacelles and the gondola type fuselage or "pod % -wo Allison engines are mounted

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outboard in separate nacelles -he engine nacelles fair back into the booms which support the tail unit, their streamlining broken only by coolant radiators located appro.imately halfway aft from the wing centerline -here is no orthodo. fuselage, the gondola being at the trailing edge of the wing at the plane of symmetry and e.tending forward only +eparate compartments are provided for armament, Mall guns are concentrated in the noseN cockpit, retractable nose wheel, radio, hydraulics and fuel +ince the plane sits level on its tricycle gear, access over the wing is provided by a retractable ladder mounted in the aft end of the fuselage (ntrance to the cockpit is by hinged canopy used in con0unction with windows on both sides of the cockpit enclosure Body Group -he body group, consisting of the center section, fuselage

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and forward booms, is 0ig-mated, riveted and bolted, and as such is considered an irreplaceable unit -he aft end booms are also 0ig-mated and bolted but may be replaced -he fuselage is an all-metal, semi-monoco)ue gondola type structure, framed primarily with bulkheads hydropress stamped from 8#+-- sheet with transverse partitions between the different compartments which provide additional strength Longitudinal stringers are of bent up sheet aluminum alloy, the skin varying from $:<% to $8:% thickness +kin sheets are butt-0ointed and flush riveted Armament compartment doors are built up of a smooth outer skin and a formed inner skin strengthener @oth are stamped from $#$% material, and are riveted and spotwelded -he door of the nose wheel well is similar in construction e.cept that $38% Alclad is used for the outer skin and $#$% for the inner skin -here is a firewall between the armament compartment and the pilot4s station additionally reinforced by armor plate -he lower section of the fuselage contains the nose gear, a compartment for receiving e0ected cannon shell cases and links, ma0or units of the hydraulic pressure control system,

and control valves for flaps and landing gear &uel valves, strainers, booster pumps and the engine- and surface-control cables also are located here -he upper section contains the armament, cockpit and radio compartments Access to the armament compartment is through two hinged panels secured by 9Fus fasteners -he aft section of the fuselage contains the hydraulic reservoir, flap motor drive and mounting ladder -he ladder is pivoted and spring loaded so that it retracts into the tail cone/ a hand hold is provided in the left side of the fuselage for assistance in climbing the ladder -he windshield is composed of three separate glass panels -he front panel is bullet-proof, being made of five layers of glass set in vinyl plastic M-his differs from an earlier arrangement of a curved Ple.iglas enclosure with a flat glass shield mounted inside the cabin before the pilot N +ide panels are the same but with two layers of glass, are mounted in synthetic sponge rubber in an aluminum alloy frame and held in place by aluminum strips -he side windows in the cockpit enclosure fit in slots between the front shear beam and the main beam, raised and

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D#)01*#%1* "1D 20#3!4* 3eneral Dimensions +pan,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,52 f! Len%!h -o.e'all,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,37 f! 9-15/16 $n 0e$%h!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,12 f! 10-1/8 $n 2eights 5lb6 1 p!2,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,133006 )#eful load,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,23655 *'o## 4e$%h! loaded,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,153661 5o' al 4$n% load$n% -pe' #6 f!7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,47,8 5o' al po4e' load$n% -pe' hp7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,7,12 8.e'load %'o## 4e$%h!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,193660

installations are contained in these sections +tressed skin construction is used including the inside skin of the wheel wells, e.cept for that portion of the upper surface which is e.posed to the supercharger heat -his area is fabricated from $<8% stainless steel ,nternal construction consists of stamped aluminum bulkheads and bulb angle stringers, the bulkheads spaced about <:% on centers As in the after booms the skin thickness is $38% &orward booms are somewhat elliptical also, and there is no abrupt change -he main landing gear retracts aft into the wheel wells with a pendulum motion -wo doors, hinged to the lower channels of each forward boom operate automatically with the landing gear movement A hydraulic cylinder located in the aft end of the wheel well operates the front and rear door carriage through a linkage of cables and rods Aft Booms -he aft booms are of semi-monoco)ue stressed skin type, and e.tend from the forward boom to the empennage boom Darrying the coolant radiator structures on either side of each boom Attachment of the aft booms at both ends is done with screws and stop nuts through the skin and webs, and by bolts through two fittings forged from <#+aluminum that mate with fittings on the forward boom channels Doolant radiator frames are supported by brackets attached to the formers A baggage compartment is located in the right-hand aft boom (ach end of the compartment is closed off by an aluminum alloy bulkhead, the forward bulkheads retaining the aircraft data case A similar compartment for battery stowage is in the left-hand aft boom Access to the interior of the aft booms is through manholes on the underside -he aft booms also provide space for large o.ygen supply bottles Cockpit

lowered by a hand crank and locked in the raised position by a ratchet and pawl -he cockpit hatch is a molded plastic panel fitted to a metal frame -he hatch opens aft on a hinge and incorporated in the hinge is a telescope stop A pin and cable assembly, controlled from in or outside the hatch, locks the hatch in the down position A red-painted emergency handle is provided in the cockpit ,f hatch is released by this handle in flight it raises about 8% Air pressure will then tear the hatch away leaving free emergency egress for the pilot -he aft canopy is made up of two plastic panels – R% molded sheet – set in metal frames and secured by Airloc fasteners for )uick removal -hese act as a cover for the radio compartment Hn the underside of the fuselage is the nose gear compartment and door -he gear retracts directly aft and upward in its fully e.tended position and the door is automatically operated by a hydraulic cylinder connected directly to the aft end of the door A hydraulic latching device holds the front end of the door tightly closed

-he pilot compartment is situated immediately forward on the main wing beam and is roomy and well arranged Pilot has full 36$I visibility through bullet-proof glass panels Dontrol is of the wheel type with cables carried from the three-spoke, two-third wheel to the right of the cockpit through an inverted L-shaped control column -he cannon and machine gun trigger button is located near the pilot4s Forward Booms right thumb on the wheel and a radio switch ad0acent to it -he master armament switch is mounted on the forward side -he forward booms e.tend from the engine firewall to of the horiFontal member of the control column (ngine and 0ust forward of the coolant radiators and are 0ig-mated to the propeller controls are grouped at the left while flight and center section -he main landing gear and turbosupercharger engine instrument and most switches are located on the

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main panel directly before the pilot A map case and first aid kit are carried behind the seat on the right side and a flare pistol assembly is on the left -he seat is molded of plastic, and both seat and back are protected by J% face hardened steel armor plate Eegulation seat belt and )uick-acting shoulder harness are provided and a pilot relief tube is at the left edge of the seat +ilhouette armor plate is placed between the cockpit and the radio compartment immediately aft Wing -he wing group consists of the center section, two outer panels and the e.treme wing tips ,n the center section, a main beam and front and rear shear beams are the main structural members -he main beam is located at 3:S chord and is of double web construction ,t is built up of top and bottom cap strips of 8#+-- aluminum e.trusions and double webs which are $6#% in thickness in the cockpit section and $#$% outboard -he forward section and does not e.tend into the outer wing 2#13*
Dimensions Cho'd a! 'oo!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,9 f! 9 $n Cho'd nea' !$p -24 f! 1 $n f'o cen!e'l$ne7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,3 f! 6 $n &nc$dence,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,92: "$hed'al - ea#u'ed on face of M,;,7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,5: 40< +4eep=ack a! #!a!$on 8,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,5: 11< 31> "reas -#6 f!7 Le## a$le'on#,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,303,06 ($!h flap# e?!ended,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,369,26 @$le'on# -!o!al7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,24,44 Flap# -!o!al7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,42,60

panels ,t serves as a strengthening unit between the cockpit structure and the outboard ends of the center section on each side -he e.truded cap strip and web construction is used on all wing beams with the e.ception of the inboard front web of the main beam in the center section 'ere, a built up truss section is used for added strength Longitudinal ribs are used in the center section e.cept between stations <; and 68 between the main and rear shear beams, and between stations <8C and ;=C between the main and forward shear beams M,n Lockheed production setup, stations are <% apart from the plane4s centerline N ,n the aft section where the main tank is installed, rib strength is replaced by a corrugated inner skin of $#$% Alclad, and in the forward section where the reserve tank is installed, hat section formers are used to give the necessary support Huter panels, beams, main and rear shear, 0oin the corresponding beams in the center section !hile the main beam continues directly outboard, the rear shear beam runs parallel to the trailing edge of the wing to a point 0ust outboard of the inner end of the aileron 'ere it is spliced to a lighter outboard section and the load at the splice is carried through the surface structure and the ribs -he main beam in the outer panel is of single web construction with e.truded top and bottom cap strips -he rear shear beam employs cap strips of bent-up sheet angles formed from 8#+-- with a web of $:<% sheet strengthened by irregularly spaced angle stiffeners -he main beam cap strips are formed of double reinforced L-shaped e.trusions which reduce uniformly in section as they go outboard Eoughly the outer half of these caps is of sheet angles rather than e.trusions At the inboard end of the main beam in these outer panels all vertical shear is carried through a diagonal hat section to the top beam fitting, the bottom fitting securing the lower side of the wing

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Huter skin of the wing is in effect a double layer composed of a corrugated inner skin and a butt-0ointed, flush riveted outer covering Dorrugations in the center section are of $6#% 8#+-- and the skin of $#$%/ on the outer panels the corrugations are of $38% material on the lower surface and $6#% on the upper Huter panel skin varies in thickness from $8$% to $#$% -he wing panels are skin stressed only between beams -he trailing edge section is composed of ribs and skin on the upper surface with intercostal stiffeners between the ribs ,n the latest model, the leading wing edge contains shells, and is composed of chord-wise corrugations and smooth skin, with few ribs Huter skin is attached to <# ribs in the outer panel, the ribs being formed from 8#+-- sheet varying in thickness from $8:% to $#$% Outer Wing Panels Huter wing panels are solidly 0oined to the center section -he main beam fitting is a multiple-lug, pin-0ointed connection at top and bottom of the beam -he center section fitting is a <#+-- aluminum forging, the outer panel fitting is forged from #<3$ steel -he pins are also of #<3$ steel, the upper <<><6% in diameter and the lower T% -he rear shear beam is 0oined by steel fittings bolted together at top and bottom &or further strength, = upper and = lower bathtub fittings are provided between the two beams -hese are <#+-- aluminum forgings and are carried well back into the corrugations of the inner skin for strength -hey are bolted together with ;><6% high-strength, internal wrenching, tension bolts on the lower side and similar :><6% bolts on the upper fittings

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0)+011"30 "$0"* 5*7 Ft6 1le.a!o'# -$nc, !a=7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,24,55 1le.a!o' !'$ !a=,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1,73 F$n# -!o!al7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,27,42 Audde'# -!o!al3 $nc, !a=#7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,21,36 Audde' !'$ !a=,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2,74 +!a=$l$Be' -$nc, ele.a!o'#7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,78,54

Flaps !ing flaps are Lockheed-&owler type which roll aft and down from the trailing edge on tracks beneath the wing, e.tending the actual area of the wing as well as increasing lift Eelatively slow landings of highly wing-loaded aircraft are made possible because of the high lift coefficients !ith the flap in a partly e.tended position, a large increase in lift is provided with a minimum increase in drag -his makes possible the use of these flaps for takeoff as well as for a maneuvering flap in combat -he P-38 is the first and only fighter plane e)uipped with this type of flap &laps, divided into four panels, are interconnected and operate together -hey are installed in the lower wing surface between wing stations 8 and ;;R in the center section, and between <<8U and <8$ in the outer panels At each end they are attached to carriages that roll in tracks built into the wing structure -he carriages are linked by cables to push-pull tubes, traveling in roller brackets on the rear face of the rear shear beam Push-pull tubes are actuated by long screws driven by a hydraulic motor housed under upper rear fuselage section

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Mo a!le Controls All movable control surfaces are similar in construction -hey are built up of ribs, stringers, and outer skin with internal spars of sheet metal angle and stamped web construction *nlike the wings these surfaces have no corrugated inner skin Huter skin varies in thickness from $8$% to $38% on the long horiFontal stabiliFer All control surfaces are actuated by cables which run outboard from the cockpit through the center section, the tail surface cables being carried aft on pulleys

Power "nstallation -he twin-engined arrangement of the P-38 was specified in the original design in <=3; At that time no single engine available would provide the horsepower needed for the performance the Army wanted Although engines have been increased in power since then, the dual installation of the P38 still makes it the most powerful fighter in the world ,n addition, combat reports prove conclusively that the doublepowered fighter has many advantages, the greatest of which is safety Lightnings have come home from combat

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engagements on one engine so fre)uently that they are known as "the round-trip ticket % ,t has been shown too that enemy fire most fre)uently enters a fighter plane through the fuselage aft of the pilot station +ince the P-38 has no fuselage aft of the wing, enemy bullets pass harmlessly through the open section between booms or enter the booms themselves where they do little damage Locating the engines remote from the pilot and armament allowed for wide latitude in power lant installation and provided widely spaced main wheel wells for ma.imum tread and landing safety -his arrangement also removes from the vicinity of the pilot the hot Prestone, hot oil and much of the fuel +uch inflammables are in separate engine nacelles on each wing where a power plant fire may be dealt with by side-slipping, or isolated and e.tinguished ,t also lessens chance of e.plosion in combat Hne of the most important combat advantages of the twinengine design is that it permits the concentration of all fire power in the nose -he tra0ectories of the fi.ed guns are parallel with the pilot4s gunsight and ma.imum firepower is possible at any point directly ahead of the plane up to the

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range of the guns -his in not true in wing installations seal-level ratings at altitude (ach engine has a selfwhich feature a "cone of fire% for which there is only one contained, single-stage blower, with a 8 <$2< blower-gear optimum range ratio driving a =C% diameter impeller, located in the accessory housing section in the forward boom/ and an #ngine Mounts au.iliary, Oeneral (lectric -ype @-33, e.haust-driven turbosupercharger, mounted in the forward boom (ngines are mounted on forged aluminum alloy of heavy -he engines develop #$S more horsepower than the construction and of triangular shape, and bolted to fittings at original P-38 installation -hey have a bore of : :$%, as the forward corners of the support bay -he bay is also of stroke of 6% and a piston displacement of <;<$ cu in forged aluminum alloy and is 0oined by two large machine ?ormal rated speed is 86$$ rpm or 3$$$ for takeoff or bolts to heavy fittings on the forward boom wheel well military needs -heir rated bhp is <<$$ normal at 86$$ rpm channels @oth the support bay and the longitudinal trusses and <6$$ for takeoff or combat at 3$$$ rpm -he propeller are supported by tubular diagonal hangers bolted at their reduction gear ration is 82< and the propellers turn in upper ends to fittings on the cross members of the forward opposite direction to the crankshaft rotation of the engines boom (ach engine weighs <3:$ lb complete, is 8:-=>38% long, 8==>38% wide and 36-<<><6% high (ach engine is mounted by #ngines eight bolts #3;:% in diameter and spaced <8J% apart 7agnetos are +cintilla double-fi.ed timing type and turn -he P-385 is powered by two, <8 cylinder, 3-<;<$-&8, at < : times the crankshaft speed AD or Dhampion spark li)uid-cooled Allison engines -he left propeller rotates plugs are specified Darburetors are @endi.-+tromberg and clockwise and the right propeller counterclockwise, viewed <$$ or <$$-plus octane fuel of <3$ or <#$ grade is used from the front of the airplane -his counter-rotation feature &uel pressure is <6-<8 psi at 88$$ rpm 7a.imum oil results in the elimination of tor)ue with resultant consumption is appro.imately <: : )ts per hour at rated improvement in flight and ground handling characteristics power at 86$$ rpm 7inimum temperature allowable for -he engines are sea-level types and are constructed for takeoff or flight is <$$I&, and ma.imum <=#I (ngine adaptation of e.haust turbo supercharging to maintain full starters are of the electric-inertia type although provision is

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made for emergency hand-inertia starting and a crank is fuselage compartment and manually operated controls, mounted in the wheel well located on the left side of the cockpit, are connected to them by cables +trainers and rotary fuel pumps are 0ust forward Propellers of the valves, and other fuel pumps are located at the aft end of each engine Propellers are Durtis, three-bladed, full-feathering, A recent addition to the P-38 is the conversion of the controllable pitch type -hey counter-rotate out from the top outer-wing leading edges to a compartment housing a selfof the propeller swing Hn the P-385, the blades are of a new sealing fuel tank of appro.imately 6$ gal capacity in each type which give much better performance at e.tremely high wing -hese tanks are provided with their own electrically altitudes Props are <<46% in diameter and are geared down driven fuel pumps, strainers, solenoid valves and check 82< from engine rpm valves to connect them into the main fuel system 0ust behind (ngines are cooled by ethylene glycol with a separate the engine-driven pumps -hese tanks are also controlled system for each engine Doolant radiators are located and selected from the pilot4s compartment, thus making it midway of the aft booms and the temperatures of the possible to use up to ;8$ gal of fuel in any desired se)uence coolant is regulated by varying the flow of air through the of tank flow radiators 'ydraulic e.it flaps for the radiators are Air for the induction system is taken in through scoops automatically controlled through a temperature-reactant mounted on the outboard sides of the forward booms &or four-way valve An e.pansion tank is provided and desert operation, an air cleaner is mounted in the main wheel connected to the coolant pump inlet wells @y placing it in such a position, an ample siFed An independent pressure lubrication system provides oil cleaner could be used without modifying the outside shape for each engine AiEesearch temperature regulators, two for of the plane @y means of a remote control in the cockpit, air each engine, are mounted under each engine An automatic coming through the e.ternal scoops can be diverted into the e.it flap and electrical actuator motor control the flow of air wheel well space, from which it passes through the filter and through the regulator and a bi-metal line thermostat is then into the turbosupercharger -hus, filtered or noninstalled between the regulator and the tank to control the filtered air is available at the discretion of the pilot *nder position of the e.it flap A surge valve limits scavenger pressure from the turbosupercharger, it goes to the core-type pump pressures to #: psi or less, and an oil dilution system intercooler underneath the engine, where the heat of the is provided for winteriFed operation Hil tanks fabricated supercharging is removed, and is then ducted to the engine from 3+-H aluminum alloy are mounted on the front face of carburetor each firewall (ach tank has a total capacity of <3 gal but the -he hydraulic system operates the main landing gear and normal flight capacity is 8R gal A slide valve enables oil to the nose gear, the wing flaps and the coolant radiator e.it reach the engine pump during inverted flight flaps -wo engine-driven pumps supply and maintain a !hile each engine has its separate fuel system, the two fluid pressure in the system of <8$$-<3:$ psi An are interconnected through a solenoid-operated cross-feed emergency hand pump with a reserve supply of fluid is valve so that fuel from any tank is available to either engine provided -he basic system reservoir is installed in the rear in the event of failure (ach system consists of s main tank, fuselage 0ust aft of the radio compartment and strapped to reserve tank and a drop tank and an outer wing leading edge the rear face of the bulkhead -he fluid capacity is 8 < gal tank Hne engine primer serves both engines Hne Pesco 3#=OA, self-lubricating hydraulic pump is All e)uipment used in the fuel system is treated for mounted on each engine accessory drive and is driven at < : resistance to aromatic fuel 7ain and reserve tanks are times engine speed -hese are gear-type pumps with a located inboard, behind the pilot station, and outboard in the capacity of #C gal per min A check valve is installed in center section between the fuselage and the engine nacelles each pump pressure line so that if one pump fails the other -he main tank of each system consists of two will still be effective, and either pump is capable of interconnected units, the outboard main tank with a capacity maintaining pressure in the entire system A manually of 68 gal and the inboard anti-surge tank with a capacity of operated disk-type Purolator filter is located between the 3< gal -hese tanks are of the self-sealing type -he anti- check valves and the regulator and tow integral relief valves surge tank contains the fuel gage transmitting unit and the are built into the system to prevent stoppage due to fouling sump -he two connecting fuel lines are fitted with flapper of the filter element valves at their lower ends to prevent the fuel from flowing -he P-38 installation for actuating the wing flaps is a back into the outboard main tanks (ach reserve tank is combination of hydraulic and mechanical power -he actual placed between the amain beam and the front shear beam power is derived from a piston type hydraulic motor which &uel capacity is 6$ gal -he tank is divided by a chordwise drives the flaps by mechanical linkage -he motor is rubber rib to form an anti-surge compartment at the inboard mounted on the flap drive gear bo. which is bolted to the end A flapper valve in the rib permits fuel to flow into the center section aft shear beam A four-way valve, mounted anti-surge chamber from the main part of the tank but on the right-hand web of the fuselage hydraulic prevents its return compartment provides control of the direction of flap travel (arly e.periments during the evolution of the P-38 -he main landing gear and the nose gear have separate produced the streamlined drop tanks which give it an but interconnected hydraulic systems and both are amaFing range and which have increased its military utility controlled by a four-way selector valve mounted on the left-he <:$ gal drop tanks are suspended from bomb shackles hand web of the hydraulic compartment -he control shaft which are hung within fairings from the main beam of the valve e.tends upward through the floor and is appro.imately midway between the fuselage and the booms connected by cables and pulleys to the landing gear control -he bulkheads of the tanks prevent surging of the fuel from lever on the left-hand side of the cockpit one end to the other -hese tanks are formed in two halves Lockheed was one of the first manufacturers to turn to the from light steel tricycle type of gear as providing optimum conditions for -wo tank selector valves are located in the lower rear ground contact and handling !ith its wide tread, and with

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the center of gravity well forward of the main alighting wheels, the P-38 handles so well that even ine.perienced pilots have no difficulty in controlling it at high speeds of the ground -he level ground position of the plane affords the pilot the best of vision while ta.iing, taking off or landing All wheels are operated by the main hydraulic system -he gear travel is directly fore and aft about the fulcrum point !hen retracted the gear is completely enclosed by flush doors hydraulically operated Automatic locks are provided for both the up and down positions -he main landing gear assemblies are located in wells in the front section of the forward booms -he tread is <646% between tire centers -he wheels are magnesium castings e)uipped with hydraulic brakes and mounting a 36% Ooodyear smooth contour tire -he assembly is comprised of an air oil type shock strut/ two drag links, supported by the pivot points/ a tubular steel drag strut, one end attaching to the drag links/ an actuating cylinder, including a "down lock,% mounted on the engine mount support bay forward of the firewall and a hydraulically operated "up lock% attached to the inboard side of the forward boom web -he main shock struts are fabricated from V-#<3$ steel Arc welded fittings are provided on the cylinder and piston for the attachment of tor)ue arms, drag strut, and the side strut -wo doors, hinged to the lower channels of the forward boom operate automatically with the landing gear movement A hydraulic cylinder, located in the aft end of the wheel well, operates the front and rear carriage through a linkage of cables and rods -he nose landing gear consists of a 8;% tire, tube and wheel, a fork, two drag struts, cylinder and piston fabricated from V#<3$ steel -he gear assembly is kept in alignment, when retracted, by a mechanical centering device incorporated in the internal construction of the piston and cylinder Alignment is maintained in the e.tended position by the action of shimmy amperes made up of a fluid reservoir connected with two small spring-loaded hydraulic cylinders mounted on the nose shock strut so that their pistons straddle the shock strut -he supporting bracket encircles and is free to rotate about the sock strut immediately below the drag strut attachment fitting -he aft end of each piston bears on a roller that is carried on a lug integral with the drag strut attachment fitting -urning the wheel fork forces the piston in on the side toward which the turn is made -he piston4s forward stroke is resisted by the hydraulic fluid which must be forced through a small drilled passage in the check valve, while the return stroke is free and rapid, due to the strong e.tension spring and the automatic opening of the check valve -hrough this action an oscillating motion is resisted and progressively reduced ?oteworthy because of its design, the entire empennage consists of two booms, two vertical stabiliFers, two rudders and tabs, one horiFontal stabiliFer and one tab-e)uipped elevator -he elevator is made of one panel and attaches to the horiFontal stabiliFer by pin-type hinges -he operating cables actuate a tor)ue tube n each empennage boom -hese tor)ue tubes are fastened to the elevator screws -he elevator tab is located at the airplane4s centerline in the trailing edge of the elevator, and attached by a hinge with a stainless steel hinge pin, which is connected to the actuating unit in the horiFontal stabiliFer by a push-pull tube -he inboard ends of the tor)ue tubes are carried in bearings on the rear stabiliFer spar -he tor)ue tube balance arm, attached to the outboard end of the tube by two taper pins,

contains a bearing that slips over a pin to the empennage boom Eudders are constructed in two sections and are interchangeable right and left -hey are attached to the vertical stabiliFer by hinge pins, to the tor)ue tubes and to each other by screws A counterbalance e.tends forward of the hinge line of each section -he rudder tab is attached to the rudder by a hinge with a stainless steel hinge pin, and is connected to the actuating unit by a push-pull tube -he rudder tor)ue tube, bearings, brackets, and arms are assembled as units and are attached to the vertical stabiliFer by bolts -he rudder and elevator tab installations are particularly smooth, due to the use of piano type hinges and the flush design of the push-pull control, with a minimum of e.ternal protuberance -he electrical system of the P-38 is so comple. that a detailed description is outside the scope of this article -he main wiring diagram lists a total of <#3 pieces of electrical e)uipment -he system is a 8#3dc, single-wire installation with one e.ception An inverter supplies <<:3ac for the fluorescent lighting on the instrument panel while the remote compass uses 863, #$$ cycle ac Although some wiring is carried in both metal and plastic conduit, much of the system utiliFes harnesses which have the advantage of lightness and accessibility @esides the ignition systems of the engines themselves, there is the main electrical system which supplies current for the following devices2 starters, intercooler actuators, the automatic oil temperature system, propellers, au.iliary fuel pumps, remote compass, panel lights, navigation lights, recognition lights, landing lights, all electric panel instruments, bomb and tank releases, armament firing, cameras, and much other e)uipment, including the plane4s radio transmitter and receivers -he generator is a <$$ amp shunt-wound type driven by the left engine A voltage regulator in the left-hand main wheel well limits the voltage output to 88 :3, supplying constant voltage for e)uipment operation and for battery charging -he main switch bo. is located directly below the main instrument panel in the cockpit -he radio compartment is situated immediately aft of the pilot4s cockpit and above the main wing beam in the aft end of the fuselage Hne of two alternate installations consists of a transmitter and receiver, and a dynamotor unit which is used as transmitter and receiver plate power supply -he remote control bo., radio 0unction bo. and 0ack bo. are on the right hand side of the cockpit within easy reach of the pilot and fuses are located in the 0unction bo. -he other alternate set is a multi-channel aircraft transmitting and receiving unit ,t has three ranges of fre)uency controlled from the cockpit by separate units with ranges of 3 to 6 megacycles, <=$ – ::$ kilocycles, and 6 – = < megacycles -he <=$ – ::$ kilocycle band is used as a beacon receiver to receive weather reports, etc -he other two ranges are for military use and are employed for interplane communication and similar functions 'eat is supplied by the engines for both the pilot4s cockpit and the armament compartment 'ot air, heated by the right e.haust manifold, is supplied to the cockpit and windshield An intensifier tube, located within the e.haust manifold 0ust aft of the e.haust "K% stack in the forward boom, directs the hot air to the butterfly control valve located on the right side of the supercharger &rom the butterfly valves, 8% H9 tubing passes through the main beam, entering the fuselage aft of the pilot4s seat/ <R% tubing leads forward under the pilot4s

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seat to a slide valve, on the right side of the center control stand -his valve directs air on the pilot4s feet A fle.ible hose carries hot air behind the instrument panel to a tube directing hot air on the windshield A spot defroster tube stowed in a clip on the left side of the seat may be directed at any part of the canopy or may be clipped to the canopy behind the pilot4s shoulder to direct heated air along the top of the canopy A butterfly valve in the end of the tube controls the flow of hot air -he left engine supplies the heated air for the armament compartment -he supply system is through a series of tubes similar to those of the cockpit heating arrangement !ithin the cockpit a tube passes under the pilot4s seat above the fuselage floor to the forward edge of the pilot4s seat &rom there, it is carried under the floor along the top of the nose wheel well into the left rear of the armament compartment -he outlet is covered with a wire screen 'eat is regulated through controls by a knob on the left windshield frame As a later modification, electric gun heaters were added, and the output of the left engine intensifier tube was directed into the cockpit -he o.ygen system has been changed from the high pressure system on early P-38s to a low-pressure demand type, three-bottle system Hne cylinder is located in the right boom aft of the wheel well and is accessible through a removable panel -he other two cylinders are in the left boom, one 0ust aft of the wheel well and the other one 0ust forward of the battery All three cylinders are filled from the same filler coupler in the right boom on the forward side of the aft wall of the wheel well A check valve is located in the filler line immediately preceding each bottle to prevent o.ygen from escaping through the filler lines ,n the left boom there is a check valve in the supply line near each bottle ,n case one bottle develops a leak the check valve will prevent escape of o.ygen -he pressure gage is mounted on the side control stand A pressure signal is connected electrically to a warning lamp through the airplane electrical system -he signal is ad0usted to light the lamp when cylinder pressure drops to appro.imately <$$ psi -he warning lamp and a flow indicator are placed on the central control stand -his installation has an o.ygen supply for 6 hr at 3$,$$$ ft At altitudes less than this the o.ygen will last longer due to the automatic mi.ing feature of the demand regulator A special mask incorporates an e.piratory flapper valve which closes when inhaled permitting o.ygen to be drawn into the mask,

opening when pilot e.hales, permitting e.haled air to discharge into the atmosphere -he regulator mi.es pure o.ygen and cockpit air in the right proportions for varying altitudes -he P-38 is heavily armored for pilot protection 7ost of the armor plate has been reduced in thickness from the original J% to R% since actual combat tests have proved the lighter steel to be satisfactory -he armor plate is all face-hardened steel and pieces are kept small to facilitate handling and removal in the field (ach piece is attached separately in its respective place although there is some overlap to supply added protection -en separate pieces make up the installation on the bulkhead aft of the armament compartment which protects the pilot frontally -wo additional pieces protect the cowl 0ust forward of the cockpit canopy and one large plate is mounted directly below the sloping bulletproof windshield A bent plate completely covers the bottom of the pilot4s seat and a flat plate is carried up the back of the seat full width to the lower line of the silhouette armor plate -his plate is mounted at the bulkhead station immediately aft of the pilot and is carried up to the top of the canopy ,t is shaped to provide protection for the pilot4s head and shoulders but to allow visibility to the rear over his shoulder 3arious alternate gun installations have been tested on the P-38 including groupings of multiple machine guns and cannons never before used on fighter aircraft +tandard installation includes four machine guns and one cannon, although modifications are made outside the factory for special missions and for various theaters of operation ,n the standard grouping there are four :$ cal, type 7-8 machine guns mounted near the top of the nose -wo are placed on either side of the fuselage centerline so that the four guns follow the contour of the top of the fuselage -ype 7-8 8$ mm cannon is mounted on the fuselage centerline below the machine guns &orward of the fore armament compartment bulkhead a mount is provided for the installation of a type A? ?-# gun camera -he camera is attached to a plate which incorporates a ball and socket 0oint attached to a bulkhead 9oors in the nose and right hand side of the nose provide access for installation, removal, service and inspection -he camera may be operated either independently or in con0unction with the guns as desired by placing the armament switch in the cockpit on "Damera% or "Dombat %

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L8CC011" F-5<+ DF&A1P8(1A> F$'#! pho!o 'elea#ed #ho4$n% ca e'a $n#!alla!$on $n no#e of Lockheed F-5 pho!o-'econna$##ance .e'#$on of Li!htnin!, ($de .a'$e!2 of $n#!alla!$on# a'e u#ed3 4$!h ca e'a# ha.$n% len# 'unn$n% f'o 6 !o 40 $n,3 ope'a!ed #$n%l2 o' a# %'oup, La!e#! de.$ce $# #hu!!e'le## con!$nuou#-#!'$p ca e'a $n 4h$ch f$l 4$nd# pa#! na''o4 #l$!3 $!# #peed #2nch'on$Bed 4$!h #peed and al!$!ude of plane, F-5<# D#hoo!> ene 2 $n#!alla!$on# f'o 'oof-!op !o #u=#!'a!o#phe'e le.el#, )na' ed3 DFocu# Ca!> p$lo!# 'el2 on h$%h #peed and aneu.e'a=$l$!2 !o e.ade ene 2 f$%h!e'# and flak3 #a.$n% of 400 l=, ha.$n% upped c'af!<# .eloc$!2 a# 4ell a# 'an%e,

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.OFLD3S :ASTEST A9EKLANCE Lockheed3s P-38 (Li!htnin!) see*s to ha$e no &i*itations. As -ein! de*onstrated here at an AA: Paci ic -ase it has -een ada#ted to carr, a &itter #atient -eneath each %in! inside *odi ied %in! 'e& tanks. Tanks ha$e a trans#arent nose and tai& cone is detacha-&e or ease o hand&in!. 7Press Assn. #hoto8

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Afterword
9uring the prosperous years following !orld !ar ,, aviation caught and held the public4s attention @arnstormers, the advent of air mail, the almost routine setting and breaking of new records for performance, deathdefying feats like Lindbergh4s crossing of the Atlantic, 'oward 'ughes ma0estic movie Wings, and a general cultural alignment toward the visible signs of progress kept public interest high +uch an atmosphere creates a demand for information, specifically for information more detailed than can generally be found in the newpapers -hat market has traditionally been filled by magaFines ,n the *nited +tates, two publishers who have since become among the largest, had started aviation-oriented magaFines somewhat before our entry into !orld !ar , and were well placed to become ma0or players in the market -he magaFine from 7cOraw-'ill started life as Aviation and Aeronautical Engineering @y the mid-<=8$s, it was called Aviation &rom the beginning, there was attention to the engineering side of the industry ,n later years, general aviation, commercial operation, both flying and support, and airports were regularly featured At various times, there was a varying emphasis on the military side of aviation, as well -he contribution from Wiff-9avis was Flying At the beginning of !orld !ar ,,, it was titled Flying and Popular Aviation -he focus seems to have been on general aviation and commercial flying ,n 7ay, <=#8, the title was changed to Flying Including Industrial Aviation, to reflect an increasing coverage of the engineering and production of aircraft, especially military aircraft, and in 5une, <=##, Wiff9avis spun off Industrial Aviation as a separate magaFine !hile there had been some attention paid to military aviation in the *+A before 9ecember, <=#<, it had not really been a ma0or focus of American attention -here was a broadly held attitude of isolationism and a desire not to get involved with the s)uabbles developing in (urope (pisodes like the well-publiciFed @illy 7itchell trial, the early shows of force by the Luftwaffe in the +panish Divil !ar, and the coverage of the @attle of @ritain in <=#$ had raised awareness of the airplane as a military tool and had begun to create a broader base of interest in the use of aircraft in warfare and in the aircraft themselves After the attack on Pearl 'arbor, Americans suddenly became very aware of and e.tremely interested in the airplane as a tool of modern warfare @etween 7ay, <=#3 and ?ovember, <=#:, Aviation published 9esign Analysis articles on <: aircraft, *+, Allied and A.is @etween 5une, <=## and 5une, <=#: Industrial Aviation published 9esign Analysis articles on <$ *+

aircraft -here were also articles on A.is engines, Allied and A.is propellers and other accessory gear, e.tensive articles on how mass production of airframes was accomplished, and articles and tables on the properties of materials used in aircraft production ,n addition, there were )uite a few short articles introducing new airplanes which had recently been released into production, or which, in a couple of cases, had recently been captured and declassified (ngineering charts, tables and articles filled out the editorial content -hese were certainly not the only magaFines supplying detailed articles about well-known airplanes, but their e.perience and the )uality of their editorial staffs, plus the fact that they were targeted at the design- and productionengineering communities, probably made them the most authoritative 7any of the 9esign Analysis articles were written by, or at least were credited to, Dhief (ngineers of the companies where the planes were designed and built +ome others, especially those analyFing non-*+ aircraft, were written by staff editors, who worked closely with engineering teams at the manufacturer Min the case of the Allied aircraftN or at !right &ield Min the case of the A.is aircraft N -he magaFines in which these articles were originally printed have become rare -hey mostly survive as bound volumes hidden away in the stacks of a large library or in a private collection 7any have been damaged by people who wanted copies of articles or illustrations -he articles and supplemental information and illustrations herein are from a set of microfilmed images of bound volumes of Aviation magaFine from at least three different libraries or from a pair of bound volumes of Industiral Aviation magaFine purchased from a rare-books dealer -hese sources are held in the editor4s collection A great deal of detail and of contrast range is lost when a photograph is printed 7ore contrast range is lost when the printed page is recorded on microfilm As a result, the )uality of some of the illustrations, especially of some of the photographs, in these articles is less than we might prefer +ince the bound volumes of Aviation which were microfilmed were )uite tightly bound, some of the images were distorted in filming Little or no attempt has been made to correct these distortions ,n some cases, the pages were so tightly bound that the film did not record all of the te.t on the page ,n most cases, the missing few letters are obvious ,n a very few cases, damage to the page or vagaries of the e.posure left portions of the te.t unreadable -hese have been filled in as well as possible -o the best of the editor4s ability, the te.t is an accurate copy of the original, with a few e.ceptions &irst, obvious typographical errors, of which there were few, have been

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corrected +ome terminologies and e.pressions of measurement have been changed to give a consistent format across the range of articles -here have been a few changes, some deliberate and some inadvertently, in punctuation, especially in the use of commas -he consistency there is not )uite so good &inally, there may be a few errors of the type that spell checkers ignore and that sneak past the weary eyes of the proofreader &or those, we apologiFe +ome illustrations have been modified in siFe compared to their original publication form -his may have been done to improve visibility of features in the illustration or to fit into available space on the page

Sources for this monogra h! -he introductory article was originally published in the 5anuary, <=#3 issue of Aviation, volume #8, number <, by 7cOraw-'ill -he first 9esign Analysis article is from the August, <=## issue of Aviation, volume #3, number 8 -he second 9esign Analysis article is from the August, <=## issue of Industrial Aviation, volume <, number 3, by Wiff9avis Additional material comes from the +eptember, <=#3, 7ay, <=##, and 7arch, <=#: issues of Aviation and from the &ebruary, <=#:, 7arch, <=#:, and 5uly, <=#: issues of Industrial Aviation Dopyrights were assigned to the employers of the authors/ articles not credited were copyright by the publishing magaFine Dopyrights were for the year of publication -he compilation and this supplemental material are copyright 8$$: by 5L 7cDlellan

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