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and information.Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. A network is a group of devices connected to each other. Networks may be classified into a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, benefit, and organizational scope. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for e changing information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well!known communications protocols include two "thernet, a hardware and link layer standard that is ubi#uitous in local area networks, and the $nternet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host!to!host data transfer, and application!specific data transmission formats. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub!discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.
%efore the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. &any
eletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his &odel at /artmouth College to his Comple Calculator in New 0ork and received results back by the same means. 1icklider was hired and .C.2.. -eorge *tibitz used a . 1inking output systems like teletypewriters to computers was an interest at the Advanced 2esearch 3ro4ects Agency 5A23A6 when. • $n *eptember ()+.of the social behaviors seen in today's $nternet were demonstrably present in the ()th century and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals. 9. in ()78.
started in the late (). . at &assachusetts $nstitute of . .. the *tanford 2esearch $nstitute. • $n ()7) the =niversity of California at 1os Angeles.ime *haring *ystem for distributed users of large computer systems. 3aul %aran and /onald /avies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used packets that could be used in a network between computer systems.developed a working group he called the :$ntergalactic Computer Network:.he first widely used telephone switch that used true computer control was introduced by Western "lectric in ()7. • . • "arly networks of communicating computers included the military radar system *emi!Automatic -round "nvironment 5*A-"6. • ()7. and the =niversity of =tah . 2oberts created the first wide area network 5WAN6..hroughout the ()7.homas &arill and 1awrence -. a research group supported by -eneral "lectric and %ell 1abs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections. researchers at /artmouth developed the /artmouth . • $n ()7+.he commercial airline reservation system semi!automatic business research environment 5*A%2"6 went online with two connected mainframes in ()7.s.his was an immediate precursor to the A23AN".echnology.. of which 2oberts became program manager. a precursor to the A23AN". =niversity of California at *anta %arbara.s 1eonard <leinrock.he same year. • ... . • .
.8. . although not necessarily the public $nternet.were connected as the beginning of the A23AN". .his e pansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks. $nterconnected collection of autonomous computers5uni#ue identity6 is known as computer network.oday. software.N6 are computer!controlled. . and later used as an underlying infrastructure for e panding .C3/$3 networks.he scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade. and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them. kbit/s circuits.>8? • Commercial services using @. All modern aspects of the public switched telephone network 53*. and telephony increasingly runs over the $nternet 3rotocol. Computer networks. were deployed in ()A8. continue to drive computer hardware.. from the researcher to the home user. and this boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. and peripherals industries. network using . computer networks are the core of modern communication.
Current wired 1ANs are most likely to be based on "thernet technology.hn also provide a way to create a wired 1AN using e isting home wires 5coa ial cables. This is cheaper .=!.>)? LAN Advantages: • Workstations can share peripheral devices like printers. -. "ach computer or device on the network is a node. office building. computer laboratory. school. or closely positioned group of buildings.Types of networking Local area network A local area network 51AN6 is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home. although new standards like $. phone lines and power lines6.
• Workstations do not necessarily need their own hard disk or CD-RO drives which !ake the! cheaper to buy than stand-alone "Cs. • #ser can save their work centrally on the network$s file server. • They don$t need to go back to the sa!e workstation all the ti!e. • #sers can co!!unicate with each other and transfer data between workstations very easily. This !eans that they can retrieve their work fro! any workstation on the network. • One copy of each application package such as a word processor% spreadsheet etc.than buying a printer for every workstations. • When a new version co!es out% it only has to be loaded onto the server instead of onto every workstation. . can be loaded onto the file and shared by all users. LAN Disadvantages: • &pecial security !easures are needed to stop users fro! using progra!s and data that they should not have access to' • (etworks are difficult to set up and need to be !aintained by skilled technicians.
in contrast to WANs 5Wide Area Networks6.he defining characteristics of 1ANs.. and no need for leased telecommunication lines. and access rights differ between these types of networks. -bit/s. could be called :layer B switches: because they only have "thernet interfaces and must understand $3.• )f the file server develops a serious fault% all the users are affected% rather than *ust one user in the case of a stand-alone !achine.8. -bit/s. and (. ./(.>(. which have only (. where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the $nternet and academic networks' customer access routers. include their higher data transfer rates.? 1ANs can be connected to Wide area network by using routers. trust level. &bit/s "thernet connections to the user device and a -igabit "thernet connection to the central router. . . $t would be more correct to call them access routers. Networks are often classified by their physical or organizational e tent or their purpose. smaller geographic range.. =sage. because they are handling multiple subnets 5the different colors6.B 1AN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to (. All interconnected devices must understand the network layer 5layer B6.hose inside the library. $""" has pro4ects investigating the standardization of +. Current "thernet or other $""" C. Typical library network% in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources A sample 1AN is depicted in the accompanying diagram.
such as fiber!optical links. . A &AN usually interconnects a number of local area networks 51ANs6 using a high!capacity backbone technology.Metropolitan area network A metropolitan area network 5MAN6 is a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. and provides up! link services to wide area networks 5or WAN6 and the $nternet.
. &ANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate!to!high data rates.hey will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. define a metropolitan area network asD EEc#uoteF A &etropolitan Area Network 5&AN6 is a large computer network that spans a .(6 of Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm 10th ed. 1audan and 9ane 3. A &AN might be owned and operated by a single organization. ” Authors <enneth C. .. but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. &ANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. 1audon 58..he $""" C.8 standard describes a &AN as beingD>(? “ A &AN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a 1AN.8!8. ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities.
and connect them to wider area networks like the $nternet.e. +( . )t therefore increases the efficiency of handling data while at the sa!e ti!e saves the cost attached to establish a wide area network. etropolitan +rea (etwork.falls in between the . )f you develop a W+( of 0.metropolitan area or campus. The optical fibers enable you to access a speed of al!ost 0111!bps. )t enables you to connect !any fast .+( and W+(.offers centrali/ed !anage!ent of data. etropolitan +rea (etwork. These optical fibers increase the efficiency and speed of data transfer. or national boundaries6 using private or public network transports. %usiness and government entities . &ANs provide $nternet connectivity for 1ANs in a metropolitan region. Whereas when you establish !etropolitan area network it offers you the speed of 0111!bps as a whole with the lowest cost involved. regional. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF METROPO ITAN AREA NET!OR" +( . !i#e area network A !i#e Area Network 5WAN6 is a network that covers a broad area 5i..23 !bps its cost is !ore than what it gives you. Telephone co!panies worldwide have facilitated the transfer of data with the help of an underground optical fiber network. any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan.+(s together. $ts geographic scope falls between a WAN and 1AN.
utilize WANs to relay data among employees. or metropolitan area networks 5&ANs6 which are usually limited to a room. this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location.g. organizations. clients. and suppliers from various geographical locations. A#$anta%e& o' a !AN( Covers a large geographical area so long distance businesses can connect on the one network *hares software and resources with connecting workstations Di&a#$anta%e& o' a !AN( Are e pensive and generally slow Need a good firewall to restrict outsiders from entering and disrupting the network .>(? 2elated terms for other types of networks are personal area networks 53ANs6. building. and individuals for almost any purpose imaginable. local area networks 51ANs6. . governments. campus area networks 5CANs6.. a city6 respectively. $n essence. and is used by businesses. buyers. campus or specific metropolitan area 5e.he $nternet can be considered a WAN as well.
in ())B. pivot tables.Micro&o't E)cel An# #e&cri*e it& 'unction+ Micro&o't E)cel is a spreadsheet application developed by &icrosoft for &icrosoft Windows and &ac G* @. $t has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms. and a macro programming language called Hisual %asic for Applications. for &icrosoft Windows>(? and 8. especially since version .(. graphing tools. and it has replaced 1otus (!8!B as the industry standard for spreadsheets. " cel forms part of &icrosoft Gffice.>8? Basic operation ain article4 &preadsheet . $t features calculation.(( for &ac G* @. .he current versions are 8.
for e ample.&icrosoft " cel has the basic features of all spreadsheets. and with a very limited three!dimensional graphical display. via a custom!designed user interface.? $n a more elaborate realization. and e!mail these presentations on a regular basis to a list of participants.>+? $t has a programming aspect. for e ample. it can display data as line graphs. a stock analyzer. $t has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical. >A? or in general.>((? analyze the results. . histograms and charts. so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so!called application. engineering and financial needs.?>7? and then reporting the results back to the spreadsheet. >B? using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter!named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. or decision support system 5/**6. make a Word report or 3ower 3oint slide show. $t also has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user. allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods. an " cel application can automatically poll e ternal databases and measuring instruments using an update schedule.>. >C?>)?>(. $n addition. isual !asic for "pplications. as a design tool that asks the user #uestions and provides answers and reports. for solving differential e#uations of mathematical physics. $t allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives 5using pivot tables and the scenario manager6.
&ubroutine in 56cel calculates the s8uare of na!ed colu!n variable x read fro! the spreadsheet% and writes it into the na!ed colu!n variable y.#se of a user-defined function sq(x) in icrosoft 56cel. The na!ed variables x 7 y are identified in the Name Manager. The function sq is introduced using the Visual Basic editor supplied with 56cel. .
Ior e ample. and their points of intersection shift. in response to a user's change in trial values for parameters. assisting the selection of the best design. suppose that the important design re#uirements are displayed visuallyJ then.>(8? Charts " cel supports charts. graphs.hese displays are dynamically updated if the content of cells change.9raph !ade using icrosoft 56cel &icrosoft allows for a number of optional command!line switches to control the manner in which " cel starts. .he generated graphic component can either be embedded within the current sheet. Micro&o't E)cel 'unction& . . or histograms generated from specified groups of cells. or added as a separate ob4ect. the curves describing the design change shape.
--it re!oves all leading or trailing blanks fro! a string. TR) .--it converted th first letter of each word in a te6t string to uppercase and re!aining letters to lowercase.eg.-eg.string%start nu!ber%nu!ber of character. &ynta6. )D.will return.will return wati. 0. &ynta6.string-. &ynta6.--it converts all uppercase letter in a te6t string to lowercase.chandrawati%2.te6t0%te6t=-.Chandra%chandu.--it converts all lowercase letters in a te6t string to uppercase.chandrawati college.chandrawati.left.--it returns the length of a te6t string % spaces are counted as character.en .will return chandrwati college. #""5R.5:T .will return dra. " planations on how to write each function in " cel and e amples of its use are provided.string.will return false.eg.chandrwati college..OW5R. &ynta6-right.)D. )D.chandrawati 3%?.OW5R.--returns specified nu!ber of character sorting fro! a specified position in a te6t string.it returns the specified no. Chandrawati . &ynta6.eg.TR).TR) .chandrawati college.5C+CT.proper.string.proper.will return chandrawati. of characters fro! the left side of a te6t string% if the nu!ber is not specified %it returns the first characters synta6.. )f the nu!ber is not specified .eg. if returns the last character.#""5R.string%nu!ber of character-eg. left . =- ?- 23- @<A- B- .--it return the specified nu!br of characters fro! the right side of a te6t string.5(. 5C+CT.chandani%<will return chandani. . "roper.1isting of the most useful Micro&o't E)cel 'unction&.-. &ynta6.te6t% nu!ber of character-eg.e6act .chandrawati-will return eg.5(. R)9>T.lower.te6t0%te6t=--it will return or false depending on whether te6t0 is e6actly sa!e as te6t= or not synta6. .will return chandrawati college. &ynta6.string.right.
eg.CO(C+T5(+T5 te6t0%te6t=.. .01- CO(C+T5(+T5.R+ %&>D+ will return Ra!shya!.we can give = to ?1 ite!s to be *oined into a single te6t string.CO(C+T5(+T5.--this function *oins several te6t string into on te6t string synta6.
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