ECCS  Technical Committee 11 Composite Structures
Composite Beams and Columns to Eurocode 4
FIRST EDITION
1993
No72
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ECCS CECM EKS
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ECCS assumes no liability with respect to the use for any application of the material and information contained in this publication.
FOREWORD
The Eurocodes are being prepared to harmonize design procedures between countries which are members of CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and have been published initially as ENV documents (European prestandards  prospective European Standards for provisional application). The Eurocode for composite construction (referred to in this publication as EC4) is: ENV 199411: Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete structures Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings The national authorities of the member states have issued National Application Documents (NAD) to make the Eurocodes operative whilst they have ENVstatus. This publication "Composite Beams and Columns to Eurocode 4" has been prepared by the ECCSTechnical Committee 11 to provide simplified guidance on composite beams and columns in supplement to EC4 and to facilitate the use of EC4 for the design of composite buildings during the ENVperiod. "Composite Beams and Columns to Eurocode 4" contains those rules from EC4 that are likely to be needed for daily practical design work. It is a selfstanding document and contains additional information as simplified guidance, design tables and examples. References to EC4 are given in [ 1. Any other text, tables or figures not quoted from EC4 are deemed to satisfy the rules specified in EC4. In case of doubt, when rules are missing (e.g. for the design of composite slabs, etc.) or when more detailed rules are required, EC4 should be consulted in conjunction with the National Application Document for the country in which the building project is situated.
The working group of ECCSTC 11, responsible for this publication is:
Anderson, D. Beguin, P. Bode, H. Brekelmans, J . Falke, J. Janss, J. Lawson, R. M. Mutignani, F. United Kingdom France Germany (Chairman of TC11) Netherlands Germany Belgium United Kingdom Italy
The other members of ECCSTC 1 1 are: Arda, T.S. Aribert, J.M. Axhag, F. Bossart, R. Cederwall, K. Lebet, J.P. Leskela, M. Schleich, J.B. Stark, J.W.B. Tschemmernegg, F. Turkey France Sweden Switzerland Sweden Switzerland Finland Luxembourg Netherlands Austria
Particular thanks are given to those organisations who supported the work. Besides ECCS itself and its members, specific contributions were made by: Bauberatung Stahl, Bundesvereinigung der Priifingenieure fur Baustatik, The Department of Trade and Industry British Steel (Sections, Plates & Commercial Steels) Germany Germany UK UK
The text was prepared for publication by the Steel Construction Institute, UK.
Page 1
gives design formulae and makes crossreference to the clauses of Eurocode 4. Each section of the publication reviews the design principles. continuous beams. Pesign aids are also presented to assist in selecting the size of steel beams to be used in certain applications.~ This publication presents useful information and worked examples on the design of composite beams and columns to Eurocode 4 ‘Design of composite steel and concrete structures’ (ENV 199411). Worked examples cover the design of composite beams with full and partial shear connection. Information on the design of composite slabs is also given. The information is given in the form of a concise guide on the relevant aspects of Eurocode 4 that affect the design of composite beams and columns normally encountered in general building construction. and composite columns. although the publication concentrates on the influence of the slab on the design of the composite beam. Page 2 .
2 Types of columns Types of beams Types of slabs Types of Shear connectors Types of erection Types of connection Properties of Materials 4.2.2 4.2 1.1 3.4 4.1.1 Concrete 4.1 General ‘3.3.1.2.1. I INITIAL DESIGN ACTIONS AND COMBINATION RULES FOR DESIGN 3.1 1.1.5 4.2 Reinforcing steel 4.3.1.2 Ultimate limit state 3.3 Structural steel .3 Scope of Publication Crossreferencing Partial Safety Factors 9 9 10 10 11 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 22 22 23 23 Page 3 2. INTRODUCTION 1.3. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 4.1 Description of Forms of Construction 4.1 4.6 4.4 Design of Steel Beams 3.3 Fundamental Requirements Definitions and Classifications Design Requirements 3. 4.2.3 4.2 3.3 Serviceability limit state 3.COMPOSITE BEAMS AND COLUMNS TO EUROCODE 4 CONTENTS Page SUMMARY NOTATION PART 1: DESIGN GUIDE 2 7 1.1.
2.2 6.1.2 Resistance of Cross Sections 6.2.1 Welding and spacing of studs 5.5 6.2.4.5 Distribution of internal forces and moments in continuous beams 6.2 Introduction Initial Slab Design 5.2.4 Classification of crosssections 6.1.3.1 Basis of Design of Composite Beams 6.1 General 6.2.2. 24 24 25 25 26 Partial Safety Factors for Resistance and Material Properties COMPOSITE OR CONCRETE SLABS 5.1 5. Minimum Transverse Reinforcement ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE: COMPOSITE BEAMS 6.3 Effective width of the concrete flange 6.1 5.3 Proportions of composite slabs Construction condition Composite action Deflections 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 33 33 33 33 34 35 40 42 42 42 44 45 45 Influence of Decking on the Design of Composite Beams 5.3 6.4.1.1.2 5.4.1 Ribs transverse to beams 5.2.2.1.2 Additional requirements for steel decking 5.4 5.5 General Positive moment resistance Negative moment resistance Vertical shear Momen tshear interaction Page 4 .4 Profiled steel decking for composite slabs 4.4 6.4 Detailing Rules for Shear Connectors Welded Through Profiled Steel Decking 5.2.2 Ribs parallel to beam 5.2.1 6.2 Verification of composite beams 6.3 5.3.3 5.
4 7.3 Simplified Method of Design of Composite Columns 8.3.2. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE: COMPOSITE BEAMS 7.3 Resistance of crosssections to combined compression and uniaxial bending 8.2 6.3.3.2 General Criteria Calculation of Deflections 7.2.2 Introduction Design Method 8.5 General Resistance of shear connectors Spacing of shear connectors Longitudinal shear force Transverse reinforcement 46 46 46 48 49 53 56 57 59 6.3.2 Design assumptions 8.3 6.1 8.1 6.3 7.3 Shear Connection 6.3.2 7.3.1 General 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 70 70 71 74 76 76 Page 5 8.1 7.1 7.4 Analysis for moments applied to columns 8.2.1 Resistance of crosssections to axial load 8.5 Partially Encased Beams Lateral Torsional Buckling of Continuous Beams 7 .3.2.5 7.4 6.4 Shear between the steel and concrete components 8.2.4 Second moment of area Modular ratio Influence of partial shear connection Shrinkageinduced deflections Continuous beams 59 59 59 61 63 63 64 65 Vibration Checks Crack Control 65 8.2.3 Local buckling 8.3 7.2.2 Resistance of members to axial load 8.2.5 Resistance of members to combined compression and uniaxial bending . ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE: COMPOSITE COLUMNS 8.2.3.3.3.6.4 6.
3 Design Tables for Composite Beams Subject to Uniform Loading ANNEX 1 DESIGN FORMULAE FOR COMPOSITE COLUMNS WORKED EXAMPLES : PART 2 1. 3.3.6 11.5 10.~ ~ ~ 8.2 Second Moment of Area of Composite Beam Relative to Steel Beam 12.6 Limits of applicability of the simplified design method 9.3 10.1 Moment Resistance of Composite Beam Relative to Steel Beam 12. 12. Simply Supported Composite Beam with Solid Slab and Full Shear Connection Simply Supported Composite Beam with Composite Slab and Partial Shear Connection Continuous Composite Beam with Solid Slab Composite Column with End Moments 2 .1 10. 10.4 10. General Sequence of Construction Stability Accuracy during Construction and Quality Control Loads during Construction Stud Connectors Welded through Profiled Decking REFERENCES DESIGN TABLES AND GRAPHS FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS 12. Page 6 . FIRE RESISTANCE CONSTRUCTION AND WORKMANSHIP 78 80 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 85 86 87 88 89 94 97 10.2 10. 4.
depth of web considered in shear area modulus of elasticity of steel characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete yield strength of steel force in element of crosssection. the use of the following common symbols and subscripts is given to help understanding of this publication. Symbols: A beff d E fck * F G h I L M N fY Q t V W YF Y x E X crosssectional area effective width of slab diameter of shear connector. shear or compression) resistance (of member) internal force or moment design value of resistance design value of internal force or moment web of steel section Page 7 .NOTATION Notation is not presented in detail here and reference should be made to Eurocode 4 P a r t 1.1. load (action) permanent loads (actions) depth of element second moment of area length or span moment (with subscripts as below) axial force variable loads (actions) thickness of element of crosssection shear force plastic section modulus partial safety factor for loads partial safety factor for materials (with subscripts as below) slenderness d ( f y /235) reduction factor on axial resistance due to imperfection Subscripts to symbols: a C k P S PP R S Rd Sd W structural steel concrete characteristic value profiled steel decking (sheeting) reinforcement plastic resistance (in bending. However.
These are: Hogging moment Sagging moment Moment resistance Stud connector Decking Transverse reinforcement Negative moment causing compression in the bottom flange of the beam.1. Resistance of the steel or composite crosssection to bending actions. A particular form of shear connector comprising a steel bar and flat head that is welded automatically to the beam. there are some important terms which may be defined to assist in understanding this document. Positive moment causing tension in the bottom flange of the beam. Page 8 .Member axes: X Y 2 along the axis of the member major axis bending minor axis bending Terminology: This publication adopts the terminology used in Eurocode 4 Part 1. However. Profiled steel sheet which may be embossed for composite action with the concrete slab. Reinforcement placed in the slab transversely (across) the steel beam.
Part 2 presents a number of fully worked examples for simply supported and continuous composite beams.1 Scope of Publication A decision was made to limit the scope of the publication to the information that ’90% of designers will need 90% of the time’. the document covers the following aspects in detail: Composite beams with composite or solid slabs Braced frames (nonsway) Simply supported (simple) connections Continuous beams (or with connections equivalent to the moment resistance of the beam) Welded stud shear connectors Full or partial shear connection Class 1 or 2 sections (class 3 webs are permitted for continuous beams) Composite columns (encased I sections or concrete filled sections) under axial load Composite columns with moments using simplified interactions Partially encased sections . 1. Also given are some design tables for composite beams using standard steel sections.1 deals with the ‘design of composite steel and concrete structures’.1. Similarly. and composite columns. The publication ‘Composite beams and columns to Eurocode 4’ presents simplified guidance in accordance with the main Eurocode. Composite columns are also increasingly popular. INTRODUCTION Eurocode 4 Part 1. as appropriate). It is intended that each section is read as a design guide with crossreference to the relevant clauses in EC4 (or EC3 or EC2. Although the publication retains the principles and application rules of the Eurocode. simply supported or continuous beams in braced construction are most typical of modern buildings. In summary. In this sense. Because of this less formal presentation it is possible to introduce additional information and design aids in the form of tables and graphs. but concentrates on the common forms of structure that are encountered in building construction. Part 1 of the document covers the design methods for composite beams and composite columns. composite beams are increasingly associated with composite slabs. rather than solid slabs. it is not written in a code format because of the need to offer further explanation on the design principles.
The document makes only general reference (and does not include detailed information) on: Global analysis of composite frames Design of connections Behaviour of composite slabs Cracking in concrete Other forms of shear connector Use of precast concrete slabs Lightweight concrete Lateraltorsional buckling Fire resistance aspects General analysis of composite columns Specifically excluded is the use of: Nonuniform crosssections Class 3 or 4 sections Sway frames Partial strength connections 1. or adjacent to the relevant part of the text. Worked Examples and Design Tables. Because this document is intended to be read throughout Europe the recommended boxed values have been used in the text.3 Partial safety factors National authorities are able to select partial safety factors on loads and materials which are given as ‘boxed values’ in the Eurocodes. Further information on partial safety factors is given in Sections 3 and 4. 1. All references to Eurocodes or EN standards or other important publications are listed in full at the back of the publication.3. the source clauses in these Eurocodes are presented in brackets at the start of each section.2 Crossreferencing This publication is to be read as a self standing document and crossrefers to other sections within the text. To aid crossreferencing to Eurocode 4 (EC4) or other Eurocodes. Page 10 .
5m to 5.INITIAL DESIGN Composite beams comprise I or H section steel beams attached to a ’solid’ or ’composite’floor slab by use of shear connectors. Grid sizes  primary and secondary beams can be designed for approximately the same depth when grid dimensions are in proportion of 1 : lV2 respectively . General features: Slab depth Slab span  typically 120mm to 180mm depending on fire resistance. The beams may be designed as simplysupported. Composite slabs comprise profiled steel decking which supports the self weight of the wet concrete during construction and acts as ’reinforcement’ to the slab during inservice conditions. It is important to recognise the difference between secondary beams which directly support the decking and composite slab and primary beams which support the secondary beams as point loads. can be designed efficiently with short span secondary beams. Primary beams usually receive greater loads than secondary beams and therefore are usually designed to span a shorter distance for the same beam size.5m propped subject to maximum span: depth ratio of 35 for a slab with continuity at one end (see Section 5 for further guidance). The sizing of the composite beam is independent of the form of construction provided the steel beam is able to support the loads developed during concreting. or as continuous over a number of supports. Composite beams may be designed to be unpropped for reasons of speed of construction.5m to 3. Propped construction may be appropriate where it is necessary to control deflections of the steel beam during construction. The following recommendations are made for initial sizing of composite beams.1. These cases are illustrated in Figure 2. long span primary beams. such as composite trusses. The relative economy of ’simple’ or ’continuous’ construction depends on the benefits of reduced section size and depth in relation to the increased complexity of the design and the connections in continuous construction.5m unpropped 3. Composite beams behave as a series of T beams in which the concrete is in compression when subject to positive moment and the steel is mainly in tension. Alternatively. structural and other requirements 2.
Beam design The following beam proportions should give acceptable deflections when the section size is determined for moment resistance. Page 12 .25mm thick. a) Simply supported Secondary beam Primary beam  span: depth ratio of 18 to 20 (depth = total beam and slab depth) span: depth ratio of 15 to 18 b) Continuous Secondary beam Primary beam  span: depth ratio of 22 to 25 (end bays) span: depth ratio of 18 to 22 Steel grade Concrete grade Shear connectors  higher grade steel (Fe 510) usually leads to smaller beam sizes than lower grade steel (Fe 360 or Fe 430) C 25/30 for composite beams. These studs can be welded through the steel decking up to 1. 19mm diameter welded stud connectors are placed typically at 150mm spacing. 22mm diameter welded stud connectors where throughdeck welding is not used.
.T L column span of slab primary beam L i  span of slab primary beam &.& LI : P4 12 18m Figure 2.1 Framing plans for medium and long span beams Page 13 .m 21 ..8 .
Actions Definitions and principal classification*)' An action (F) is: 0 a force (load) applied to the structure (direct action). 0 *)l Fuller definitions of the classification of actions will be found in the Eurocode for Actions. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people. temperature effects or differential settlement.2] Limit States Limit states are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements. Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse. having due regard to its intended life and its cost. Page 14 . for example. construction period) and subsequent use. 0 A structure shall also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. or impact or consequences of human error to an extent disproportionate to the original cause. and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs.1] A structure shall be designed and constructed in such a way that: 0 with acceptable probability. Limit states are classified into: a 0 ultimate limit states serviceability limit states. or an imposed deformation (indirect action).3. 3. it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. it will sustain all actions and influences likely to occur during execution (ie. and with appropriate degrees of reliability. Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified inservice criteria are no longer met by the structure. 3.1 ACTIONS AND COMBINATION RULES FOR DESIGN Fundamental Requirements [2.2 Definitions and Classifications [2.
member or connection (fatigue excluded).Actions are classified as: 0 permanent actions (G). including those at the construction phase. variable actions (Q). accidental actions (A). imposed loads. by tests) involving all relevant variables. eg. and with the reliability of the information on which the design is based.2 Ultimate limit state Verification conditions When considering a limit state of failure of a section. and fixed equipment. eg. explosions or impact from vehicles. provided that the minimum provisions specified in the relevant loading codes or by the competent authority are observed. 0 e Characteristic values of actions F . if necessary. or the designer in consultation with the client.1 General It shalI be verified that no relevant limit state is exceeded. wind loads or snow loads. it shall be verified that: Page 15 .3. or by the client. of an action is expressed in general terms as: where yF Fk = = partial safety factor for actions characteristic value of the action 3. 0 The design value F. fittings. are specified a in the Eurocode for Actions or other relevant loading codes. 3.3. selfweight of structures. eg. All relevant design situations and load cases shall be considered.3] 3. Possible deviations from the assumed directions or positions of actions shall be considered.3 Design Requirements [2. commensurate with the standard of workmanship likely to be achieved. Calculations shall be performed using appropriate design models (supplemented. The models shall be sufficiently precise to predict the structural behaviour.
1.3 Serviceability Limit State For each load case. wind loads the variable action which causes the largest effect at a given location * If the dead load G counteracts the variable action Q: partial safety factor for permanent actions partial safety factor for variable actions ** If a variable load Q counteracts the dominant loading: Yo = 0 Table 3. The most unfavourable combinations are considered at each critical location of the structure. eg. associating all structural properties with the respective design values. Eurocodes permit the use of other combination factors. design values for the effects of actions shall be determined from combination rules involving design values of actions as identified by Table 3.9 is taken into account. snow loads. eg. design values for the effects of actions shall be determined from combination rules involving design values of actions.2. if reliable load data are is available. at the points of maximum negative or positive moment. Page 16 . Load combinations to be considered: permanent actions. imposed loads on floors. as identified by Table 3.r where s d is the design value of an internal force or moment (Or of a respective vector of several internal forces or moments) and Rd is the corresponding design resistance.1 Combinations of actions for the ultimate limit state 3. for example.3. In Table 3. Combination of actions For each load case. self weight variable actions.1 a combination factor of 0.
Although no information is given in EC4 on these additional construction loads to be used in the design of the steel beams.75 kN/m’ in the design of the beams. it is consistent with the design of slabs to assume a construction load of 0.4 2. Gk + Qk. Page 17 .Load combinations to be considered: Parameters defined in Table 3.2 Design of Steel Beams The steel beam is to be designed in accordance with Eurocode 3. ’.1.max I 3. Combinations of actions for the serviceabilitv limit state Table 3. The loads to be considered shall include the self weight of the beam and slab and an additional load taking account of the construction operation.
This action is considered in Section 6. 4 . Figure 4.1 Types of column 4. The shear connection of the steel beam to a concrete slab can either be by full or partial shear connection. Figure 4.2. There are two main types. Beams are usually of IPE or HE section (or UB or UC section). concrete encased (totally or partially). and concretefilled columns.4.2 Types of beam Composite beams may be of the form shown in Figure 4. Partial encasement of the steel section provides increased fire resistance and resistance to buckling.1.2 Types of beam Shear connectors between the slab and beam provide the necessary longitudinal shear transfer for composite action.1.1 Types of column Composite columns may be of the form shown in Figure 4.1. Page 18 . 1 MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION Description of Forms of Construction 4.
Slabs are generally continuous but are often designed as a series of simply supported elements spanning between the beams.3 Types of composite and concrete slabs 4.1. or cast in situ. or Profiled steel decking and concrete (see Section 5).4 Types of shear connector 7dL h 23d generally h 14d ductile Page 19 . h Figure 4.4.3 Types of slab Slabs are either: e e concrete slabs: composite slabs: Prefabricated.1.
4.6 for beamtocolumn and beamtobeam connections.6 Types of connection There are many types of connection. as defined in EC4 [4. or where deflection of the steel beam would otherwise be unacceptable.31. 4. Examples of “nominally pinned” connections both in the construction and cornposite stages Figure 4. In design to EC4. No application rules are given for partial strength connections. the two forms of connection generally envisaged are (i) nominally pinned or (ii) rigid and full strength.1.10 5. anticrack reinforcement 1 secondary beamreinforcement 1 a.5 Types of erection Beams and/or profiled steel sheets may be either propped or unpropped during concreting of the slab.6 Examples of connections in composite frames Page 20 . Some examples are given in Figure 4. Propping is needed where the steel beam is not able to support the weight of a thick concrete slab during construction.1. The most economic method of construction is generally to avoid the use of temporary propping.
but is made moment resisting by the slab reinforcement and fitting pieces which transfer the necessary tension and compression forces.reinforcement 1 I L e x t e n d e d end plate b.6(b) and (c). Page 21 . the connections may be considered to be rigid. Example of “rigid” and full strength connection tensile reinforcement c. but may or may not develop the full strength of the composite section. Example of connections that are pinned in the construction stage and ’partial strength’ in the composite stage Figure 4.6(c) the connection is pinned in the construction stage.6 (Continued) Examples of connections in composite frames In Figures 4. In the case of Figure 4.
4.1. (tensile strength) 40 3. /25). fck. 4. Strength Class C C20/25 29 C25/30 30. The cube strength is given as the second figure (ie.5 C30/37 32 C35/45 33.. the modulus of elasticity for concrete is reduced due to creep and is taken as Ec.5 C40/50 35 C45/55 36 C50/60 37 E. (kN/mm2) Table 4. data for normal weight concrete are given. concrete see EC4 [3.5 4.9 C35/45 35 3. In this Section. Strength Class of Concrete C20/25 20 2.4.2 C40/50 C45/55 45 3.1(3)].1.. C20) refers to cylinder strength of concrete.2 below. For lightweight.2 C25/30 25 2.2 Secant modulus of elasticity for concrete Ecm for shortterm loading = Modular ratio. Shrinkage (longterm free shrinkage strain ecs) for normal weight concrete: in dry environment (filled members excluded) in other environments and for filled members 325 x 106 200 x 106 The secant modulus of elasticity for short term loading is given in Table 4.4.1 The strength class (ie.1J Normal and lightweight concrete may be used. In most cases of imposed loading the representative value of modulus of elasticity is taken as Ec.1 Concrete [3. leading to an increase in n by a factor of 3.8 C50/60 50 fck (compressive strength) f..4./3. n EJE. Although not generally required for general design: Coefficient of linear thermal expansion. using E.2(4)]../2 [3. aT  10 x 106/ "C Page 22 .2 Properties of Materials The material properties given in this Section are those required for design purposes.6 C30/37 30 2.. For long term (permanent) loads.2.. as in Table 4.
4 Design values of other properties of steel Page 23 . 4. which is the product standard for reinforcement.3 Nominal values of strength of structural steels to EN 10 025 (in N/mm') No values of material strength are given for highstrength steel. For this steel.3 Structural steel [3.2] Refer to EN 10 080.2. clause 3.1(2) of EC3 is applicable. The nominal values may be adapted as characteristic values in calculations. Thickness t mm*) Nominal steel grade Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 t 5 40mm 40mm f" < t 5 lOOmm fU fy 235 275 355 fy 215 255 335 360 430 5 10 340 410 490 fr fU  yield strength ultimate tensile strength Table 4. modulus of elasticity shear modulus coefficient of linear thermal expansion density Ell Ga (YT P  2 1 m 81000 10 x 106 7850 [N/rnrn2] [N/mm2] [/"Cl [kg/m31 Table 4.4.2. Types of Steel e according to ductility characteristics: high (class H) or normal (class N) according to surface characteristics: plain smooth or ribbed bars 0 Steel grades B 500: characteristic yield strength fsk = 500N/mm2 The modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel is taken as for structural steel.3] Nominal values of material strength are as given below.2.2 Reinforcing steel [3.
Page 24 .4. Where the member resistance is influenced by the buckling of the structural steel section. angles. welds. and slip resistance of bolted connections are as given in EC3 clause 6.3.30 Table 4.25 1 .5 Partial safety factors for resistance and material properties Values for bolts.2]. resistance is determined by using design values of strength of the different materials or components as given in the individual chapters of EC4 or in this publication.10 1 .oo 1.2(2)].8.6. refer to Eurocode 4. pins.oo 1S O 1.5.3 Partial Safety Factors for Resistance and Material Properties [2.oo Fundamental Accidental 1.1.2.15 1 . Recommended values for fundamental and accidental combinations are given in Table 4.10 1 . These values may be modified by the various National Authorities and are given as ‘boxed values’ in EC4.1(2). with EN 10 147 as the product standard for steel sheeting. friction grip bolts) and Longitudinal Shear in Slabs YW Yvs Y O Yc Ys 5 1. When the design value Rd is determined by tests.3.2] In general.3]. Combination Structural Concrete Steel Profiled Steel Reinforcement Steel Decking Shear COMectOrS (studs. a specific safety factor YRd = [ l .3.4 Profiled steel decking for composite slabs Composite slabs are dealt with in this publication only as far as they affect the design of the composite beam.2. [4.oo 1. [4. Reference should be made to EC4 for further information on the design of composite slabs.3. rivets. 4. 101 is recommended [2.
There are two forms that may be used: Thin precast concrete plate elements of approximately 50mm thickness are used as a formwork for solid slabs or alternatively.1 COMPOSITE OR CONCRETE SLABS Introduction This section reviews the different forms of concrete slab that may be used in conjunction with composite beams.3. deep precast concrete elements are used for longer spans with a thin layer of castinplace concrete as a wearing surface. When ribs of the decking have a reentrant shape and/or are provided with embossments that can transmit longitudinal forces between the decking arid the concrete. Precast concrete slab: This is a slab consisting of prefabricated concrete units and castinplace concrete. 5. Deep precast concrete units often have hollow cores which serve to reduce their dead weight. the resulting slab acts as a composite slab in the direction of the decking ribs. Three types of concrete slab are often used in combination with composite beams.3.2. The quantity and placement of transverse reinforcement: Transverse reinforcement is used to ensure that longitudinal shear failure or splitting of the concrete does not occur before failure of the composite beam itself. The units may be designed to act compositely with ‘the steel beams.2).5. * 0 No further information is given on solid or precast concrete slabs in this section. Composite slab: This is a slab which is castinplace using decking (coldformed profiled steel sheeting) as permanent formwork to the concrete slab. The detailed design of composite slabs. A reduced or “effective”crosssectional area must be calculated. normally castin place using traditional wooden formwork. Formulae for determining effective slab widths are given in Section 6. but this aspect is outside the scope of this document. The correct placement of studs relative to ribs is of great importance. In the design of composite slabs the following aspects have to be considered: * The crosssectional geometry of the slab: In some cases the full crosssectional area of the slab cannot be used for composite beam calculations. 0 e Page 25 . which is covered in chapter 7 of EC4. is not treated here. The influence of the slab on the shear connection between the slab and the beam: Stud behaviour and maximum strength may be modified due to the shape of the ribs in the slab (see Section 6. These three types are listed as follows: 0 Solid slab: This is a slab with no internal voids or rib openings. and the factors that influence the design of the beams.1.
broadly classified into two groups: 0 Reentrant rib geometries. Centreline distances between ribs generally vary between 150mm and 300mm.1 Typical coniposite slab with reentrant deck profile 5. Open or trapezoidal rib geometries. concrete and light mesh reinforcement. h.r Figure 5. I. 0 Slab depths range from 100 to 200mm. Embossment shapes and sheet overlaps also vary between decking manufacturers. 120 to 180mm being the most common depending on the fire resistance requirements. however. width and depth.2. Typical rib heights..2.2 Initial Slab Design 5. Note that embossments are often placed on the the top flange of the deck. In general such slabs consist of: decking (cold formed profiled steel sheeting). Decking rib geometries may vary considerably in form. Note that embossments are often placed on the webs of the deck. There are many types of decking currently marketed in Europe. Page 26 . are between 40mm and 85mm. An example of such a profile is shown in Figure 5.1 Proportions of composite slab A typical composite slab is shown in Figure 5. An example of such a profile is shown in Figure 5. These can be.1.
The base material is coldformed steel with thicknesses between 0. For such ribs composite action with the steel beam may be significantly reduced. the sheet steel is hotdipped galvanised with 0. however.75mm and 1.3 of EC3. decking is first used as a construction platform.3 Composite action After the concrete has hardened.02mm of zinc coating on each side.generally vary between 150mm and 300mm.75 kN/m2 on the remaining area.2. are not treated in this document. Good construction practice requires that the decking sheets be attached to each other and to all permanent supports using screws or shotfired nails. can span between 3m and 3. their tools and other material commonly found on construction sites. in addition to the self weight of the slab. In general. The yield strength of the steel is in the range of 220 to 350N/mm2. decking with a steel thickness of 1. This means that it supports construction operatives. the decking is used as formwork so that it supports the weight of the wet concrete. Embossment shapes and sheet overlaps also vary between decking manufacturers. Next. Characteristic loads for the construction phase are 1. composite action is achieved by the combination of chemical bond and mechanical interlock between the steel decking and the concrete. The chemical bond is unreliable and is not taken into account in design. reinforcement and the concreting gang. and a rib height of 60mm.2.2 Typical composite slab using a trapezoidal deck profile. 5. Ribs deeper than 85mm. 50 Figure 5.2 Construction condition Normally. thus requiring special attention. Composite slab design is generally based on information provided by the decking manufacturer. Deeper decks permit longer spans to be concreted without the need for propping.5mm.5 kN/m2 on any 3 metres by 3 metres area and 0. showing the main geometrical parameters 5. The maximum span length of the decking without propping can be calculated according to the rules given in Part 1. Typically.2mm.5m without propping. Page 27 .
and concentrated point and line loads.3.1. care should be taken to read the catalogue for any limitations or restrictions due to dynamic loads. 0 0 These factors are addressed more fully in Section 6. 5.in the form of allowable imposed load tables.2] Deflection calculations in reinforced concrete are notoriously inaccurate. indicating that composite action is satisfactory or that the design is controlled by other limitations. and therefore some approximations are justified to obtain an estimate for the deflections of a composite slab. The end span should be considered as the general case for design. Decking ribs may be oriented in two ways with respect to the composite beam: Page 28 . These values are determined from test results and their interpretation as required in EC4 clause 10. The stiffness of a composite slab may be calculated from the cracked section properties of a reinforced concrete slab. if the maximum ratio of span length to slab depth is within the limits of Table 5.1 no deflection check is needed. slab thickness. acts as transverse reinforcement leading to a reduction in the amount of bar reinforcement needed. However.1: Maximum span to depth ratios of composite slabs 5.2. span length and the number of temporary supports. Maximum Span: Depth ratios Normal weight concrete Light weight concrete End span Internal span 38 33 Single span 32 27 35 30 Table 5. The orientation of the sheeting is important.4 Deflections [7. However.1. Experience shows that imposed load deflections do not exceed span/350 when using the span to depth ratios shown in Table 5. In most catalogues the resistance to imposed load is given as a function of decking type and steel sheet thickness. Generally. these resistances are well in excess of the applied loads. It: 0 may provide lateral restraint to the steel beams during construction. In this case it is assumed that minimum anticrack reinforcement exists at the supports. by treating the crosssectional area of decking as an equivalent reinforcing bar.2.3 Influence of Decking on the Design of Composite Beams Profiled steel change decking performs a number of important roles. and influences the design of the composite beam in a number of ways. More refined deflection calculations will lead to greater span to depth ratios than those given in Table 5.6. causes a possible reduction in the design resistance of the shear connectors.
3.2 Ribs parallel to the beam In the construction phase. e Decking ribs parallel to the steel beam.Decking ribs transverse to the steel beam. 5. or continuous (Figure 5. Figure 5. the complete crosssection of the slab may be used in calculating the moment resistance of the beam. The decking may be discontinuous (Figure 5.3. decking with this orientation is not considered effective in resisting lateral torsional buckling of the steel beam. In the latter case the shear connectors can also be welded to the steel beam offsite.4. as shown in Figure 5. or placed in holes formed in the troughs of the decking. In this case. there is often a significant influence on the resistance of the shear connectors due to the shape of the deck profile. This has important consequences for the design of the composite beam. When the through welding procedure is used on site. The orientation of the ribs also implies that there will be little reduction in the resistance of the studs due to the ribs in the concrete slab.3 Decking ribs transverse to the beam 5. Page 29 . as shown in Figure 5. studs may not be welded through more than one sheet and overlapping of sheets is not permitted. The shear connectors may be welded through the decking. Additionally.3.3b) over the top flange of the beam.3a).1 Ribs transverse to the beam The concrete slab in the direction of the beam is not a homogeneous (solid) slab. as only the depth of concrete over the ribs acts in compression.
the top of the stud should extend at least 2 times diameter of the stud above the top of the decking ribs and should have a concrete cover of at least 20mm. After welding.3. Stud diameters up to 19mm are generally used for through deck welding only. unless the studs are located directly over the web.Figure 5. For satisfactory welding.1 Welding and spacing of studs When the decking is continuous and transverse to the beam (Figure 5. Page 30 0 0 0 0 .4. The transverse spacing between studs should not be less than 4 times the diameter of the stud. welding trials shall be performed.3a).3(3)].4 5. For welded studs the upper flange of the steel beam should be clean. the correct placement of studs in relation to the decking rib is of great importance.4 times the diameter of the studs.4 Decking ribs parallel to the beam Detailing Rules for Shear Connectors Welded Through Profiled Steel Decking [6. or 1S m m if ungalvanized. the deck thickness should not exceed 1.4. The longitudinal spacing between studs should not be less than 5 times the stud diameter and not greater than six times the overall slab depth nor 800mm [6. dry and unpainted.25mm if galvanized. The following limitations should also be observed: 0 The flange thickness of the supporting beams should not be less than 0. The minimum distance between the edge of the stud and the edge of the steel flange is 20mm. In all cases. The most important rules for welded headed studs are repeated here: Welded headed studs are normally between 19mm and 22mm in diameter.4.1] 5.
2 times the stud diameter. in pairs in every rib. studs can be ‘staggered’ so that they are attached on each side of the stiffener in adjacent ribs.4. At discontinuities in the decking. If the decking is considered to act as transverse reinforcement this may mean placing studs in a zigzag pattern along the beam.5. Some modem decks have a central stiffener in the rib which means that it is impossible to attach the stud centrally. or in some cases. In such cases it is recommended that studs are attached to the side of each stiffener closest to the end of the beam shown as the favourable side in Figure 5. If more studs are needed than are given by a standard pattern these additional studs should be positioned in equal numbers near the two ends of the span. 5. The reinforcement should be distributed uniformly. Page 31 I . Minimum amounts of transverse reinforcement are required.2 Additional requirements for steel decking Studs must be properly placed in decking ribs. studs should be attached in such a way that both edges of the decking at the discontinuity are properly ‘anchored’. in alternate ribs.5.5).1.002 times the concrete section above the ribs. A summary of these rules are shown in Figure 5 . The minimum amount is 0. Similar rules may be established for other forms of shear connectors such as shotfired coldformed angles. The decking is not allowed to participate as transverse reinforcement unless there is an effective means of transferring tension into the slab. e e 0 The minimum distance of the centre of the stud to the edge of the decking is defined in EC4 7. Alternatively. This means that a change in location at midspan is needed. as shown in Figure 5.5. Where the decking is continuous.3.4(3) as 2.6. This is not necessarily the case if the ribs are parallel to the beam because of overlaps in the sheeting.5 Minimum Transverse Reinforcement Transverse reinforcement must be provided in the slab to ensure that longitudinal shearing failure or splitting does not occur before the failure of the composite beam itself (see Section 6. the decking is effective in transferring tension and can act as transverse reinforcement. and listed below: e Studs are usually attached in every decking rib. 5 . such as by throughdeck welding of the shear connectors.
unfavourable side favourable side i beam stiffener end of s p a n 1 22 rshear 0 2 connector .shear connector IFigure 5. 2 2.5 Detailing of shear connectors in decks with a central stiffener O I Page 32 .2d beam =butt joint stiffener t .
The treatment is largely restricted to Class 1 and Class 2 sections which are capable of developing their plastic moment of resistance without local buckling problems. Partially encased beams are also included.4] resistance to longitudinal shear [6] resistance to lateraltorsional buckling [4.6.2 Verification of composite beams [4.1.5) resistance to shear buckling [4.1. 1 shows typical crosssections. The majority of composite beams encountered in practice are thereby covered.6] in the case of continuous span beams or cantilevers (see Section 6. Continuous composite beams may be analysed in all cases by elastic global analysis.7]. 6.4] and web crippling [4.1] The following clauses outline the design rules for composite beams.1 General [4. 6.1 partially encasedA steel sections: either rolled or welded Typical crosssections of composite beams Figure 6 .1 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE OF COMPOSITE BEAMS Basis of Design of Composite Beams 6.1. Page 33 e 0 0 1 . and Class 1 beams by plastic hinge analysis. transverse reinforcement headed studs  L Figure 6.4. Other combinations between steel sections and slabs are also used. but are not covered in this document. Composite structures and members should be so proportioned as to satisfy the basic design requirements for the ultimate limit state using the appropriate partial safety factors and load combinations.2] Composite beams shall be checked for: 0 resistance of critical cross sections [4.
Page 34 . Critical crosssections are for example the sections I.2 Critical sections for design calculation and related action effects Critical crosssections: 11 1111 111111 Regions: IVIV bending resistance vertical shear resistance bending moment . The effectivebreadth for verification of crosssections should be taken as the midspan value (for sections in positive bending). are summarised below: II!  I! rn! rn! I I Figure 6. or as the value at the support (cantilever). It may be taken as the value at midspan (beam supported at both ends). or as the value at the support (for sections in negative bending). 6.2. I1 and I11 shown in Figure 6.3 Effective width of the concrete flange [4.2] The effective width be.1. for elastic global analvsis may be assumed to be constant over the whole of each span.vertical shear interaction KLI VI1 } longitudinal shear resistance of the shear connectors longitudinal shear resistance of the slab and transverse reinforcement lateral torsional buckling of bottom flange.The possible critical sections to be checked. subject to uniform load.vertical shear interaction has to be considered. and also sections subjected to heavy concentrated loads or reactions. no bending moment . In case of single span beams.2.
The length PO is: 0 equal to the span of simply supported beams the approximate distance between points of zero bending moment in case of continuous composite beams (see Figure 6.'// ' / / /'/ / / Figure 6.3 Effective width of concrete slab.1.'/ .4). be. / / / / /'/ / /'/ .'/ //' / /'/ / .4.4 Length 4.3] 6. 0 // . The effective width on each side of the steel web should be taken as PO /8. but not greater than half the distance to the next adjacent beam web (see Figure 6. Page 35 ~ .1.'/ / .Figure 6.3).4 Classification of crosssections [4.1 General Composite beams are classified into 4 Classes depending on the local buckling behaviour of the steel flange and/or the steel web in compression. for continuous beams 6.
belong to Class 1 independent of the width to thickness ratios of the web and the flanges. A crosssection is classified according to the least favourable class of its steel elements in compression. but have limited rotation capacity. for steel outstand flanges in compression Page 36 . 6.1 Maximum widthtothickness ratios. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. Class 2 (compact) crosssections are those which can develop their plastic moment resistance. 0 Class 3 crosssections are those in which the calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength. Steel webs and flanges in compression are classified according to their width to thickness ratios and stress distributions.The classification system of crosssections of composite beams is as follows: Class 1 (plastic) crosssections are those which can form a plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity for plastic hinge analysis. Under certain circumstances the classification can be upgraded (refer to Section 6. according to the following Tables 6. where the plastic neutral axis lies in the concrete or in the steel flange. e Class 3 and 4 crosssections are not further considered in this document.2 Flanges Flanges in compression rolled I I welded I I I I Steel Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 I I E I I 0.1.4 and to EC4). Crosssections under positive bending. Class 4 crosssections are those in which it is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining the moment resistance or compression resistance of the section. The positions of the plastic neutral axes of composite sections should be calculated for the effective crosssection using design values of strengths of materials.4.81 I I 1 1 10E I I 10E I 9E I 9E Table 6.1 to 6. c/t.4.
see Table 6. Other restrictions are given in EC4 [6. 0 To classify steel flanges of HEA sections. if they are partially encased (see Section 6. All IPE. may be assumed to be of Class 1. HEA sections of Class 3 belong to Class 2.1 S I . HEB and HEM sections belong to Class 1 (with regard to their flanges).2 Classification of HEA Sections (based on flange proportions) 0 HEA sections deeper than 450 mm belong to Class 1. which is based on the requirements of Table 6.4) 0 .The following observations may be made concerning rolled sections: 0 The steel compression flange.2. HEA Sections 160 180 200 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 0 Fe 360 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Fe 430 1 2 Fe 510 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 Table 6.1. if properly attached to the concrete flange.4.
The crosssection may then be analysed plastically and the section treated as Class 2 [4.5 Web subject to compression Q = 1. An uncased Class 3 web may be represented by an effective depth of web equivalent to a Class 2 web.d can be used for the classification based on the requirements in Table 6.6.0 Stress distribution Class B d/t I 72 E 1 d/t I33 E when 01 > 0.3.5 €/a Table 6.1. local instability of the steel web is not critical for any IPE or HE profiles.4.3. A Class 3 web that is encased in concrete in accordance with Section 6. Tables 6.1(3)].5. provided that the compression flange is Class 1 or 2.1) when 01 S 0.5: E/CY d/t I36 2 d/t I83 E dlt I38 E when 01 > 0.3 Maximum widthtothickness ratios for steel webs Webs of all IPE and HE sections subject to bending.0 Web subject to bending and compression 0 I O1 I1.4 a .3 Webs Webs: (internal elements perpendicular to axis of bending) Web subject to bending 01 = 0.1) when ~ ~ 01 I 0.5: d/t I396 ~l(1301 .3.1 (6) to (9)] may be assumed to be in Class 2 [4. or bending and compression with a neutral axis characterized by Q I0.5: d/t I41.5: d/t I456 d(1301.4 [4.3.3.3.1(2)]. In case of single span beams under positive bending. Page 38 . belong to Class 1. If the steel web is stressed fully in compression.
Tables 6.4 Classification of steel webs fully in compression (a= l). based on Table 6.3 ~ ~ ~ ~~ IPE Sections 140 160 180 Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 200 220 240 270 300 330 360 2 3 4 Sections smaller than IPE 140 are in Class 1 ~ HEA Sections ~ Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 340 360 400 450 500 550 a00 Sections smaller than HE 340A are in Class 1 Sections smaller than HE 450B are in Class 1 .
5] 6.5.2. The design bending moments shall not exceed the resistance of the composite beam. The verification shall be done at critical crosssections (see section 6.5 end spans do not exceed 115% of the length of the adjacent span: Le I 1. 2 Plastic global analysis [4. the reinforcement in concrete sections under tension fulfils the requirements of high ductility (see Section 4. Rotation capacity is sufficient when the following requirements are met: e the effective crosssections at plastic hinge locations are in Class 1 and.5 Distribution of internal forces and moments in continuous beams [4. Page 40 .66 ILk/Lk+l 5 1. lateral torsional buckling does not occur.1(3)]: e e e e the steel crosssection is symmetrical about the plane of its web. sufficient rotation capacity is available. the steel compression flange at a plastic hinge location is laterally restrained. elsewhere.1. provided that the following requirements are met [4.5.HEM Sections 600 650 700 Fe 360 Fe 430 I Fe 510 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 800 900 3 Sections smaller than HE 600M are in Class 1 6.2.2] Plastic global analysis (or plastic hinge analysis) may be used for all continuous beams.5.1 S .2(2)(d)].2.2 or EC2) e e e In case of heavy concentrated loads. all others are in Class 1 or 2 adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 50% of the shorter span: 0.2. refer to EC4 [4. using factored loads. Class 2 sections are only permitted where no rotation capacity is required. 6.5.1.2).2(2)] [4.15 L.1.1 General Bending moments in composite beams at ultimate limit state (ULS) may be determined by elastic or rigidplastic global analysis.
3] Elastic global analysis is based on a linear stressstrain relationship [4.6.1. 0 uncracked section method.5 cracked Definition of “uncracked” and “cracked” sections for elastic global analysis Method 2 is more suitable for computer analysis.5.3 Elastic global analysis [4.5.5). I. The elastic bending moments for a continuous composite beam of uniform depth within each span may be modified by reducing maximum negative moments by amounts not exceeding the percentage of Table 6. I2 is the cracked second moment of area which is less than the uncracked value. due to cracking of concrete in negative moment regions and yielding of steel.5. The resulting positive bending moments are then found by static equilibrium. Loss of stiffness. influences the distribution of bending moments in continuous composite beams. based on midspan effective width ignoring any longitudinal reinforcement (method 1). based on a section in the region of the internal support comprising the steel member together with the effectively anchored reinforcement located within the effective width at the support (method 2). However. Method 1 Method 2 uncracked Figure 6. This method assumes that. this method may be also used at the serviceability limit state to accurately determine the moments in cases of crack control in the slab. cracked section analysis.1].3. Page 41 . No account need be taken of bending moments due to shrinkage.5.. Two methods of elastic global analysis are permitted by EC4 at the ultimate limit state to determine the bending moment distribution: e . Refer to Section 7. the section properties are those of the cracked section under negative moments (see Figure 6.2 for the calculation of these properties. for a length of 15%of the span on each side of the support.
0. Profiled steel decking in compression shall be neglected. $.2.method 1 For “cracked” elastic analysis .6 Fa ZC Neutral axis in the concreteflange: plastic stress distribution = A.1.ff .2 Positive moment resistance [4. reduces the area of concrete that may resist compression forces.5 Limits to redistribution of negative moments at supports.6 to 6. when running transverse to the main span..2. 6. The calculation method for MpI. /ya = Fa /(b. .1 General The design bending resistance may be determined by plastic theory.Rd(see Figures 6.SS fck IT h c Figure 6.2(2)] The following assumptions shall be made in the calculation of MR.85 fck /yc ) Ih.. reinforcement in compression in a concrete slab may be neglected. = Mpl. f. The presence of profiled steel decking. The effective areas of longitudinal reinforcement in tension and in compression are stressed to their design yield strength f& /ysin tension or compression.Rd depends on the location of the plastic neutral axis.Class of crosssection in negative moment region For “uncracked” elastic analysis .method 2 1 40 25 2 30 15 Table 6. in terms of the maximum percentage of the initial bending moment to be reduced 6. but only where the effective composite section is in Class 1 or Class 2.4. Three cases to be considered for doubly symmetric sections are as follows: Case 1 Neutral axis in the concrete flange 0. Hence. In all cases Msd IMpf. .Rd for adequate design. which is the depth of concrete flange above upper flange of profiled decking of depth. Alternatively.2 Resistance of CrossSections 6.8). the maximum possible depth of concrete in compression is h.
 Z.8 Neutral axis in the web: plastic stress distribution For the neutral axis to lie in the web: F. . .Fc/(2 t . fy/ya) zcw Neutral axis depth: = h. < F. 3. Case 3 2 : Fa ha /2 + F. = d t Taking moments about the top flange. ZC + z.. fy /ya where F. Page 43 . /2) Neutral axis in the steel flange 1 b e h.. (2h.. it follows that the moment resistance is: M. . .Mp. be.h. )/2 Neutral axis in the web Figure 6.7 F C Neutral axis in the steel flange: plastic stress distribution = h. the depth of web in compression: = 0. . 0. .. > F. + h. h. Hence. ..Rd = Fa (ha/2 Case 2 + h. f f l U 'a2 Figure 6.5 ha .85 fck /yc For the neutral axis to lie in the flange: Fa > F..
10 Neutral axis in the web: plastic stress distribution For the neutral axis to lie in web: F. 6. Case 5 Neutral axis in steel web for negative bending 1 beff 7 P 7 . > F. .Rd is the plastic moment resistance of the steel section alone. In the calculation of Mpl. < F. 2qf$/la I I I Page 44 Figure 6.where Mapl. a.10).2.3 Negative moment resistance The composite crosssection consists of the steel section together with the effectively anchored reinforcement located within the effective breadth of the concrete flange at the support (see Figures 6. above the top flange of the steel beam.9 Neutral axis in the steel flange: plastic stress distribution (high degree of reinforcement) For the neutral axis to lie in the top flange: Fa > F.Rd two cases have to be considered: Case 4 Neutral axis in steel flange for negative bending + ! Fs Figure 6.9 and 6. The reinforcement is located at height.
A. 5. d/t. A.4. > 124 E ..4..Rd vpj..Rd where V. Therefore.04 ha t...5 Momentshear interaction [4.2. where d/t. the shear buckling resistance can be calculated with the rules given in EC4 r4.(for all IPE and HE profiles. H and C sections loaded parallel to the web. fy /Ya ) 6.. > 69 . . = 1.4.3] Where the vertical shear V S d exceeds half the plastic shear resistance.. may be taken as follows (see EC3. ZC + + Mp].2... Vp1. the shear force resisted by the structural steel section should satisfy: 'Sd vpl. zc. 6. /(2t.2(3)]: e for a vertically unstiffened and uncased web.2 /(4 t. where d / t .2.. according to: Page 45 ..rd for the shear area A. The plastic resistance moment should then be calculated using a reduced design yield strength fy. < 69 E) E. e for an unstiffened web encased in concrete in accordance with Section 6. If necessary.41. (ha/2 + a)  F. Builtup I sections.Rd is the plastic shear resistance given by: = (fy h/3)/ra The shear area A.d.Depth of web in tension: = ha/2 .Rd + F. = d t.2(2)] The contribution of the concrete slab to the resistance to vertical shear is normally neglected. fy /ya ) ZCW Neutral axis depth: = hc h.4. In addition.6): Rolled I.4.2. allowance shall be made for its effect on the resistance moment at the same cross section.4. the shear buckling resistance of a steel web shall be checked in the following cases [4.F.Rd = Mapl.4 Vertical shear [4..].
2.11 Normal stress distribution for MV interaction in negative bending The following interaction criterion. Mf.3 Shear Connection [6] 6.2 the minimum degree of shear connection (see Figure 6. should be satisfied: where: MRd is the design moment resistance as given in Sections 6.14).1 General Shear connectors and transverse reinforcement shall be provided throughout the length of the beam to transmit the longitudinal shear force between the concrete slab and the steel beam at the ultimate limit state.2. ignoring the effect of natural bond between the materials.Figure 6.3. based on Figure 6. Headed studs may be considered as ductile i f height after welding. .3. is the design plastic moment resistance of the crosssection consisting of the flanges only. h 2 4d 16 mm 5 d 5 22 mm and N/N.1 1. Ductile connectors are those with sufficient deformation capacity to justify the assumption of ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connection in the structure.Rd 6.2 and 6.
the lower value should therefore be used in design.1] 6.9) (106.1) (70.. Equation (1) f.8 f. = 0.)/?.6 90.1 51.2. .6) (75.29 a d 2 /E.6 Design resistance PRd[kNl of stud connectors with h/d > 4 The value in brackets denote values which exceed those given by Equation (1).5.1 Solid slabs The design shear resistance of a welded headed stud (as shown in Figure 4.5) with a normal weld collar should be determined from the smaller of P.7 64. (7rd2/4)lyv Equation (1) Equation (2) or P.3.2 [(h/d) + 11 Q = 1 for 3 I h/d I4.3.6 57. = 0. The resulting design resistances of stud connectors obtained from equations (1) and (2) are presented in Table 6.. = Diameter d [mml 22 19 16 450 Equation (2) (01 = 1. for h/d > 4. The partial safety factor yv is given as 1.2 Resistance of shear connectors [6.9 110.0) 500 C 25/30 C 30/37 C 35/45 C 40/50 C 45/55 109. = fck Em Q 0.9 121. is the mean value of the secant modulus of the concrete in accordance with Table 4.4 81.3 98.3.6) Table 6.0 82. is the characteristic cylinder strength of the concrete at the age considered.1 58.3 (132.25 in Table 4.3) (142.1 73. whichever is smaller...9) (99.7 64.6 90.5) ~ fU is the specified ultimate tensile strength of the material of the stud but not greater than 500 N/mm2. The commonly specified strength is 450 N/mm2.2.6 below.. where d and h are the diameter and height of the stud respectively (see Figure 4.2 121.2.6.
the design shear resistance should be taken as their resistance in a solid slab (calculated as given above except that fu should not be taken as greater than 450 Nlmm’) multiplied by the reduction factor given by the following expression: where N.3.4. The design shear resistance should be taken as their resistance in a solid slab.5 times the plastic resistance moment of the steel member alone. and the plastic resistance moment of the composite section does not exceed 2. the studs are located within a region of concrete that has the shape of a haunch.3..0 when N.3 Spacing of shear connectors [6.0 where h Ihp + 75 Figure 6. should not be taken greater than 1.8 when N.. between adjacent critical crosssections (see Section 6.4. 8 8 Detailing rules for placement of studs are given in Section 5.4] Stud connectors may be spaced uniformly over a length L. . For studs welded through the steel decking. satisfies the limits for partial shear connection given in Section 6.6.1.2.6 ..2 Influence of shape of profiled steel decking [6. and not greater than 0.3. not to exceed 2 in computations. = 1.3] Where profiled steel decking with ribs parallel to the supporting beam is used. . [(h/%  l)] 5 1. /h. is the number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection. not exceeding 85 mm and a width bo not less than h.2) provided that: 8 all critical sections in the span considered are in Class 1 or Class 2 N/N.3] [6. 1 2.. k..3. multiplied . b. when L is replaced by L.2.12 Beams with steel decking ribs parallel to the beam Where studs of diameter not exceeding 20 mm are placed in ribs transverse to the supporting beam with a height h.1. given by the following expression: by the reduction factor k kp = 0. 6.
Figure 6. = F.1.13 for a particular case of the positions of the plastic neutral axes in negative and positive bending. + (A.4. fsk )/ys where A.1(2)] For full shear connection. to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and the end support should be: V. = F.3.f = o*8zfck hc /Yc whichever is the smaller.3. b. This calculation is illustrated in Figure 6.13 as follows: V.2. Continuous span beams [6.1 Longitudinal shear force Full shear connection r6.6. to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and an intermediate support shall be calculated according to Figure 6.13(a) Moments in continuous beam Page 49 . f bya F. the total design longitudinal shear V... where or FCf= A. is the effective area of longitudinal slab reinforcement.1.1. Single span beams [6.2.2.4 6.13 a. the total design longitudinal shear V.1(1)] For full shear connection.
the number of shear connectors in the zone under consideration is: PRd takes into account the influence of the shape of the profiled sheeting.2.2 Partial shear connection with ductile shear connectors [6.3.1.2..(b) Internal force distribution Calculation of the longitudinal shear force in continuous beam Figure 6. 6. Ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors may be assumed if a minimum degree of shear connection is provided (see Figure 6.4.14. Page 50 . where L is the beam span (metres)). divided by the design resistance of a connector.3. PRd. as given in Section 6.13 The number of shear connectors for full shear connection shall be at least equal to the design longitudinal shear force V.2] Partial shear connection may be used if all crosssections are in Class 1 or 2. Therefore.2.
A. 2 2 and h. where N Nf bottom flange area = number of shear connectors = number of shear connectors for full shear connection. /h. = A.4.14. = Ab where A. = top flange area and In all cases.14 Minimum degree of shear connection The minimum degree of shear connection is defined by the following equations: (a) (b) (c) 0. = (see further restrictions) where A.14) may be used when the following conditions are satisfied: e e e e e a single. Equation (c) (line c in Figure 6. with a height after welding of not less than 76 mm rolled I or H sections has equal flanges the concrete slab is composite with sheeting that spans perpendicular to the beams and is continuous across it. N/Nf 2 0. Page 51 .03 L N/N.9y// 0 ' 0 / / ' I 1 I I I & I I  I ' I I I I I I I I 0 I 5 I I 10 15 20 I 25  Liml Figure 6. deck profile with b.4 N/Nf 2 0.0.03 L N/Nf I0.25 4.. 5 60 mm linear interaction method is used (see following) The general method for other cases is line b in Figure 6.04 L + where 3At 2 Ab where A. 1 0. centrally placed 19 mm diameter stud per trough.
The relationship is defined by the curve ABC in Figure 6.Rd MSd is the design moment resistance of the structural steel section.Rd Fcf Mpl. knowing the moment resistances of the steel beam and the composite section for full shear connection. Equilibrium equations can be established explicitly.Rd.2.Rd the longitudinal shear force required for full shear connection. the linear interaction method may be used with a less severe restriction on the minimum degree of shear connection.The moment resistance of a composite beam designed for partial shear connection may be determined by either of the following methods: 1. The relationship is defined by the line AC in Figure 6. and MSd for partial shear connection The force transferred by the shear connectors. Fc. but is often preferred because it is a simple method of determining the moment resistance.O N FC or Fcf Nf Figure 6. Rd I I. and Msd I Mpl.o Mpl.15 Relation between F.15.15. 2. Because it is a more conservative treatment of partial shear connection. Method 2 is more conservative. In Method 1 the force transferred to the concrete is determined by the longitudinal resistance of the shear connectors.Mapl.Rd . I. Stress block (or equilibrium) method Linear interaction method.2. Fc. as determined for full shear connection. in a similar manner to Section 6. in the linear interaction method is: F C  . a? f B d P F c f equilibrium method / / linear interaction method M p l . Page 52 . is where Mapl.Mapl.Rd  % .
then the maximum value of the reduced moment resistance may be calculated using the same linear interaction equation.1 Longitudinal shear in the slab [6..3. which is the applied moment. V.1] The design longitudinal shear per unit length for any potential surface of longitudinal shear failure within the slab. 6. Figure 6. I f F. VSd. can be determined from Figure 6. VRd.5.The design longitudinal shear force.6. shall not exceed the design resistance to longitudinal shear. Page 53 . This reduced moment resistance. F. MRd. should be not less than Msd.16. of the shear surface considered. = force transferred by shear connectors = C PRd and N S Nf Fa = axial resistance of steel section = A. as illustrated in Figure 6. VSd should be determined in accordance with Section 6. fy /ya The interaction between moment and shear is covered in Section 6.3.13 with FCf replaced by the force transferred by the shear connectors. It follows that: where F.5 Transverse reinforcement 6. is determined for a known distribution of shear connectors.4 and be consistent with the design of the shear connectors at the ultimate limit state.5.3.16 Reduced bending moment resistance of crosssections A good approximation to the equilibrium method can be obtained by considering the momentaxial force interaction for an I section.2.
Potential failure surfaces are shown in Figure 6.17. Top and bottom reinforcement in the slab may be considered to be effective. Where steel decking is continuous over the beam, or is effectively anchored by shear connectors, it may also be considered to act as transverse reinforcement. Failure surface aa controls in these cases. Failure surface bb is not considered critical in EC4 in cases where steel decking is used. In determining VSd, account may be taken of the variation of longitudinal shear across the width of the concrete flange. Longitudinal shear is considered to be transferred uniformly by the shear connectors.
Figure 6.17 Typical potential surfaces of shear failure (examples)
6.3.5.2 Design resistance to longitudinal shear [6.6.2(1) to (5)]
The design resistance of the concrete flange (shear planes aa illustrated in Figure 6.17) shall be determined in accordance with the principles in Clause 4.3.2.5 of EC2. Profiled steel sheeting with ribs transverse to the steel beam may be assumed to contribute to resistance to longitudinal shear, provided it is continuous across the top flange of the steel beam or if it is welded to the steel beam by stud shear connectors. In the absence of a more accurate calculation the design resistance of any surface of potential shear failure in the flange or a haunch should be determined from:
whichever is smaller, where
7Rd
is the basic shear strength to be taken as 0.25 fctk0.05 /yc, (see Table 6.7)
Concrete strength
rRd
1c1c1c1
20125 0.25 25/30 0.30 30/37 0.33
35/45 0.37
J*
c
4050
45/55
50/60
Table 6.7 Basic shear strength 7Rd (in N / I I U ~ ~ )
rl rl
= 1 for normalweight concrete, = 0.3 0.7 (p/24) for lightweightaggregate concrete of unit weight p in
+
w/m3,
A,,
is the mean crosssectional area per unit length of beam of the concrete shear surface under consideration,
A,
is the sum of the crosssectional areas of transverse reinforcement (assumed to the perpendicular to the beam) per unit length of beam crossing the shear surface under consideration (Figure 6.17) including any reinforcement provided for bending of the slab,
is the contribution of the steel decking, if applicable, as given in 6.3.5.3.
Vpd
For a ribbed slab the area of concrete shear surface A,, should be determined taking into account of the effect of the ribs. Where the ribs run transverse to the span of the beam, the concrete within the depth of the ribs may be included in the value of A,, but for parallel ribs it should not be included in A,,. These cases are illustrated in Figure 6.17. Transverse reinforcement considered to resist longitudinal shear shall be anchored so as to develop its yield strength in accordance with EC2. At edge beams, anchorage may be provided by means of Ubars looped around the shear connectors.
6.3.5.3 Contribution o,f profiled steel decking as transverse reinforcement [6.6.3(1) to (2)]
Where the profiled steel sheets are continuous across the top flange of the steel beam, the contribution of the decking with ribs transverse to the beam may be taken as:
'pd
Vpd
fYP
YPP
where
is per unit length of the beam for each intersection of the shear surface by the sheeting,
A, is the crosssectional area of the profiled steel decking per unit length of the beam, and fyp is its yield strength, given in N/mm2.
Page 55
Where the decking with ribs transverse to the beam is discontinuous across the top flange of the steel beam, and stud shear connectors are welded to the steel beam directly through the decking, the contribution of the decking should be taken as:
VPd
'pb,Rd 
S
but
I *P
fYP Yap
where
Ppb,Rd
is the design resistance of a headed stud against tearing through the steel sheet [7.6.1.4]) and
s
is the spacing centretocentre of the studs along the beam.
6.4
Partially Encased Beams
A typical partially encased composite beam is shown in Figure 6.18. The partial
encasement provides fire protection to the steel beam.
Figure 6.18 Reauiremen ts:
Crosssection of partially encased beam
Concrete encasement the webs of composite beams shall be [4.3.1(6) to (S)]:
0
reinforced by longitudinal bars and stirrups, and/or welded mesh [4.3.1(7)] mechanically connected to the web by stud connectors, welded bars, or bars through holes capable of preventing buckling of the web and of any part of the compression flange towards the web.
0
0
Influence of encasement:
0
Substantial increase in fire resistance is possible (reference should be made to EC4 Part 1.2);
2(3)].2.2].5 [4.3. see Table 6.* A web in Class 3 may be represented by an effective web of the same cross section in Class 2 [4.8.2(m)] by more than 200 mm [4.2. verification of lateral torsional buckling is not necessary provided the conditions in EC4.6. 6.6.3. e No application rules are given for the contribution of concrete encasement of a steel web to resistance in bending and vertical shear.2] and lateraltorsional buckling [4.6.2 (a) to (k)] are satisfied.2).2]. the shear buckling resistance for an unstiffened and encased web shall be verified (by testing).3.4.6] The concrete slab may usually be assumed to prevent the upper flange of the steel section (connected to the concrete part) from moving laterally.1(2)].4 [4.1] may be assumed to contribute to resistance to lateraltorsional buckling [4. shear buckling [4.2.3].6. (see Section 6. its length does not exceed 15% of the adjacent span. No direct calculation for the lateral stability of a composite beam is necessary when the following conditions are satisfied: adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 20% of the shorter span or where there is a cantilever.4 and 6. However. The tendency of the lower flange to buckle laterally is restrained by the distortional stiffness of the crosssection (inverted Uframe action).6.3. Where the depth h of a partially encased steel member does not exceed the limit given in Section 6. ha Imaximum depth of steel member is as given in Table 6.4. the shear connection in the steelconcrete interface satisfies the requirements of Sections 5.3.8.2].5 LateralTorsional Buckling of Continuous Beams [4. if d/t.5). > 124 E [4. Web encasement may be assumed to contribute to resistance against local buckling [4.3. the loading on each span is uniformly distributed and the design permanent load exceeds 40% of the total load. e the slab proportions are typical of those in general building design (see Section 5. [4. Web encasement in accordance with Section 6. Page 57 . In negative moment regions of continuous composite beams the lower flange is subject to compression.4.
For edge beams.6.l t b . fully anchored top reinforcement is required in the slab [4. In other cases a check for lateral torsional buckling according to EC4 [4. by bracing or transverse members. The data in Table 6. If necessary.8 for IPE sections is also applicable for UB and other equivalent rolled sections. provided the depth/width of the steel section does not exceed 2.6] and [Annex B] is required. Page 58 .2(h)].t I t b Fe 510 Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 Profile IPE HEA Fe 360 Fe 430 600 800 550 700 400 650 800 1o00 750 900 600 850 All HEB sections satisfy the requirements for lateral torsional buckling.75. additional discrete lateral restraints may be provided to the compression flange. for example.
2(2)J 7. but these calculations are outside the scope of the Code (see Section 7.2. or to avoid noticeable deviations of floors or ceilings. Loads to be used at the serviceability limit state are presented in Section 3.1 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES [ 5 ] . Under positive moment the concrete may be assumed to be uncracked. [2. 7.3. cracking of concrete and.1).3. Most designers base assessments at the serviceability limit state on elastic behaviour (with certain modifications for creep and cracking etc). account should be taken of any nonlinear effects due to cracking. 0 0 Deflection limits are not specified in EC4.3 [2. Normally unfactored loads are used. To avoid consideration of postelastic effects.1 Second moment of area Deflections are calculated knowing the second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic properties (see Figure 7. Floor vibrations may be important in long span applications.2.1 and 7. the influence of the connections on the deflection of simply supported beams has been neglected. account is taken of plasticity in the support region of continuous beams. and the second moment of area of the composite section (expressed as a transformed steel section) is: .2 Calciilation of deflections [5.4] General Criteria The serviceability requirements for composite beams concern the control of deflections.4]. Deflections are important in order to prevent cracking or deformation of the partitions and cladding. In order to calculate serviceability effects. limits are often placed on the stresses existing in beams at the serviceability limit state. vibration response. No stress limitations are made in Eurocode 4 because: 0 postelastic effects in the mid span region are likely to be small and have little influence on deflections. Reference is made to Eurocode 3 (see Tables 7. 7.3. in some cases.2) for limits on deflections due to permanent and variable loads. steel yielding etc.7.3).
Table 7.1 Vertical deflections to be considered Conditions Limits ~mllx * 62 roofs generally 1/200 1/250 1/250 1/300 1/250 1/300 roofs frequently carrying personnel other than for maintenance floors generally floors and roofs supporting brittle finish or nonflexible partitions floors supporting columns (unless the deflection has been included in the global analysis for the ultimate limit state) 1/250 1/350 1/400 1/500 1/250 * where.I state 0 . . .2 Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections .6 = sagging in the final state relative to the straight line joining the supports. 6. can impair the appearance of the building For cantilever: L = twice cantilever span Table 7. 6 ..a . = precamber (hogging) of the beam in the unloaded state (state 0) = dueto G (variation of the deflection of the beam due to the permanent loads) (state 1) = due to Q (variation of the deflection of the beam due to the variable loading) (state 2) 6..
2(3)].2 for all IPE and HE sections (up to 600mm deep) for typical slab depth. The ratio Ic!Ia therefore defines the improvement in the stiffness of the composite section relative to the steel section. is the ratio of the crosssectional area of reinforcement. Typically.2. is the same as used at the ultimate limit state see Section 6. Note: other terms are as defined previously.2.0.. relative to the area of the concrete section (beffhc). Assuming that the reinforcement is placed at midheight of the slab above the sheeting. is the ratio of the elastic modulus of steel to the timedependent elastic modulus of concrete (see Section 4. A. n. which causes a reduction in the stiffness of the concrete.1. The modular ratio.2. Where it is necessary to know the ‘cracked’ second moment of area under negative moment.1). .2 Modular ratio r3.2.” where:  A.3 [5. this formula is: 4. or near the base of the slab.2. A. leading to a modulus ratio of approximately 20 for long term (permanent) loading in an internal environment. A. within the effective’breadthof the slab to the crosssectional area of the beam. This ratio is presented in Section 11. is the second moment of area of the steel section I. The elastic modulus under long term loads is affected by creep. or in crack control calculations (see Section 7.where: n r is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete (see Section 7.1. The effective slab width.5 for short term (variable) loading. It is not usually necessary to calculate the ‘cracked’ second moment of area under positive moment as the elastic neutral axis will normally lie in the steel beam. indicating that one of the main benefits of composite action is in reduction of deflections.5...2.1.4. 7. Typically. + ha)? + ‘a 4 (1 +rs) r.3). Ic/Iais in the range of 2.4).5 to 4. This formula may be used in establishing the moments in elastic global analysis (method 2 in Section 6.21 The values of elastic modulus of concrete under short term loads are given in Table 4. (hc+2h.2) taking into account creep is the ratio of the crosssectional area of the steel section. The elastic modulus of concrete for long term (permanent) loads is taken as onethird of the short term value. the modular ratio for normal weight concrete is 6. a simple formula may be derived from Figure 7. be.
. filed steel shee   IEa strain CROSSSECTION stress ELASTIC STRESSES Figure 7.b e Er  I.2: Elastic analysis of composite beam under negative moment Page 62 ...1: Elastic analysis of composite beam under positive moment I ES / t OS 7 . \ L \ t \ I Ze 11 IT   .II I. Ea oa strain stress Figure 7.
taken as 0.2(6)] Deflections increase due to the effects of slip in the shear connectors. these deflections will only be significant for spans greater than 12m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres. 2(1 +nr) I.2.1 6 . due to a free shrinkage strain. E.5 in unpropped construction [5.3 Influence of partial shear connection [5. This value may be taken as twice the short term modular ratio (ie.1 + c 6 . 7.5 for propped construction. For cases of partial shear connection using headed stud shear connectors. + h. is: ~ K.4 Shrinkage induced deflections [3.2. a representative modular ratio is usually appropriate for calculation of imposed load deflection. surveys have shown that the proportions of variable and permanent imposed loads rarely exceed 3: 1. In practice. These effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear connection. Although separate deflection calculations may be needed for the variable and permanent deflections. K. is the degree of shear connection at the ultimate limit state is the deflection of the composite beam with full shear connection is the deflection of the steel beam under the same loads is a coefficient.For building of normal usage. the deflection. = (h 2hJ A.3 for unpropped construction and 0. approximately 13) for buildings of normal usage. This is because of beneficial effects that are ignored in calculating deflections making the above equation too conservative in many cases. 6 . and when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds 400 x 106 [5. is increased according to: a .1. An additional simplification is that slip effects can usually be ignored when N/Nf 1 0. 1 N Nf 6 . 6 . 6.2(9)].2(5)]. + Page 63 .3] EC4 states that shrinkage deflections need only be calculated for simply supported beams when the span: depth ratio of the beam exceeds 20. The curvature. . ~ 7. es.. where: N/N. C The difference between these coefficients arises from the higher force in the shear connectors at serviceability in propped construction.2.2.2.
which is the normal design case. This factor is given in EC4 [5.6 due to concrete cracking. a more precise method is to use the ‘cracked section’ analysis model of elastic global analysis described in Section 6.II$0. This may be taken into account by calculating the second moment of area of the cracked section under negative moment (ignoring the concrete). This method may be used where the difference in adjacent spans is less than 25 %.5 in order to determine the negative moments directly.5 for central point load M Oand 6 .5 Continuous beam [5.125 K.6 for uniform load 0. To take account of this effect the negative moments may be further reduced. where load sufficient to cause yielding is applied to the hardened section. which is applicable where there is minimum reinforcement in the slab. as influenced by the support moments.2. In continuous beams. = 0. the final negative moment may be conservatively taken as 0. . there is a possibility of yielding in the negative moment region.7. In reality. Together with the minimum factor of 0. this reduction is a function of the moment resistance of the composite section under negative and positive moment. A conservative way of taking this into account is to multiply the ‘elastic’ negative moments at the supports by a further reduction factor. No further reduction in negative moments should be made in this case. may be calculated from: where: C = 0.42 times the elastic moment based on uncracked analysis.1. and I.n is the modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage calculations (n = 20). are the midspan moment and deflection of the equivalent simplysupported beam and M. are the negative moments at the supports (for the same loading condition).2(8)]as 0. reduced Tor cracking and yielding as noted above.2.3Ftimes the negative moment at the serviceability limit state based on an analysis of the uncracked section. The ne ative moment at the supports is assumed to vary as a reduction factor of (I.2. The lower limit to this reduction factor on negative moment is 0. Alternatively.6.2(7)] The deflection of a continuous beam is modified by the influence of cracking in the negative moment region. where I. The midspan deflection of a beam. 7. L2 This deflection formula ignores continuity effects at the supports and probably overestimates shrinkage deflections by a considerable margin. is the cracked second moment of area.and M. The deflection due to this curvature is: 6 . is the uncracked.
9) is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in tensile strength of concrete (k = 0.3] It is necessary to control cracking of concrete only in cases where the proper functioning of the structure or its appearance would be impaired.1(1)] This section is included because a check on the potential vibration response may be necessary for long span beams designed for light imposed loads. A value of 3N/mm2 is the fct us is the maximum permitted stress in the reinforcement (see Table 5. Where it is necessary to control cracking. The second moment of area of the section is based on the uncracked value. Internally within buildings. or 3 cycles/sec for car parks.A C fCt r5. k is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section: (k. Page 65 . 7. A simple measure of the natural frequency of a beam is: f = 18/@sw where as.As an approximation. This may be reduced to 4/384 for end spans.. f. minimum adopted. p. = 0.3 Vibration Checks [5. is proposed as 4 cycledsec for most building applications except where there is vibrating machinery. The limit may be raised to 5 cycles/sec for special buildings such as sports halls. the amount of reinforcement should exceed a minimum value in order to avoid the presence of large cracks in the negative moment region. A minimum limit on natural frequency. is given by: p = AS . durability is not affected by cracking. Similarly when raised floors are used. cracking is not visually important. a deflection coefficient of 3/384 is usually appropriate for determining the deflection of a continuous composite beam subject to uniform loading on equal adjacent spans.3.4 Crack Control [5. is the instantaneous deflection (mm) caused by reapplication of the self weight of the floor and beam to the composite member.8) is the effective tensile strength of concrete.k.21 US where: k.k. This minimum percentage.2 of EC4). 7.
An additional criterion is that the bars should be of small diameter and should be spaced relatively closely together in order to be more effective in crack control. I u s crack widths in concrete wk = 0..6% which is well in excess of the minimum of 0. these bars need only be placed in the negative moment region of the beams or slabs.3 m m N/mm2 I I 320 360 400 450 I II II 12 10 22 8 6 I 18 14 17 Table 7. This reinforcement may also act as fire reinforcement or transverse reinforcement.2% necessary in unpropped construction for shrinkage control and transverse load distribution. However.3 Maximum bar diameters (mm) for different reinforcement stresses and crack widths at the serviceability limit state Page 66 .clause 5.3.3 as a function of the reinforcement stress. U. If crack control is necessary.4 to 0.A typical value of p is 0.4. Maximum bar diameters are given in Table 7. more information is given in EC4. w. and maximum crack width.
T ? ez h hc AY b. The encased composite column is encountered frequently in building construction.8. lb) are easier to construct and provide free structural steel surfaces for later welding or attachments. I4. lc and d).a and b) or concrete filled steel sections (Figures 8. Where a hollow steel section is used with an internal filling of concrete. Partially encased columns (Figure 8.1 Types of crosssections of composite columns I Page 67 . the effect of confinement leads to an additional increase in the load bearing resistance. For both types of columns fire resistance can be enhanced by additional reinforcement.1 COMPOSITE COLUMNS Introduction Composite columns are of two main types: totally or partially concrete encased steel sections (Figures 8. For short circular columns. ez  7 h=hc i 7 Figure 8. the profile provides formwork for the concrete. often because the concrete encasement also provides sufficient fire protection. Y a. tb = b c .1. 8.
It is based on assumptions given below and it adopts the European buckling curves for steel columns as the basic design curves for composite columns.2 Design Method 8.4] It is also assumed that all the material strengths are attained without any local buckling of the steel parts of the cross section.1).2] has to be applied.3. The limits of applicability of the simplified method are given in Section 8.8.13 Both approaches for the design of composite columns are based on the following main assumptions. 0 a 8. It ensures that for the most unfavourable combinations of actions at the ultimate limit state.2 Design assumptions E4.8.2. Page 68 . the maximum widthtothickness ratios for the steel parts in compression have to satisfy the following values (for notations.1 General In EC4 two methods of design are given. plane sections remain plane. 0 full interaction between concrete and steel up to the point of collapse. Numerical methods of analysis are necessary for verification using this method. in N/mm2) Table 8.2. 8.2. the general method in EC4 [4.2.8. a 0 0 concrete filled circular hollow sections concrete filled rectangular hollow sections partly encased Isections d/t I90 e2 b/t I52 E b/$ I44 E where e  1235 f" (f. proper account must be taken of the steel and concrete stressstrain curves. The second method . 0 allowances must be made for imperfections which are consistent with those adopted for assessing the strength of bare steel columns.3. see Figure 8.presented in the following pages .is a simplified one. which is general.5.1 gives the maximum widthtothickness ratios for steel sections. takes account of second order effects including imperfections. permitting design without the aid of a computer.8.. instability does not occur and that the resistance of individual crosssections subjected to bending and longitudinal forces is not exceeded. To prevent premature buckling. The first one.3 Local buckling [4. When the limits are not fulfilled.
6 N/mm2 0. special methods of analyses should be applied.2. 8.6] Internal forces and moments applied from members connected to the ends of a column length have to be distributed between the steel and concrete components of the column. The variation of stresses in the concrete member between two critical sections can be used for the determination of bond stresses. As the natural bond between steel profile and concrete is uncertain.4 N/mm2 0.2.Type of cross section (Figure 8. e e a for totally concrete encased sections for concrete filled sections for flanges in partially concrete encased sections according to Figure 8.2 N/mm2 0 0.lb 0.8.71. the design shear resistance due to bond may not exceed the following values r4. The shkar resistance is provided by bond stresses and friction at the interface. Therefore the minimum concrete cover c. No verification for local buckling is needed for totally encased sections but a sufficient cover must be provided in order to prevent premature spalling of the concrete. may not be less than 40mm or 116 of the width of the flange of the steel column.4 Shear between the steel and concrete components [4. . lb for the webs in partially concrete encased sections according to Figure 8.0 N/mm2 An exact determination of bond stresses between structural steel and concrete requires extensive calculation. Stresses may be determined in a simplified way either according to elastic theory or from the plastic resistance of the cross section.1 Limiting widthtothickness ratios to avoid local buckling If the maximum widthtothickness ratios are exceeded. so that no significant slip occurs. by considering the shear resistance at the interface between steel and concrete.1) Concrete filled circular hollow section (d/t) Concrete filled rectangular hollow section Nominal steel grade Fe 360 Fe 430 77 48 41 Fe 510 90 52 60 42 36 (W Partly encased Isection (b/tf) 44 Table 8.8. or by mechanical shear connection.2.
The development of these hoop tensile forces in the tube combined with the compressive axial forces in the steel shell lowers the. are the crosssectional areas of the structural steel.3. the concrete and the reinforcement.8. YC and f& and 7s e ar = 1 = 0. as follows: e A. respectively are the characteristic strengths of the above components are partial safety factors at the ultimate state (ya = 1.5 and ys = 1. It is important to note. 8. 8.2 Concrete filled circular hollow sections After a certain stage of loading of a concretefilled circular hollow steel section.3. yc = 1. effective plastic resistance of the steel section in accordance with the von Mises failure criteria..15) for concrete filled sections for all other cases.85 6 is the steel contribution factor= (A. concrete filled rectangular hollow steel sections). e fy.3 Simplified Method of Design 8. and A. however.3] In dealing with axially loaded columns it is important to differentiate between these columns whose strength is augmented by triaxial containment of concrete (concrete filled circular hollow steel sections) and those where no such action occurs (totally or partially encased rolled sections.3.1.1.2 I6 I0.9 8.10. On the other hand the increase in concrete strength over the normal unconfined cylinder strength more than offsets any reduction in the resistance of the steel with the result that such columns show an enhanced strength. A.1 Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular hollow steel sections The plastic resistance of the cross section is given simply by the sum of the components. it must be ensured that after a certain introduction length the individual components of the cross section are loaded according to their resistance. Consequently this effect may only be Page 70 .1 Resistance of crosssections to axial loads [4. the Poisson’s expansion of the concrete exceeds that of the steel and from that point the concrete is triaxially contained by the radial forces associated with the development of hoop tension in the steel section. fy/ya)/Npl.Rd and 0.3. that the effects of triaxial containment tend to diminish as the column length increases. The introduction length for the shear force should not be assumed to exceed twice the smaller of the two cross section dimensions.If loads are introduced into the column. fck ’?a. so that no significant slip occurs between these parts.
considergd up to a relative slenderness X 5 0.5. For most practical columns the value of X = 0.5 corresponds to a length to diameter ratio (P/d) of approximately 12. In addition the eccentricity of the normal force (e) may not exceed the value d/10, d being the outer diameter of the circular hollow steel section. The eccentricity, e, is defined by: e


Mrnax,Sd NSd
where
Mrnax,Sd NSd
is the maximum design moment is the design axial force.
I
The plastic resistance of the cross section of a concretefilled circular hollol section is given by:
e
t is the wall thickness of the steel tube
e
92 = 920
+ (1  920) d
18.5 (3
1O e
e
e
'vl0 = 4.9 qz0 = 0.25
x + 17 x'
and qlo 2 0 and
920 I
+ 2x)
1.0
When the relative slenderness h exceeds the value 0.5 or the eccentricity e exceeds d/10, then q l = 0 and q2 = 1.0 are used (ie. no account is taken of the benefits of confinement). 8.3.2 Resistance of members to axial loads [4.8.3.8]
A composite column has a sufficient compression resistance, if for both axes of bending:
where
NpI,Rd
is the cross section resistance in accordance with Sections 8.3.1.1 or 8.3.1.2.
Page 71
X
is the reduction factor for the relevznt buckling mode given in terms of the relevant relative slenderness h and the relevant buckling curve. Values of the reduction factor for the appropriate slenderness may be obtained from Table 8.3. Otherwise, it may be determined from:
where
Q!
+ = 0.5 [l +
Q!
(i  0.2) + i2]
is an imperfection factor corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve and is given in Table 8.2.
I Imperfection factor cx
Table 8.2
I
0.21
I
0.34
(Y
I
0.49
I
Values of imperfection factor
h is the relative slenderness for the plane of bending considered, and is:
(EI),
is the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the cross section given by:
(EI), = E, I,
+ 0.8 E,,
I,
+ E, I,
I,, I, and I,
are the second moments of the area of structural steel, concrete and reinforcement for the buckling axis considered are the moduli of elasticity of structural steel and reinforcement
Ea, Es
Ecd = E,,/y, and yc = 1.35, where E,, is the secant modulus of elasticity of the concrete given in Table 4.2.
P
is the buckling length of the column.
Page 72
Relative slenderness

Concretetilled hollowsection
a
1.oooo 0.9775 0.9528 0.9243 0.8900 0.8477 0.7957 0.7339 0.6656 0.5960 0.5300 0.4703 0.4179 0.3724 0.3332 0.2994 0.2702 0.2449 0.2229
Encased sections Encased sections (strong bending axis)* (weak bending axis)*
b
1.oooo 0.9641 0.9261 0.8842 0.8371 0.7837 0.7245 0.6612 0.5970 0.5352 0.4781 0.4269 0.3817 0.3422 0.3079 0.278 1 0.252 1 0.2294 0.2095
C
x
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.o 1.1 1.2 1.3 I .4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
1 0.9491 0.8973 0.8430 0.7854 0.7247 0.6622 0.5998 0.5399 0.4842 0.4338 0.3888 0.3492 0.3 145 0.2842 0.2577 0.2345 0.2141 0.1962
.oooo
* of steel section
Table 8.3
Reduction factor x = f(X)

For slender columns, the influence of longterm behaviour of the concrete (creep and shrinkage) on the resistance should be considered. This influence can be taken into account by a simple modification of the modulus of elasticity of the concrete from Ecd to E,:
where N,,
is the design normal force, and
NG.Sdis the permanently acting part of the normal force.
Creep and shrinkage should be considered when the relative slenderness lies outside the limiting value of Table 8.4.
x
Page 73
for very short composite columns the moment resistance may be increased by the presence of axial load. This approach can only be carried out by a computer analysis.11] Unlike the interaction diagram for a bare steel section where the moment resistance undergoes a continuous reduction with increase in axial load.3.8 0.4 Limiting values of effects x in order to neglect of creep and shrinkage 8. 6 = *a fy'ya Npl.3. This is because the prestressing effect of an axial load may in certain circumstances prevent cracking and so make the concrete more effective in resisting moments.Braced systems Concrete encased sections Concrete filled sections 0.Rd Table 8.8.3 Resistance of cross sections to combined compression and uniaxial bending[4.2 represents the nondimensional interaction curve for compression and uniaxial bending for a composite cross section. Figure 8. Figure 8. .8 16 where.2 Interaction curve for compression and uniaxial bending Such a curve for short composite columns can be determined by considering different positions of the neutral axis over the whole cross section and determining the internal action effects from the resulting stress blocks.
Rd i IMrnax.Rd. and can be safely neglected as it leads to an increase of moment resistance with axial load. refer to Eurocode 4. The method is applicable to the design of columns with crosssections that are symmetrical about both principal axes. Mpl. it is possible to calculate by hand four or five points (ACDB and E) of the interaction curve.Rd (plastic resistance moment.I. see Annex 1) Mpl. Rd Figure 8. The interaction curve may be replaced by the polygon ACDB(E) through these points (Figure 8.With the simplified method of EC4.3 Interaction curve with polygonal approximation For point A (compression resistance) For point B (moment resistance) NB = 0 and MB = M.3). In other cases. Point E need not be determined for major axis bending of encased I sections or if the design axial force does not exceed Npm.Rdfor For point C (moment resistance = N > 0) Point D is less important than point C. .
N . is defined in Section 8. can be determined following Section 8.3.3. is the design normal force is the critical load according to 8.2.0.10] Analysis for bending moments according to second order theory may be neglected for nonsway systems i f 1.2 N . .13] When there are moments in addition to the axial load. which is necessary for the analysis using second order theory. Figure 8. The simplified method uses the previous buckling load as a starting point and refers to the cross section interaction curve described above.. where N. For colu'mns with transverse loading within the column length the value for P must be taken as 1.3. I0.8.2 (2 . .8.5 Resistance of members to combined compression and uniaxial bending [4.4 Analysis for bending moments applied to columns [4. /Nc. For pure end moments. In this case. k. lines AC and BC may be defined easily.3.is the moment factor given below.44 r but 1 0. p can be determined from: P = 0. The relative slenderness x does not exceed 0.3.2. the moment according to second order theory can be calculated by multiplying the maximum first order bending moment by a factor. .8.2 have to be reduced.3.r) where r is the ratio of the smaller to larger end moment (1 S r I1). such that: where: N .44 8. the buckling loads as obtained by the method described in Section 8. r = 1.66 + 0. The flexural stiffness.4 illustrates the procedure for cases in which point E need not be determined. (EIa. . As a simplification. For transverse loading within the columns length.3.3. 2. The principle of calculation is shown in the same figure.1. Page 76 .
8. The corresponding value for bending pk of the cross section is therefore the “moment for imperfection” of the column and the influence of this imperfection is assumed to decrease linearly to the value xn.Sd is the maximum applied factored moment taking account of second order effects (see EC4 [4.Figure 8. refer to EC4 r4. Where xn > 0.3.. This simplification leads to results which are conservative for other values of r.4 Design procedure for compression and uniaxial bending The axial resistance of a column in the absence of moment is given by x.Rd.31 for typical values of xn. if transverse loads occur within the column length. In any case.. For simplification it is allowed to consider r = 1 (equal end moments) and xn = 0.Rd (see Section 8.NSd Npl. . xn = 0. where r the ratio of the lesser to the greater end moment of the column.3. at the level x = NRd/Npl.10].Rd The distance p defines the ultimate moment resistance that is still available. the shall meet the maximum design bending moment within the column length (Mmax.1.Sd) following condition: Mmax. For the verification of the column in combined compression and uniaxial bending. then xd = . Therefore. having taken account of the influence of second order effects in the column.Np.3. xn = x(lr)/4 IXd. no additional bending moment can be applied to the column.2).8. If the design axial force of the column is N.
9 according to Eurocode 3.where xPmis the Therefore.2 I 6 I 0. For the above cases: 8. formulae are given for the determination of the plastic moment resistance of the section. Page 78 . The design clauses were based on numerical studies covering a range of steel contribution.4.3. Mpl. Xd 2 xPm.Rd. The distance p can be calculated as follows when equivalent reduction factor at point C in Figure 8.6 Limits of applicability of the simplified design method The composite columns are of double symmetrical and uniform cross section over the column length. it must be verified that.9 If 6 is less than 0.2 up to 0. 6. 0 The nondimensional slenderness x shall not exceed 2. designs using the simplified method should have 6 values lying within this range: 0. varying from 0.9. As the method has only been checked over this range.0.2 the column shall be designed according to Eurocode 2 and if 6 exceeds 0.In Annex 1 of this publication. for Xd > xpm: These formulae may be rearranged in terms of the axial load that may be resisted for a given applied moment.
3% I I 4. e Concrete filled sections may be fabricated without any reinforcement. For reasons of fire protection. as follows: 40mm I c. Generally for the concrete cover of completely encased profiles a minimum cover of 40mm has to be provided.3h 40mm I cy I 0. As 0.3) 6 e Page 79 . but shall not be taken into account for the "normal design".3% of the concrete area must be provided.0% A.3.e If the longitudinal reinforcement is considered in design. a minimum percentage of 0. The maximum cover that may be used in calculations is also restricted. For concrete encased sections the minimum reinforcement is given in EC4 [4. The maximum percentage of reinforcement at the concrete cross section which can be applied in the analysis is 4%.8. I 0.4b and b c. 2 (see 8.1(3)]. greater percentages of the reinforcement can be included.2.
Columns of concretefilled hollow sections reach fire resistance class R 90 when designed for full load utilisation at normal temperatures and up to R 180 when designed for partial load utilisation at normal temperatures. P a r t 1. To enable the designer to estimate whether a chosen type of column or beam will have sufficient fire resistance and how it can be improved. The load resistance of encased sections is determined mainly by the hotrolled steel section. The concrete insulates the reinforcement in the concrete. Page 80 ~ .9. In order to achieve an optimal design. Concrete insulates the steel section and the reinforcement is used largely to prevent spalling of the concrete in fire. Columns of partially encased sections reach fire resistance class R60 and up to R120 depending on the detailing and the load utilisation. both in case of normal temperature and fire design. additional longitudinal reinforcment is required. the following overview is given. *. position of concrete and reinforcement etc. Columns The load resistance of concretefilled hollow sections in the case of fire is mainly determined by the concrete and the reinforcement. Columns of encased sections can reach a fire resistance class R240 even when designed for full load utilisation at normal temperatures. but the concrete and reinforcement continue to resist loads. ’ In the case of high load levels. FIRE RESISTANCE The behaviour of composite elements in case of fire depends largely on the thickness of steel flanges. The load resistance of partially encased sections is determined by the reinforcement and the web of the steel section in case of fire. For detailed information on fire design. The steel section loses its resistance quite early. refer to EC4. the requirements from fire design have to be taken into account when carrying out the cold design.2. The steel flanges are heated quickly and hence lose load resistance.
Page 81 . The fire resistance depends largely on the shape of the profiled decking.2. Connections also have to be fire protected. this can be achieved by conventional protection of the steel profile. For the fire resistance of a composite slab see EC4 Part 1. For fire resistance of concrete slabs see EC2. Fire resistance class R 90 is usually achieved.Beams If composite beams are required to have fire resistance. the steel section may be partially encased in concrete. Alternatively.2. Fire resistance classes R 30 to R240 are reached by conventional board or spray fire protection. Part 1. European Technical Approvals or Testing Certificates. Connections which are surrounded by concrete reach the same fire resistance class as the adjacent columns and beams. The critical temperature of a composite beam is the same as for an equivalent steel beam. and fire resistance classes of R30 to R120 can be achieved. Slabs m. Composite slabs using Holoribtype decking in general exceed R90 without additional reinforcement in the slab other than that required for distribution of loads and for crack control. Composite slabs using trapezoidal decking in general need additional reinforcement to reach R 90.
2 Sequence of Construction [9. However.4] 0 Static deflection during and after concreting The edge supports for the slab during concreting should be such that they can follow the deflections of the steel beams during concreting. In addition.1] This section gives specific recommendations related to the design of composite structures.3] The stability of the steelwork shall be ensured during construction.1 General [9. When unpropped construction is used. 10. Page 82 . 10. particularly before the development of composite action. The speed and sequence of concreting should be required to be such that partly matured concrete is not damaged as a result of limited composite action occurring from removal of props etc.3 Stability [9. CONSTRUCTION AND WORKMANSHIP 10. unless the extra thickness of concrete is taken into account in the final design. It shall not be assumed that permanent or temporary formwork (including decking) provides restraint to steel members susceptible to buckling unless it has been demonstrated that the formwork and its fixings are capable of transferring sufficient restraining forces from the supports to the steel member.10.2] The sequence of construction shall be compatible with the design.4 Accuracy during Construction and Quality Control [9. 0 Compaction of concrete Special attention should be paid to the achievement of satisfactory compaction around shear connectors and in concretefilled steel tubes. 10. All information necessary to ensure this compatibility shall be clearly indicated and described on the final drawings and specifications. if appropriate. These shall include instructions for control measurements in the different phases of construction. the relevant clauses of appropriate Parts of Eurocode 2 and Eurocode 3 are applicable to composite structures. measures should be taken to limit the additional thickness of the floor slabs resulting from deflections of the steel beam. EC4 does not give a full treatment of all aspects of construction and workmanship.
If the steel parts must be protected against corrosion by painting. 10. The satisfactory studs shall be left in the bent position. In addition. to ensure adequate connection between adjacent sheets and between the sheets and supporting beams. The stud weld shall not show any signs of cracking. where necessary. the painting may also be applied in the interface and to the shear connectors. the gross thickness should not exceed 1S m m and any corrosion should be minimal. Any studs with defective welding shall be replaced. Those responsible for controlling work on site shall ensure that these loads are not exceeded. Where protection from corrosion is required without the interface and shear connectors being fully painted. Special attention shall be given to the weld collar and the length of the stud. a number of studs shall be bent until the head of each stud is displaced laterally from its original position a distance of approximately one quarter of the height of the stud. 0 to transmit horizontal forces and shear. 0 Corrosion protection in the interface Steel parts of composite beams in buildings in general need not be protected against corrosion unless particular corrosion action has to be taken into account.6 Stud Connectors Welded through Profiled Decking Stud connectors may be welded through the steel sheet to the supporting beams under the following conditions: 0 Any paint on the steel beam near the weld should be removed.Fixing of sheets The steel sheets shall be fixed: 0 during laying to keep them in position and to provide a safe working platform. 0 When the sheet is ungalvanised.5 Loads During Construction The values of the construction and storage loads assumed in design of the decking shall be clearly shown on the relevant site plans. the protection should extend at least 30mm into the interface. 0 Profiled steel decking as permanent formwork . 10. .0 Shear connection in beams and columns For headed studs the quality of the stud welding shall be checked by visual inspection.
d.1.4. Welding trials should be carried out.25mm.The overall thickness of a galvanised steel sheet should not exceed 1. The diameter. the sheet should be in close contact with the steel. 0 0 Other detailing requirements are given in Section 5. Before welding. 0 Wet conditions at the time of welding should be avoided. 0 Stud connectors should not be welded through more than one thickness of sheet. of stud connector should not exceed 19mm. Page 84 .
EN 10 025: Hot rolled products of nonalloy structural steels: Technical delivery conditions. ENV 199211: Eurocode 2 Design of concrete structures P a r t 1. Page 85 . Consult your national steel advisory centre for more information. 1992 ENV 199311: Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures P a r t 1.1: General rules and rules for building. 1992 2.1: General rules and rules for building. 5. 3. 6. REFERENCES The following references are presented in this publication: 1.I 11. 1992 ENV 199411: Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete structures P a r t 1. 1991 European Convention for Constructional Steelwork Good practice in composite slabs (to be published based on a document prepared by ECCS TC 7. 1991 pr EN 10 080: Steel for the reinforcement of concrete . cribs and welded fabric. 7.6 in 1993). 4. 1990 EN 10 142: Specification for continuously hotdip zinc coated low carbon steel sheet and strip for cold forming: Technical delivery conditions. Other references to the design and construction of composite beams and slabs are not included in this publication.weldable ribbed reinforcing steel BS500: Technical delivery conditions for bars.1: General rules and rules for building.
Holorib deck. 22 mm diameter diameter diameter diameter shear connectors shear connectors shear connectors shear connectors Page 86 . 19 mm Holorib deck. Fe 360 steel.2: 12. Certain assumptions have been made regarding the slab depths and width. This information is presented for IPE and HE sections in grade Fe 360 or 510 steel. Figures 12.1 and 12.3: 12. The Design Tables are presented for certain standard cases using Holorib decking and slab depths typical of current practice. Additional information is also presented in the Tables. 19 mm Holorib deck. Fe 510 steel. which are as follows: Table Table Table Table 12. 22 mm Holorib deck.12. The information is given in terms of the maximum span that can be achieved for a specified imposed load and beam size.1: 12. DESIGN TABLES AND GRAPHS FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS The following Tables and Figures present information to assist designers in selecting the size of steel section to be used as a composite beam for different spans and loads. and second moment of area (stiffness).4: Fe 360 steel.2 show the benefits of composite action in terms of moment resistance. Fe 510 steel.
I 0 VI n 0 0 d U E E c 0 5 VI I Q. I 0 . CT) 0 0 rn a. Y Y 8 cr k 8 0 Q. I 0 CI 5 VI Q) .0 0 ( D 0 0 m C .  iij 0 0 0 z . Y 0 Y 0 C . I a . Y Y cp m W I n l Q c CI M L Y ! E (cr 4 I W . a . I 0 0 0 0 F d Y tl 2 7 a e 0 0 7 d 0 ci ni m 0 ni .
n C D k E m + 0) 5 n U r 0 Irj 0 0 U3 0 0 e 0 c ) i 0 0 rn cr 0 cr 0 m I W I 0 0 cv 4 I 0 7 cr 0 0 .0 0 P n U Q. I c ) 0 0 ~ 2 L 0 0 w 0 0 6 cd + 0 ccj 0 c\i . Q.
6 g g g g g g g g g g g e e e e e e 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 16 18 19 20 16 12 9 7 5 4 4.5 28 10.6 10.6 6.0 7.6 e 15 18 21 22 25 27 29 28 32 33 35 44 41 g g d d d d d d e e 4 5 7 8 9 11 12 12 14 16 18 8 6 5 15 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 29 30 17 18 17 17 17 19 19 19 21 23 40 40 a d 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 11 8 d d d d d d d d d c d d d d d d d d d e d d d d d d d d c c c 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 24 27 i e 30 4.3 10.5 5.2 5.6 10.9 12 7.4 7.5 DE D S a d LA 4.2 15.5 17.0 11.5 8.6 11.5 7.6 12.4 1 2 4.2 10.3 d 9.5 9.0 7.7 5.0 10.6 14.3 10.9 7.7 8.6 4.3 7.7 16.2 7.8 7.0 4.3 10.6 5.9 5.6 e 10.6 e 16 10.7 11 6.6 10.t 10.2 13.7 5 6 7 8 9 11 16 17 19 20 21 21 16 12 9 7 6 4.4 9.9 4.9 10.9 6.4 5.7 6.6 10.6 10.2 13.2 10.8 15.0 7.2 7.6 10.6 e 10.0 7.0 4.6 39 1 0 .3 d 6 4.7 5.1 i i 12.1 5.6 DA LE 4.4 10.7 6.6 10.6 9.3 15.6 11.4 6.0 d 1 3 6.3 7.6 15. 1 11 5.9 14.9 10.6 e 10.4 11.4 11.2 4.7 10.9 14.2 d 10.3 d d d g g g g g g g 6 7 7 12 14 16 18 20 22 23 g 25 g 28 g 32 i 35 i 35 i 34 13 12 11 20 21 22 24 25 27 28 29 32 34 36 35 34 4.6 30 10.9 9.6 DA a a g LE 4.9 5.3 10.1 4.9 d 7.6 e 10.6 13.1 4.5 6.2 5.4 15.0 5.7 6.3 6.2 7.6 12.3 6 8 11 13 15 17 19 20 22 22 19 17 13 10 8 6 5 4.0 6.9 16.6 10.4 17.1 15.1 10.3 7.7 d 10.6 10.6 16.5 14.1 7.1 d 7.5 10.7 d 15 7 .6 e 10.1 8.5 d 22 10.6 11 d d d d d d d d d e e 6 6 7 8 9 9 11 13 17 13 10 IEA 4.6 e 12 10.2 g g g g g g g g g g g g 3 17 4 20 5 22 6 24 8 26 9 29 10 31 11 34 1 3 36 14 39 15 4 1 16 43 i 1 8 45 i 1 8 42 i 18 40 i 1 8 38 i 1 8 37 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 18 18 17 17 17 17 19 22 24 27 30 32 34 37 40 42 44 45 43 40 38 37 35 4.3 6.1 14.4 7.3 5.8 15.5 13.4 6.8 d 11 5.0 d 18 8.0 5.0 g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i 6 7 9 11 13 14 16 18 20 22 23 24 27 29 28 28 28 17 19 20 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 34 36 38 38 36 35 34 g g g g g g g g 10.6 1O.5 ~~~ 6.2 8.7 9.5 6.2 7.DESIGN TABLES FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS I N FE 360 STEEL Table 12.5 9.6 6.5 12.1 DA LE 4.6 10.1 d 23 10.9 16.9 7.9 11.6 16.6 g g g g g g g g g g g e e 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 15 17 18 12 9 e 7 e 5 e 4 e 3 g g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e e e 4.9 11.2 15.3 4.8 14.4 9.1 4.8 5.6 d 24 10.9 8.9 5.3 8.2 4.0 11.0 15.5 12.4 14.6 e 10.8 8.6 10.3 10.9 13.3 4.3 10. 6 37 1 0 .3 9.5 4.8 5.8 9.6 e 10.6 10.6 9.6 3.3 13.1 6.1 6.3 5.4 7.7 5. g g g g g g g g e e 5 6 10 11 13 15 16 18 20 17 14 12 10 7 6 5 4 e e e e e e e 4. 19 nun diameter shear connectors BEAU DATA Internal beam Uniform load Beam spacing Steel strength Shear connectors diameter SLAB DATA 3 m Fe 360 Welded 19 m Fire resistance Slab depth concrete Strength (cylinder/cube) 90 mine 130 mm NW 25/30 W S E D DAD )rN/rna )ESIGNATION ~ ~ ~~ 3.4 9.9 13.3 10.1 7.6 12.8 6.3 16.1 6.6 14.7 11.5 6.6 9. 4 d 16 8.3 5.3 12 6.5 g g d d d g g g g g g g g 5 6 7 8 9 14 16 18 20 21 22 25 29 29 29 29 15 17 17 18 It) d 11 2 1 25 27 29 30 32 34 36 39 38 36 35 i i i g g d d 6.4 8.6 9.7 9.6 10.6 10.0 7.4 13.7 5.2 8.9 11.5 Le 4.2 8.8 9.3 5.6 e 10.6 10.6 8.8 5.2 6.6 12.6 e 4.6 e 10.4 5.0 5.6 8.4 6.7 4.8 5.8 8.3 4.2 17.6 d 19 9.8 DB D S d d LA d d DA 5 5 :PE 160 180 200 220 240 270 300 330 360 400 450 SUO 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 3 15 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 19 19 18 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 40 44 48 45 42 a a 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 19 6 5 a g g g g g g g d a g g g g g g g g g g d 11 d 12 d 13 d 14 d 16 d 18 i 23 i 23 4 5 7 8 9 9.6 5.0 10. 6 36 1 0 .2 9.9 8.0 7.8 6.5 1 5 9.1 14.6 10.8 9.6 10.9 d 10.6 10.1 g 10.6 8.4 14.2 5.4 15.9 7.5 13.1 4.0 d 9.6 9.9 11.8 12.6 e 10.2 11.6 e 10.2 12.4 11.6 e 10.4 8. due to self weight of slab and beam Page 89 .1 Holorib deck.0 10.6 10.3 10.6 14 8.6 8.9 d g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 27 30 34 34 34 34 13 17 18 20 22 23 25 26 21 29 30 32 33 36 35 34 4.0 9.5 d 8.9 5.3 5.7 7.7 16.6 10.3 d 8.2 13.6 11.6 10.6 3 3 10.4 4.6 e 9 10.9 5.2 10.6 10.0 10.1 13.7 d d d 6 6 7 11 12 14 15 17 19 19 20 20 15 11 9 7 d 6.3 d 6.6 e 6 LE LA DE DA DS = = = = = maximum span (m) for shear connectors in every rib maximum span (m) for shear connectors in alternate ribs imposed load deflection (mm) for span LE imposed load deflection (mm) for span LA deflection (mm) of unpropped beam of span LE.3 5.6 10.6 e 8 33 10.5 9.7 d 8.6 10.3 9.6 e 4.0 11 4.2 11.6 6.9 12.8 10 5 .0 5.6 10.6 10.2 5.3 d 7.9 10.9 7.7 15.6 10.1 9.0 15.3 11.4 5.1 10.1 g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i g g g g g g g g g g g g g 4 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 22 23 23 22 22 16 18 20 22 24 26 26 31 33 35 37 38 41 41 4.6 .9 8.3 12.8 10.8 15.2 7.3 11.0 7.0 10.0 4.7 8.1 12.2 7.4 4.5 5.8 8.4 10.4 9.5 16.6 e 10.6 e 2 1 10.1 8.6 12.9 8.6 d d d e e e e e IEB g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i 3 4 5 8 10 11 13 14 15 15 13 11 10 8 6 4 4 3 3 16 5 18 6 20 7 23 9 25 1 1 27 12 29 14 3 1 15 3 3 17 36 1 8 38 20 40 21 41 i 22 42 i 22 39 i 22 3 7 i 22 36 i 22 35 4.6 10.5 6.6 14.7 15.6 6.7 DE DS a a LA 4.0 9.9 10.6 10.6 7.0 7.9 6.5 11.1 16.6 10.3 7.4 d 12 6.8 DE D S a a LA 4.9 14.6 10.9 8.
1 14.5 10.2 17.0 10.6 5.6 3.5 8.2 13.5 6.5 10.8 6.1 4.9 8.2 15.9 10.0 15.5 10.1 12.5 10.5 5.5 g g g g g g g g 6 8 9 11 e e e e e e e e e 13 15 17 18 20 17 15 13 10 8 6 5 4 4.7 6.5 10.9 8.2 7.9 7.1 7.5 10.3 12.6 12.6 16.8 9.0 7.7 8.5 10.5 9.5 9.5 6.0 6.3 7.0 7.8 9.4 5.0 11.2 10.4 17.8 9.5 10.2 5.5 10.2 10.5 10.3 13.2 7.9 5.5 10.2 g g g g g g g g g g g g i i 3 i i i g g g g g g g g g g g g g 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 17 20 22 24 26 29 31 34 36 39 41 43 45 42 40 38 37 4.6 14.6 13.7 8.0 10.7 a a DE DS DA LE 4.2 10.1 4.0 5.8 7.8 15.5 11.2 8.4 10.4 14.0 7.6 6.5 a DA LE 4.5 16.4 9.5 10.5 6.6 10.5 c c c c d d d d d d d e DA 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 i 19 i 19 i 18 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 40 44 48 45 42 a a g g g g g g g 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 i 19 e 5 e 4 g g g g g g g g g i i 4 5 7 8 9 11 13 14 16 19 22 23 23 15 18 21 22 25 27 30 32 36 40 43 44 41 a g g g g g g g g g e e 4 5 7 8 9 11 13 15 17 20 22 6 5 5 7 8 9 11 i 13 15 15 16 18 20 29 30 15 17 19 20 22 24 26 26 26 28 30 40 40 6 7 8 9 11 c c c d d d d d d d e e 13 15 15 16 18 20 8 6 d d d d c E 6 7 8 10 10 11 12 12 14 16 17 27 30 14 14 15 16 17 17 16 17 18 20 20 30 33 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 14 16 17 10 8 e L E A 4.5 10.9 12.7 4.4 7.8 12.1 16.4 6.7 11.4 15.6 5.1 6.3 10.7 15.7 5.5 6.2 13.5 10.5 g g g g g 11 g 13 d 14 d 16 d 18 d 19 g 21 g 22 g 25 g 29 i 29 i 29 i 29 5 6 8 9 15 17 18 20 22 23 25 27 29 30 32 34 36 39 38 36 35 4.3 5.5 a g g.2 4.3 7.2 13.1 5.2 7.1 g g g g g g g g g g g g g 4 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 22 i 23 i 23 i 22 i 22 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37 38 41 41 39 37 36 4.9 8.7 10.5 10.2 9.0 11.5 g g g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e g g g g g 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 11 9 7 6 4 3 3 3 4 5 6 4.2 5.1 14.8 8.7 7.5 10.5 d d d d d d d d d d e g g e e e e 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 16 12 9 7 6 BB 3 17 4 19 5 22 6 24 8 27 9 30 10 32 1 2 34 1 3 37 14 40 16 42 17 44 18 45 i 1 8 43 i 18 40 i 17 3 8 i 17 37 i 17 35 8 g 9 g 10 g 12 g 13 e 11 e 10 e 9 e 8 e 6 g g g g g g g g g g g g g e e e e 5 4 3 2 3 16 5 18 6 20 7 23 9 25 11 27 12 29 14 3 1 15 3 3 17 36 18 38 20 4 0 21 41 i 22 42 i 22 39 i 22 37 i 22 36 i 22 35 4.1 8.5 10.1 10.8 7.2 13.3 5.5 10.2 7.3 4.5 4.9 7.2 11.0 6.3 10.7 9.9 5.0 11.2 15.5 5.2 Holorib deck.6 6.2 5.7 5.7 5.6 6.5 10.8 9.0 4.9 5.5 10.3 6.2 10.3 7.1 15.9 16.9 11.2 4.5 g g g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 14 15 17 14 12 9 7 6 4 4 4.7 6.5 a 7.0 4.6 12.7 7.5 10.5 8.5 g g g g g g d d d d e e 5 6 e e e e e 8 9 11 13 15 16 18 19 18 16 12 9 7 6 5 4.8 10.7 15.5 10.3 11.8 9.9 14.6 14.2 11.2 9.2 7.2 11.4 9.6 8.12 d 13 d 14 d 15 d 17 d 18 d 19 g 28 g 32 i 35 i 35 i 34 g g 6 14 15 16 18 17 17 18 18 19 21 22 22 32 34 36 35 34 4.6 10.1 4.5 13.8 12.3 10.6 10.5 10.8 5.7 8.5 10.8 14.8 7.3 6.1 12.5 10.5 10.1 4.0 9.3 6.5 10.7 6.2 9.8 c DK DS LA 4.6 15.5 10.4 1 4 ~ 15.5 a g g g g g d d d d d c DE DS LA 4.1 9.1 8.2 13.1 10.2 7.7 10.5 10.4 8.9 11.4 12.8 7.9 13.8 8.5 10.6 5.2 4.1 10.5 10.6 10.5 10.5 10.6 9.5 10.5 9.1 6.3 10.0 5.5 8.6 8.4 14.5 12.5 14.2 12.0 5.8 10.5 10.5 10.0 7.0 4.0 g g g g g g g g g g g 6 17 g g i i i i 7 9 11 13 14 16 18 20 22 23 24 27 29 28 28 28 19 20 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 34 36 38 38 36 35 34 4.9 6.4 13.0 15.9 7.5 10.0 5.1 6.9 10.2 8.3 9.9 g g d d d d d d d d g g g g i L i 7 8 10 12 13 14 16 18 20 21 25 27 30 34 34 34 34 15 17 18 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 32 33 36 35 34 33 4.3 5.9 14.6 5.8 5.3 4.5 10.5 10.2 10.4 6.5 10.5 10.1 7.3 10.8 a a a g g g g g g g DE DS LA 4.7 5.8 12.9 10.0 8. due to self weight of slab and beam Page 90 .2 6.2 10.4 8.4 6.1 10.5 10.9 4.6 16.3 9.7 16.5 10.5 10.7 9.6 11.8 6.0 10.5 10.4 9.0 10. 5 4.6 6.7 8.9 5.5 10.5 g g d d d d d d d d e e e e e e e 7 8 10 12 13 15 16 18 20 21 18 16 13 10 8 6 5 LE LA DE DA DS = = = = = maximum span (m) for shear connectors in every rib maximum span (m) for shear connectors in alternate ribs imposed load deflection (mm) for span LE imposed load deflection (mm) for span LA deflection (mni) of unpropped beam of span LE. g g g d DA LE 4.9 10.5 10.5 6.5 6.3 16.0 7.9 13.5 10.0 LA 4.9 6.0 8.5 10.9 11.1 10.0 9.6 10.5 6.1 10.3 5.1 7.7 5.7 10.0 11.8 9.4 6.2 5.Table 12.5 10.8 15.7 16.5 10.6 9.8 8. g g g g g g g g 5 6 7 9 11 12 14 15 e 15 e 13 e 11 e 10 e 8 e 6 e 5 e 4 e 3 4.8 10.0 7.1 9.9 10.0 7.5 NE S IGNAT ION PE 160 380 200 220 240 270 300 330 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 LE 4.5 7.5 12.4 8.5 10.9 8.8 6.9 16.3 5.9 8.7 5.6 9.5 10.3 7 d 8 d 10 d 11 d.3 11.6 9.5 8. 22 m m diameter shear connectors BEAM DATA Internal beam Uniform load Beam spacing Steel strength Shear connectors diameter SLAB DATA Welded I ! Fire resistance Slab depth Concrete Strength (cylinder/cube) 90 mina 130 mm Nw 25/30 I( ?!POSED kN/ma 3 .9 7.4 5.1 13.5 17.2 7.1 9.3 5.3 6.0 4.6 14.4 15.1 6.8 7.5 .3 10.5 10.2 4.3 10.2 11.6 7.5 10.5 10.6 8.1 5.5 13.5 9.3 9.8 15.1 12.5 10.3 7.
4 15.6 e 35 10.3 9.5 8.1 g g g 6 g 7 g 9 g 11 g 12 g 13 g 15 g 17 g 18 g 19 g 22 i 23 i 23 i 22 i 22 4 16 5 18 20 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37 38 41 41 39 37 36 16 18 20 23 25 21 29 31 33 36 38 40 41 42 39 37 36 35 4. 1 6.6 10.5 5.3 6 1EB 3 17 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 18 18 17 17 17 19 22 24 27 30 32 34 37 40 42 44 45 43 40 38 37 35 g g g g g g g g g g i i i i i 4.DESIGN TABLES FOR COMPOSlTE BEAMS IN FE 510 STEEL Table 12.1 9.6 12.6 11.0 9.1 9.8 14.0 10.3 10.7 9.3 10.4 DE DS LA DA LEA 160 180 200 220 240 270 300 330 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 100 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 g 3 16 g 4 18 g 5 20 g 6 22 g 6 24 g 8 27 g 9 30 g 11 33 g 12 36 a 14 40 g 16 44 i 19 48 i .8 5.6 3 .4 g 18 5.5 8 .6 9. 1 4.2 g 30 9.4 7.7 7.1 15.6 g g g g g g g g g o e e 3 4 5 6 6 8 9 15 17 11 8 e 6 e 5 111 3. g g 7 8 g g g g 9 g g e e e e e e e 10 11 13 14 16 18 19 18 16 12 9 7 5 4 g g g g g g g 8 .6 10.3 16.6 10.2 4.7 7.6 5.6 g g g g g g g g g e 8 10 11 13 15 17 19 20 22 22 19 17 13 10 e e e e e e e 8 6 5 4.0 7.0 4.9 13.1 5.6 10.6 10.3 4.1 4.9 11.5 10.6 12.0 5.6 g 10.4 10.6 10.1 13.9 8.2 15.3 10.7 10.1 5. 0 6.5 7.6 DA LE 4.6 10.3 7.6 10.5 10.6 10.6 e 38 10.4 6.3 11.6 10.6 g 5 g 6 g 7 g 8 g 10 g 11 g 12 g 14 g 15 e 16 e 14 e 12 e 9 e 7 e 5 e 4 e 3 4 .2 7.7 9.8 5.4 6.5 12.6 14.3 4.8 5.6 8.0 5.3 4.0 6.1 5.2 13.7 11.4 9.6 10.7 6.0 4.6 10.0 4.4 13.9 7.1 7.1 g 25 7.6 .1 6.6 g 9 g 11 I] 13 g 14 9 16 g 18 g 20 g 22 g 24 g 25 e 26 e 20 e 15 e 11 e 9 e 7 g 3 g 5 g 6 y 7 g 9 g 11 g 12 g 14 g 15 g 17 g 18 g 20 g 21 i 22 i 22 i 22 i 22 i 22 1.6 10.1 14.6 8.0 7.8 7.6 10.0 6.6 10.7 16.3 7.7 8.4 5. due to self weight of slab and beam Page 91 .6 10.9 4.3 8.6 10. 2 8.6 10. 9 4. 1 5.4 5.3 Holorib deck.6 g 7 g 8 g 9 d 11 g g g g g 15 17 19 21 24 24 18 13 10 e e e e  4.9 16.1 5 6 8 9 11 13 14 16 18 20 21 22 25 29 29 29 29 15 17 4.1 12.4 14.9 5.4 5.4 9.6 e .3 12.3 4.6 5.3 g 23 7.3 5.6 10.2 11.5 6.6 10.5 g g g g g g g g g g g g 6 16 7 17 8 19 20 22 24 27 29 31 35 38 41 40 9 11 13 15 17 19 22 26 29 i 30 g g g g g g g g g e e e e 6 7 8 9 11 13 17 19 22 19 14 11 8 g 7 15 g 8 16 g 9 17 d 11 18 g 13 20 g 15 22 g 17 24 g 19 25 g 22 28 g 25 31 g 28 34 g 32 36 g 36 39 4.6 g 22 6.6 10.7 10.7 g 27 8.3 1 0 .2 g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i g g g 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 17 20 22 24 26 29 31 34 36 39 41 43 45 42 40 38 37 4.5 11.0 9. 9 6.2 15.2 7.1 14.4 6 .4 17.7 15. 19 mm diameter shear connectors SLAB DATA Internal beam Uniform load Beam spacing Steel strength Shear connectors diameter Welded I' Fire resistance Slab depth Concrete Strength (cylinder/cube) 90 mins 130 mm NW 25/30 I1 :HWSED DAD kN/ma bESIGNATION :PE 3.6 10.0 g 15.0 5.9 12.1 8.5 15.0 7.0 7.6 7.6 10. g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g 6 14 g 7 15 g 9 17 g 10 16 g 12 20 g 14 21 g 16 22 g 18 24 g 20 25 g 22 27 g 23 28 g 25 29 g 28 32 g 32 34 35 36 i 35 35 i 34 34 4.6 15.0 6.0 i 15.0 9.6 10. 8 g 9.6 10.1 8.4 8.6 g 14.6 16. 0 10.6 g g g g g g g g e DA LE DE DS LA 4.4 8.8 10.1 9.8 7.6 10.0 4.8 15.5 5 .5 i 4.2 13.6 .6 11.1 6.6 10.3 11.5 g 34 10. 9 11.6 10.9 11.9 6.6 10.6 10.2 12.6 10.8 10.2 13.4 5.9 6.0 7.9 16.8 15.6 14.2 10.9 7.5 5.2 1 0 .5 17.6 10.0 10.7 7.1 10.1 7.5 7.6 13.6 6.7 4.0 10.4 8.8 DE DS DA LE DE DS LA 4.9 6.8 6.2 5.5 5.5 LA 6.4 10.6 10.5 14.8 15.6 10.6 10.1 10.0 4.9 9.6 10.6 10.6 8.2 9.6 10.8 9.1 10.5 6.8 7.7 15.0 9.2 7.5 9.6 10.6 e 36 10.2 7.7 6 .7 i 16.9 10.0 10.6 10.3 8.1 16.5 6.9 8. 8 10 11 13 15 17 18 20 22 23 21 16 12 9 7 4.9 13.6 e 39 10.0 10.1 6.6 10.1 7.2 5.9 8.6 5.3 5.3 6.7 g 4 g 5 g 6 g 7 g 8 g 9 g 11 g 13 g 14 a 16 g 19 g 22 i 23 i 23 16 17 19 21 22 25 27 30 32 36 40 43 44 41 5 6 7 8 9 g ii 15 17 19 15 e 11 e 8 e 6 4.7 14.0 0.3 g 10.6 10.3 13.3 4.3 6 .6 10.6 .8 8.7 5.9 0. 10.5 13.6 16.6 .1 10.6 10.2 7.8 12.2 6. 3 7 .3 7.5 9.2 8.9 7 15 8 17 10 18 12 20 14 22 16 23 18 25 20 26 22 27 24 29 25 30 27 32 30 33 34 36 i 34 35 i 34 34 i 34 33 4.7 6.2 11.3 9.4 10.7 5.5 Le 4.6 10.6 10.9 8.4 12. 3 9.0 5.7 10.9 5.5 6. g g g g g g g g e e e e 7 8 10 12 13 15 16 18 20 17 14 12 e 10 e 7 e 6 e 5 e 4 4.5 16.1 10.8 5.9 g 32 10.0 g 20 5.6 10.6 9.1 14. g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e e e 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 15 13 11 10 8 6 4 4 3 .6 10.5 8.6 10.3 15.1 8.6 10.3 9.2 10.6 g 9 g 11 g 13 g 14 g 17 g 18 g 20 g 22 I] 24 g 26 e 24 e 21 e 16 e 12 e 9 e 8 e 6 LE LA DE DA DS = = = = = maximum span (m) for shear connectors in every rib maximum span (m) for shear connectors in alternate ribs imposed load deflection (mm) for span LE imposed load deflection (mm) for span LA deflection (mm) of unpropped beam of span LE.2 17.4 g 29 9.5 4.7 9.6 10.9 14.1 4.5 g 12.6 9.8 9.6 10.6 10.3 5 .6 10.9 14.6 5.6 10.0 15.2 11.6 10.19 45 i 18 42 4.3 6.6 10.7 7.9 g 11.6 10.3 5.6 10.8 13.6 e 36 10.6 10.9 5.3 10.6 10.8 7.4 9.8 10.4 0.0 g g q g g g g g g g g g g i i I i 6 7 9 11 13 14 16 18 20 22 23 24 27 29 28 28 28 17 19 20 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 34 36 38 30 36 35 34 4.5 6.8 7.8 8.0 11.7 8.9 6.8 12.0 9.6 6.
8 12.2 10.1 6 .1 15. 5 8.3 12.4 g DE DS LA DA 160 180 200 220 240 270 300 330 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 550 600 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 400 450 500 .9 6.7 5 . 7 9 .0 10.5 10.4 Holorib deck.5 12.4 g 5.1 14.9 13.4 8. 3 5 .1 g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i g g g g 4 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 22 23 23 22 22 3 5 6 7 9 11 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 22 22 22 22 22 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37 38 41 41 39 37 36 16 18 20 23 25 27 29 31 33 36 38 40 41 42 39 37 36 35 4.8 g 3 16 4.6 6.2 12.5 g g g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 18 20 22 23 20 16 12 9 7 6 [EB g g g g g g g g g i i i i i i i i i i 4. 6 9.4 8.5 10.3 10.4 10.5 e 6 i 19 45 10.8 14.5 10. 9 8 .5 10.5 g g g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e 5 6 8 9 11 13 15 16 18 20 18 16 12 9 7 6 5 4.5 10.9 16.8 13.5 10.0 g 5.5 10.7 7.4 8.6 11. 3 4 .5 10. 7 8 . 8 20 6.3 7.8 9.2 10.5 10. 6 9.2 11.1 8.3 9 .5 10.2 g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i i g g g g g g g g g g g g g 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 18 18 17 17 17 17 20 22 24 26 29 31 34 36 39 41 43 45 42 40 38 37 17 19 22 24 27 30 32 34 37 40 42 44 45 43 40 38 37 35 4.5 8 .2 8.5 g g 7 g 8 g 9 g 11 g g g g g g g i 6 16 17 19 20 22 13 24 15 27 17 29 19 31 22 35 26 38 29 41 30 40 4 . 2 g 8 g 9 30 8 .0 10.5 10.8 15.7 4.3 10.5 12.5 10.Table 12.6 13.5 29 10.5 10.5 10.1 16.2 17.0 5.3 16. 6 10.8 10.5 10.5 5.5 6.5 10.1 g 14 g 16 44 10.5 .2 13.3 7. 1 8.0 4.5 e 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 13 14 16 19 22 23 23 16 17 19 21 22 25 27 30 32 36 40 43 44 41 4.9 8. 9 6.5 10.4 6.0 .5 6.2 22 7 .1 14.7 9.0 15.5 5.5 10.0 g 3 g 4 18 4 .5 32 10.6 5.0 15.2 11.0 15.5 10.3 4.5 6.5 10.1 4.3 27 10.3 g g g g g g g g g g g g g g 6 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 23 25 28 32 i 35 i 35 i 34 14 4. 0 10. 1 g 9 g 11 33 9. 9 14.5 LA DA I LE 3 .5 e 8 i 19 48 10.3 6.5 10.9 g g g g g g g g g g g g g g 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 27 30 34 i 34 i 34 i 34 15 17 18 20 22 23 25 26 27 29 30 32 33 36 35 34 33 4. 4 6.8 g 9. 1 10. 9 6.5 LE DE DS 4.3 9.5 1 3 .2 5.6 12. 9 8 .8 9.1 6.0 6.4 5. 8 7.5 10.8 7 .4 5.7 5.5 14.6 16.8 5.7 6.0 4. 9 g 8.7 7.9 5.9 7 . 2 18 5 .6 7.4 10.5 36 10. 3 10.3 8.2 5.5 10.1 10.8 g 12.5 g g g g g g g g g e e e e e 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 12 11 9 7 6 e 4 e 3 e 3 g 3 g 4 g 5 g 6 g 8 g 9 g 10 g 12 g 13 e 11 e 10 e 9 e 8 e 6 e 5 e 4 e 3 e 2 4.5 17.0 7.3 5.3 10.2 4.0 7.1 7.4 15.2 15.0 9. 1 7 .5 4 .6 g 6.5 6.5 21 7.6 12.7 11.8 5.1 10.5 5 .5 10.5 g 7 g 8 g 9 g 11 13 15 17 19 22 18 e 14 e 10 e 8 g g g g g e HEA 4.7 7.6 9.7 16.9 6.8 10.5 7 .2 7.5 35 10.9 11.1 4. 4 6.0 11.1 13.4 12.2 4 .1 4.8 7.4 14:3 15. 9 g 4.6 7.5 10. 3 4.7 16.0 LA DA 7.5 10.0 g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i i 6 7 9 11 13 14 16 18 20 22 23 24 27 29 28 28 28 17 19 20 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 34 36 38 38 36 35 34 4.5 10.6 14.8 9.5 10.3 5 .9 12.6 15.5 10.7 8.0 7.6 3.5 10.3 5.5 34 10.5 10.2 g 1 3 . 9 5. 5 6.2 10.5 10. 550 600 4.5 34 10.4 13.5 10.3 10.5 10.5 10.5 LA DA 6.0 g 12 g 14 40 11.8 9.5 10.1 8.4 8.7 i 15.5 15. 22 mm diameter shear connectors BEAM DATA 11 SLAB DATA Internal beam Uniform load Beam spacing Steel strength Shear connectors diameter 3 m Fe 510 Welded 22 mm Fire resistance 90 mins Slab depth 130 mm Concrete Nw Strength 25/30 (cylinder/cube) LOAD kN/m' DES IGNATIOE IPE IMPOSED 3.3 6. 5 25 9.5 10.1 10.3 13.2 15. 6 5 .0 9.3 g 6 g 8 27 7 .5 10.7 5. 9 5 . 3 9. 5 9.5 g g g g g g g g g e e e e 5 6 7 8 9 11 13 15 17 11 8 6 5 4.5 10.2 5 .8 5.5 g 9 g g g g g g g e e e e e e e e 7 8 10 13 15 16 18 20 23 21 18 16 13 10 8 6 5 LE LA DE DA = = = DS = = maximum span (in) for shear connectors in every rib maximum span (in) for shear connectors in alternate ribs imposed load deflection (mm) for span LE imposed load deflection (mm) for span LA deflection (mm) of unpropped beam of span LE.8 6. 1 g 5 g 6 22 5 . 2 7 .4 6. 9 24 8 .9 4 .2 10. 5 9.5 10.1 4.6 10. 9 6.2 13.5 11.5 10.8 10.5 10.9 8.5 10.5 10.5 e 5 i 18 42 10. 6 8.3 10. 5 g 4 g 5 20 5 .0 28 10.9 5.5 16. 6 g 14.5 10.9 11.5 10.0 7.9 6.7 7.0 4.5 6.9 13.2 7.5 10.0 10.9 7 . 0 4.7 5.5 10.5 10. 1 10. due to self weight of slab and beam Page 92 .5 9.6 17 5 .1 12. 6 8.3 11.5 g 4 g 5 g 6 g 8 g 9 g 11 g 12 g 14 g 15 e 16 e 14 e 12 e 9 e 7 e 6 e 4 e 4 4.2 11.2 7.5 10.3 8 .5 10.4 17.7 15.0 6.1 8.I5 4.5 10.3 9.5 g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e e 6 8 9 11 13 15 17 18 20 17 15 13 10 e 8 6 5 4 4.8 7 .1 9 . 7 g 6 g 6 24 6.1 6.0 g 11 g 12 36 10.7 g 10.6 10.6 11.7 8 .8 15.5 10.3 10.6 14.5 10.7 8.5 10.2 10.3 4.5 g g g g g g g g g g g g g g i i i 5 6 8 9 11 13 14 16 18 20 21 22 25 29 29 29 29 15 17 18 20 22 23 25 27 29 30 32 34 36 39 38 36 35 4.9 11.4 9.9 14. 6 9 .4 5.1 6.6 16.7 14.5 10.8 5 .4 9 .3 10.7 10.0 7 .5 10.0 g 7 .8 9.3 7 .6 5.8 15. g g g g g g g g e e e e e e e e e 5 6 7 9 11 12 14 15 15 13 11 10 8 6 5 4 3 4.3 11.9 11. 8 8 .5 10.5 10.1 14.9 16.5 10.5 10.2 7.1 10. 1 5.7 i DE DS LE DE DS LB 4.2 g 7.5 g g g g g g g g g e e e e 6 7 8 9 11 13 15 17 19 14 11 8 6 7 15 g 8 16 g 9 17 g 11 18 g 13 20 g g g g g g g g 15 17 19 22 25 28 32 36 22 24 25 28 31 34 36 39 4 .6 10.5 10.5 10.2 7.8 8 .
. This occurs in cases where R. Shear Connectors Welded stud (19 mm dia. x 95 mm) are included. Failure Criteria a b moment resistance of the beam exceeded in the construction stage shear stress in composite beam exceeds 0. Imposed Load The designer should include an allowance for partitions in the imposed load.the design continues by reducing the moment resistance of the section moment resistance of the composite beam exceeded moment resistance of the composite beam with partial shear connection exceeded limit on degree of shear connection not satisfied (see Section 6. Holorib. < R.2. The results are conservative for deeper slabs. Check with EC4 P a r t 1. Fire Resistance The slab depth is selected to achieve a certain fire resistance.3.ADDITIONAL NOTES ON TABLES Internal Beam The composite beam supports a composite slab with equally spaced adjacent beams.. Studs are placed in every rib (at 150 mm spacing) or in alternate ribs (at 300 mm spacing).4..5 V. and the minimum degree of shear connection is not achieved. which is 50mm deep and 150 mm rib spacing.2) serviceability stress in steel exceeded (not used in EC4) total deflection exceeded (taken as L/200 for floors with suspended ceilings) imposed load deflection exceeded (L/350 for floors supporting brittle partitions) natural frequency < 4 Hz C d e f g h 1 NB: For some cases. Page 93 . the beam span corresponding to criterion e is output... x 95 mm or 22 mm dia. Deck The steel deck is the reentrant type.
E E 5 n u II n 1 U U W 0 L P L 0 .. I & 0 E 0 LL e 0 U W U aa & aa 0 U 0 a aa n U 0 W aa W E M m a ro U E ro va 4 aa a s a U a n aa k U 0 U 0 U 0 w .4 E r ( . Y aa E a = I v) M 4  aa U aa U aa s U a 0 m 4 3 a e & U a U 0 0 0 U E U U a ro c ( a m & U 0 U 4 U ro sry I 4 4 aa U 0 a W 0 ry 0 E 0 U 4 E & 0 4 U U m a l U 0 a U J v) 4 m E 0 .4 U aa U cn U 4 ro w 0 a a U Q) 0 va aJ U ro & aa k a U 0 & U 0 U 3 a Ln 0 m  m 4 s s a m r a 2% w II * ro a a a 3 a .
a * 3 n 3 I W N 0 U =I w Q 3 I N a N 4 0 oi 4 n 0 4 n zs r2 alas a m 4 + w P 4  N O n N 4 n U II U m c1 U a Q n 4 U . Z n 11 4 U U 3 a c .4 II ad n 4 UP a n al II 0 3r a m 3 a m a ual 4a * U . U 4 a II n U II U a 0 U 3 a Q II 0 II a 0 m 3 a 0 U 3 a a n a 0 rp n 3  % 3 W a n a CI D9 m v) 5 s E a a U 0 4 U . N O U N . 1 U V zl N \ U VI * 0 0 3 I E a n r” al 3 I a m a U 0 4 m 4 Q 3 I N I Q w N O I N O N O 4 II 4 U .4 I t a 2 m a I c al w 0 m c I 0 w & a * & n U I w m Q al al 9 al c 0 Q c 6 4 W a VI N \ a U a a a U N 4 w a 4 0) a# c 4 al U 0 0 0 m fl. c .0 n . a n m w I e * U U N S a I L 0) c a N n m I a U 0 4 m 4 4) w a l .. E II a .
r( M a U N 4 E 0 a\ o v a a 0 v) .V I U 84 N zn a a n I1 0 0 1 x 0 Q er. n 0 .r( 0 > W z n Z w m +tt L2t"7I n z cn A a3 Q a 0 0 4 U 4 0 4 U 0 h * s a M 3 en pz 0 5 3 L ' I n a3 A . 4 z: U aa a .4 VI P4 w 0 4 a Q a z .N P U I N a CI \ V 0 Q a E U 4 0 . p E i 1 c U .rn cn a z Q a e n 0 0 M 4 0 0 a 3 4 4 0 a a3 & i U M a3 ql 0 M A 0 a U 4 F a# a c) PI n V El er.4 iz . Q r a I P4 a3 0 a 4 0 Q > 3 " W w I z M 4 a O N E a n r II a re) n I1 U a Q 0) * R 0 Q 0 U 3  3 a U 1 4 c . 0 w Q Q a * g s . U 0 Q U U r a r a a . 4 9 0 U M a3 4 U 4 c) M a3 a3 U .4 U a n a3 U a v) a3 P 4 M * a .
and Worked Example 3 to a continuous composite beam of the same span.COMPOSITE BEAMS AND COLUMNS TO EUROCODE 4 PART 2: WORKED EXAMPLES The following Worked Examples are intended to assist in understanding the requirements of Eurocode 4 Part 1. 4: (2 1 pages) Composite column with end moments (10 pages) Page 97 . Worked Example No. Worked Example No. ( 14 pages) Worked Example No. Pages are numbered separately for each example. Worked Examples 1 and 2 refer to simply supported composite beams. Worked Example 4 refers to an encased I section column subject to combined bending and axial force. 1: Simply supported composite beam with solid slab and full shear connection. 3: Continuous composite beam with solid slab Worked Example No.1. These Examples follow the same format which is given in the Index before each Example. 2: (11 pages) Simply supported composite beam with composite slab and partial shear connection.
WORKED EXAMPLE no.1
This worked example refers to a simply supported composite beam considered as a floor beam in a building. The span of the beam is equal to 12m with a spacing of 3.33m. The variable load has been considered equal to 3.0 l W m 2 and the load for interior finishings equal to 1 .O kN/mZ. The beam is verified as propped until the concrete has hardened and full shear connection has been assumed between steel and concrete. For simplicity the contribution of the longitudinal reinforcement has been neglected. The effect of creep has been taken into account for deflection checks (serviceability limit states), while those due to temperature and shrinkage have been ignored. The structural solution uses solid slab, rolled steel beam and headed stud connectors.
I
12000
1
Wwdmd atud connectors dbm.19 mm h100 mm
concrete C25/30
IPE 450 Fe 360
3333
I
3333
INDEX
1.
COMPOSITE BEAM CHARACTERISTICS VALUES OF ACTIONS
........... Page 3
2.
3.
...........
...........
........... ...........
...........
........... ........... ........... ........... ...........
3
3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4
LOAD COMBINATIONS
3.1 Ultimate limit states 3.2 Serviceability limit states
4.
MATERIALS
4.1 Concrete 4.2 Reinforcing steel 4.3 Structural steel 4.4 Shear connectors 4.5 Partial safety factors
5
5 5
5.
6.
DESIGN MOMENT AND SHEAR ULTIMATE LJMIT STATE VERIFICATION
...........
...........
6.1 Crosssection properties ........... 6.2 Plastic resistance moment of a section with full shear connection ........... 6.3 Vertical shear ........... 6.4 Bending and vertical shear ........... 7.
5
6 7 7 7 7 8 8
8 10
SHEAR CONNECTORS
7.1 Longitudinal shear force 7.2 Design resistance of shear connectors 7.3 Number of shear connectors
........... ...........
...........
...........
8.
9.
TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION
9.1 Calculation of maximum deflection
...........
10
esaniple 1
Page 2
1.
COMPOSITE BEAM CHARACTERISTICS
Span: L = 12000mm Structural scheme : simply supported beam Beam spacing : b = 3333 mm Construction type : propped
2.
VALUES OF ACTIONS
Characteristic values
permanent loads
g'k gI1k
= 3.00.3.33
= 10.00 kN/m normal weight concrete = 0.80 kN/m steel beam
=
g"'k
1.00.3.33
= 3.33 kN/m interior finishings
variable loads
qlk
qllk
= 2.00.3.33
=
= 6.67 kN/m imposed load
=
1.00.3.33
3.33 kN/m partitions
accidental loads 3. 3.1
ak
=O
LOAD COMBINATIONS
Ultimate limit states
YG'~Gk,jfyQ'Qk,1
[Table 3.1J considering only the most unfavourable action considering all unfavourable variable actions
yG .CGk,j +O. 9*yQ *CQk j
whichever is larger. Partial safety factors:
yG =
1.35 yy 7 1.50
3.2
Serviceability limit states
CGk,j
[Table 3.21
+ 1.0 Qk.1
considering only the most unfavourable variable action
esample 1
Page 3
i 4. = 235 N / m 2 Modulus of elasticity : E. 4.2. = 30.3 Structural steel Nominal steel grade : Fe 360 [4.9CQk.2. = 210 kN/mm2 4.3] Nominal yield strength : f. = 210/30.5 = 6./(Ec.2 Reinforcing steel Type of steel : S 420 Steel grade : fsk= 420 N / m z Modulus of elasticity : E..2] n = E. = 325.dading : ~4./3) = 20.j + 0.&.ZGk..2.21 [4.2.10Secant modulus of elasticity of shortterm .4 (t 5 40 mm) Shear connectors Type : headed studs 19 mm diameter Ultimate tensile strength : f.1] E.5 kN/mm2 modular ratios : [7.65 4.21 n =E. = 2 10 kN/mm2 4.1 considering all unfavorable variable actions MATERIALS Concrete Concrete strength class : C25/30 Characteristic strength : fck= 25 N/mm2 6 Shrinkage : E.88 (short term effects) (long term effects) [4. = 450 N / m 2 esample 1 Page 4 .
80+3.1. DESIGN MOMENT AND SHEAR A @ & 1 12000 qd = 34.4 kN 6.08.67+3.50~(6.4 kNin At supports VSd = qd.1 [6.35~(10.00+0. 6.08 kN/m At mid5pan section (maximum bending moment) MSd = qd.31 4.L/2 = 34.08.0 5.33)+1.4.50 ys = 1.10 yc = 1.1 Ultimate limit states Structural steel Concrete Steel reinforcement Shear connectors ya = 1.5 Partial safety factors yM M.08 kN/m 1 imposed load qlk+qtIk= qk yG.5.2 Serviceability limit states yM = 1.3] example 1 .L2/8 = 34.12000/8 = 3000 inin (< 3333tnm) l6.&+yQ*(q'k+q''k) = 1.33) = = 34.12/2 = 204.15 yv = 1.1 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION Crosssection properties Effective width of concrete flange: beff= 2.5.12?/8= 613.25 4.
*be = (0. = 185 inin i.4.10)10'3 = 2111 kN (steel beam) z .121 From equ il i briuiii of longitudinal forces: ff ~ h .85. = (235*9880/1./y. = 33740. = 450./y. ) of the neutral axis is Tlie plastic neutral axis lies in the slab.85~25~3000~120/1.8m1n b = 190. in tlus case tlie depth ( given by: z . = (fy.)= 49.103tnm3 i. (see EC4..4 rntn r = 21. = 9880min2 I%. IPE 450 1.)/(0.A. = 41.7 tnin h M example I Page 6 .fC. = 1500. 16.9..1S(2)J 6..103tnm3 W./y..1.2.85.0 intn d = 378.Classification of crosssection [6..6 tntn t..b.0 tntn tf = 14.104mtn4 We. = 1702.f..0 tntn A.4] A cross section is classified according to the least favourable class of its steel elements in compression.*A..5)~10'3 = = 5100 kN (concrete slab) f. .2 Plastic resistance moment of a section with full shear connection [6. 0..2 Inin Upper flange Class 1 when acting compositely because tlie flange is restrained from buckling by attachment of sliear connectors. / ~ .
fC~/yc = (0.04.The plastic moment of resistance of the composite beam Mpl. = 1.2.fS/Ya = (9880.6 k N > V S d = 204.235/1. example 1 Page 7 . neglecting the tenn related to longitudinal reinforcement.3 < 6 9 = ~ 69 and therefore the steel web is verified.= 4399.6 kN = A.(f. = [4399.3. as usual Fcf = 0. 6. 6 .41 v./ where A.51 As the beam is subject to unifonn load it is not necessary to check for coincident moment and shear.2 inm2 v..1)*105 = 2111 kN or./2) = = (235~9880/1.Rd = 542.120.1 SHEAR CONNECTORS Longitudinal shear force Full shear connection [6.4] d3)/y.85.ha.10110”= 542. 3 Vertical shear Vpl.f = A..l.10)~(0.t.\.85*3000120~25/1. = 40.0497/2)~10” = = 675.Rd [6.Rd = (f .2(235/d3)/1. 7.4 kN Shear buckling d/t.5)103 = 5100 kN wh icliever is stna 11er. 7.2.4 Bending and vertical shear L6..45/2+0.A.4 kNm and the verification is satisfied.8 kNrn > 613. = Fcf where F.Rd is given by: Mpl.*Aa/ya) (h/2+1ic2.
bar 4 8 mm / 200 mm .~) /y.1 = 57.8 kNin Mpl. T r y 19 mm diam.192/4)/1.1] required : 11= 2*FCf/PRd = 22111/73.\1(25. = A. = [0.f. = 2.2 Design resistance of shear connectors i6.. with a = 1 for h/d > 4 or b) P.31 The design resistance of a stud is given by: a) PRd = 0.51 A. = 0.6 inin 7.25]*10”= 73.002~120~1000 = 240 intn’/tn reinf.8*450.ds.3 mm’/tn example I Page 8 .30500)/1.1 k N c 81.6 > 0.. studs 100 mm high a) PRd = [0.8...1..d2/4) /v.002.4d = 7..29. TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Minimum transverse reinforcement for solid slab [6..2 layers A.Rd Mpl.29 = 58 headed studs o 19 mm Mapl.120 = 720 tnm 8.d = 519 = 95 tntn c 6h.7 kN b) P.29. = 6.19”.+A.~(f.Rd (steel beam) = (235~17O2~1O3/1. whichever is smaller.3 Number of shear connectors [5.7 coiuiectors per total length provided : n = 2.7.> 0.d = 0.1)~l0” = 363.E.5 and therefore the studs inay be spaced utufonnly over the entire beam length.3.4.a.251.25]*10~3 = 81.6 kNin = 675.7 kN tf = 14.Kd= 2.A.(n.Rd~apl. spacing = 12000/58 = 200 inin > 5.(~.
30 N/IYUII' (C25/30) (normal weight concrete) q=l 4"= 120. Vpd = 0 mm'/m (contribution of the steel sheeting) and therefore =273.5~120~10'*1~0.30+2*251. e.3~420/1.2~120~10'~1~~25/1.1/2 = 177 273.5)~10~~= 400 kN/m The longitudinal design shear is given by vsJ = 73.1.1000 = 12010.Longitudinal shear in the slab 0 I I At I Section aa where TRd 7 0.1000/207 = 353 kN/m For each shear plane aa : vSd/2 = 353.mple 1 Page Y 1 .6 kN/m a) VRd = (2.6 k b h and the verification is satisfied.15)~10~3 b) vRJ = (0.
4 4968. hi this example it is assumed that all load is of long duration.3O+2~251.2 mm E E c 0 2 nu A inin? Z AT inn inin3 1 2 17433.3~420/1.3~10~ 66433. .1 P.5. = (2.6*1OJ example 1 Page 10 .5~220~1O3~1~0.6 kN/tn 2 VSd = 353 kN/tn and the verification is satisfied.0 2092.4 285 9880.z)* I" tntn tnm4 tnm4 tnn4 103. 9.3.Section bb A.2*104 181.103 ez .1 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION Calculation of maximum deflection P. n = 20.2 intn b e f f / n =145.0.6 kN/m = 348.(e.65 be& = 3000/20.104 18528.21 I n buildings it is nonnally satisfactory to consider the deflection wider the frequent combination of loading.104 87O53.2*104 20620.9 33740.z 1'" A.0 27313.95+30)1000= 220103tnm2/m VRd VRd = (2.. 9.65 =145.0104 32693.15)~1O3 = 348.
qt0..33+6.5.e.103. = 285181.33= 24. = ze.I) = 120002/(8210*87053.. = N.*L4/(384Ea*I) = = 524.1 mm 6.67+3.9 = 103.103/27313. .13 kN/m 4nax = 5.5. does not exceed 400.1 04.4 = 181.4 IIMI = 132 1.21 Calculation of deflection due to shrinkage is not required as E.L2/(8. = = (30. For simplification the long term value of elastic modulus of concrete is used for shnkage deflection calculation N.Ea.b.The following calculation of the additional deflection due to shrinkage is given only to demonstrate the calculation method if required.10')= = 35.1.6.6 mm = L/337 < L/250 recommended limit value for floors [Table 7.*~.00+0.80+3.5 kN e.5/3)3333*120*0.32510' = 1321.87053..1 3*1o3~12O0O4/(384~2 10.9 mm qtot= 10. = (E. = 4968.e.h./3).6*10') = 13.
The span of the beam is equal to 12 m with a spacing of 3. The effect of creep has been taken into account for deflection checks (serviceability limit states).0 kN/m2.2 This worked example refers to a simply supported composite beam considered as a floor beam in a building. For simplicity the contribution of the longitudinal reinforcement has been neglected. The variable load has been considered equal to 3 . The steel beam is also checked for its ability to support the loads during construction. Headed itud connector8 diam. The structural solution uses a composite slab (sheeting with ribs transverse to the supporting beam). 0 W/m2 and the load for interior finishings equal to 1.19 mm h=lW mm (95 mm) concrete CzS/lO w ‘3 P esampli. rolled steel beam and headed stud connectors. while those due to temperature and shrinkage have been ignored.WORKED EXAMPLE no.33 m. The beam is unpropped during construction and is designed for partial shear connection between the steel and concrete. 2 Page 1 .
.............4 Profiled steel sheeting 4. 9 9 10 11 12 13 13 .............. TRANSVERSE RENORCEMENT SERVICEAEHLITY LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION 9... .2 Composite stage ....1 Concrete 4.INDEX 1.... ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION 6............ 4....5 Connecting devices 4...1 Construction stage 6........ ........... 8...........2 Design resistance of shear connectors 7... .. . ..... 3.. ................... ..... ............. .............. Page 3 3 3 3 3 2. MATERIALS 4.....3 Number of shear connectors ...... ... DESIGN MOMENT AND SHEAR 5 .... COMPOSITE BEAM CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN LOADS LOAD COMBINATIONS 3 .... 9.. 5............ 6............ . . .3 Structural steel 4.....2 Reinforcing steel 4.2 Serviceability limit states ...1 Longitudinal shear force 7...... S H E A R CONNECTORS 7. 1 Ultimate limit states 3..2 Composite stage ............. esample 2 Page 2 1 ..... 6 8 7.............1 Calculation of maximum deflection . 1 Construction stage 5............... 6 .. .. ...6 Partial safety factors 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 .
Qk.3.3.33 kN/m interior finishings variable loads qlk = 1.35 . DESIGN LOADS Characteristic values permanent loads g'k gllk gtllk g1I1lk = 2.333 = 3.1.CQk whichever is larger.333 = 6. Partial safety factors: yG = 1.33 = 0.j + 0.333 = 2. 1.15.50 3.3.40.33 kN/m partitions imposed load construction load qltk = 2.9yq.21 considering only the most unfavourable variable action considering all unfavorable variable actions Page 3 ZGk. COMPOSITE BEAM CHARACTERISTICS Span : L = 12000 mm Structural scheme : simply supported beam Beam spacing : b =3333mm Construction type : unpropped 2.00 kN/m normal weight concrete = 0.333 = 3.00.9 ZQk.j +rQ.67 kN/m = 0.00.i esampie 2 .80 kN/m steel beam = 1. 3.75.50 kN/m q"lk accidental loads ak =O 3.ZGk. 1 yG. considering all unfavourable variable actions yy =.1 [Table 3.33 = 8.50 kN/m profiled steel sheeting = 0.0 Qk.j + 1.3.2 Serviceability limit states CGk.00.3.3.1 LOAD COMBINATIONS Ultimate limit states [Table 3.13 considering only the most unfavourable action YG 'CGk.j +0.
= 2 10 kN/mm2 4.4 Profiled steei sheeting = 210 (t 5 40 mm) kN/mm2 [4.4] Nominal steel grade : Fe 360 Characteristic strength : fyb= fyp= 235 N / m ’ Modulus of elasticity : E..5 = 6.5 k N / m 2 modular ratios : [7.2./3) = 20.1 MATERIALS Concrete 14.88 n = E.65 4.2] Type of steel : S 420 Steel grade : fsk= 420 N/mm’ Modulus of elasticity : E. 4.1] Concrete strength class : C25/30 Characteristic strength : fck = 25 N/mZ Shrinkage : E.21 [4.2. = 2 10 kN/mm2 4..3 Structural steel [4.21 n = E.. 4.2./Ecm = 210/30.2 Reinforcing steel (short term effects) (long term effects) [4.2. = 30. = 450 N/mm2 .3] Nominal steel grade : Fe 360 Nominal yield strength : fy = 235 N/mm’ Modulus of elasticity : E.4.2.5 Shear connectors Type : headed studs 19 mm diameter Ultimate tensile strength : f. = 3 2 5 ~ 1 0 ~ Secant modulus of elasticity of shortterm loading : E./(Ec.
8 kN e.0 5.3.uample 2 Page 5 .5 kNm At supports Vsd = 16.3*12/2= 97.10 Profiled steel sheetingyap = 1.1 DESIGN MOMENT AND SHEAR Construction stage Loading At Iliidspan section (masimum bending moment) Ms~ = 16.6.Yield strength : fy = 350 N / m Z 4.10 Concrete yc = 1.12V8 = 293.6.6 4. 5.15 Shear connectors 4.1 Partial safety factors yM Ultimate limit states Structural steel ya = 1.50 Steel reinforcement ys = 1.2 yv = 1.25 Serviceability limit states yM = 1.
3 kN 6.1 6.4m r = 21.10' mm' Ll IPE 450 Wpl.9WlIl At supports v.3 3 ) + 1. 6.10' mJ = 1500.10' mm3 $ = 185mm 4 = 41.12/2 = 192.05kN/m At midspan section (maximum bending moment) MSd = 32.05*122/8 = 576.1.5.zgk+Yq'(q'k+q"k) = 1.Omm A.2mm e.5043.2 Composite stage yG.1 Construction stage Crosssection properties Cross section classification [6. = 9880mm2 1a.uample 2 Page 6 .y = 33740.0mm d =378.80+3.0mm tf = 14.00+0.4] A cross section is classified according to the least favourable class of its steel elements in compression.1.8mm b = 190.1 UL"l3lATE LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION L6.3 5 ' ( 8.67) = = 32.3 3+6.6mm &= 9.50+0.y= 1702.05.d = 32. * % = z = 450.
t.= 4399.5 kNm and the verification is satisfied.3 < 7 2 = E= d/t.819.2 mm’ Shear buckling d/t. and the requirements for Class 1 crosssection are statisfied.6 kNm > Ms.1. R d = f. = 1 .4 Bending and vertical shear As the beam is subject to uniform load it is not necessary to check for coincident moment and shear.1. 6.04*ha.6 = 6. 6. example 2 Page 7 ..1 03/ 1.5 1 E = 1 (Fe360) 6.3 <6 9= ~ 69 and therefore the steel web is verified.. = 293. 6..*Wpl /y.Umer flange (b/2)/tf = 95114.51 < 1 0 = ~ 10 and therefore the flange is in Class 1 = 378.10). = 40. 1Oa = = 363.1.3 Vertical shear where A.3 1 (Fe 360) ~ 72 40. = (23 5.4 = 40.1702.2 Plastic resistance moment of the section 1.
6. or by shotfired pins. f f ' h.1 6. In order to provide restraint./y.2 Plastic resistance moment of the section with full shear connection C6.3] 6.85 fc b.10 = 21 11 kN (steel beam) 1"8" h P7 3 I f The plastic neutral axis lies in the slab.1. the sheeting is fixed to the beam either by the action of throughdeck welding.5 Lateraltorsional buckling of the steel beam It is assumed that the steel beam is laterally restrained by the steel sheeting during construction.2.9880/1.25*~000. in this case the depth ( z .5)*10" = = 2762.1. 6.2] [6.1.5 kN (concrete slab) f.1 Crosssection properties Effective width of concrete flange: Cross section classification Upoer flange Class 1 from calculation in 6.2.. * * = (0. ) of the neutral axis is gven by: esaniple 2 Page 8 .121 From equilibrium of longitudinal forces: 0.2 Composite stage [6.2.AJya = 235.65/1.85.1.
~= d Av. 2.4 Bending and vertical shear L6.. 6.41 where A.10” = 542. 6.6 k N > VSd = 192.85.(fy/J3)/ya = [4399.3..fc.9 kNm and the verification is satisfied.45/2+0./yc= (0.65*25/1.Rd = 542.Rd is given by: = (f.2 inin? Vpl.The plastic moment of resistance of the composite beam M. 7.1).fy/ya ./2) = = = (235~9880/1.3 Vertical shear V p l ..103 = 2762.51 As the beam is subject to unifonii load it is not necessary to check for coincideiit moment and shear.2.10].2.3 k N Shear buck1 ing d/t..0497/2)*10” = 675.\/3)/1.120.5). = 0.(235/.hat.(9880*235/1..3000.103 = 21 11 k N or. Mpl.04.*Aa/ya) (11/2+h.85*Ac.= 4399.2. 7.10)~(0.3 < 6 9 = ~ 69 and therefore the steel web is verified. example 2 Page 9 .v = 40..8 kNin > 576.2..6 k N l6.2.1 SHEAR CONNECTORS Longitudinal shear force Full shear connection Vl = Fcf [6. neglecting the tenn relating to longitudinal reinforcement Fc.41 where Fcf = Aa.5 k N whichever is sina 11er. = 1.
Rd = 363.7 kN esample 2 Page 10 .9 kNm M p l . Rd) MSd = 576. R dMap 1.25]~10~= 81.6)/(675.9363.8363. = [0. studs 100 mm (95 m m after welding) high a) PR.3 kN 7.Partial shear connection Linear interaction method v! = where = dMS I . R d = 675.6)= = 21 11.683 = 1442.6 kNm 538 (point A) and then VI = 21 1 ls(576. Rd 1.8~450~(r~~19')/1.3 kru' Fc = 1442.2 Design resistance of shear connectors The design resistance of a stud is given by: Try 19 mm diam.0.8 kNm Mapl.
5 = 83.7 Taking into account the reduction factor for profiled sheeting ki = reduction factor for one stud per trough (valid for 1 1 . (75/55)*[(95/55)11 = 0.73.5 kN..3/50. = 2*1442.3.1 kN < 81.6 kNin = 675.\1(25~30500)/1.7.Rd (steel beam) = (235~1702~103/1.41 Ail1 shear coiinection 2*F.f/P.67 > 0.0 > 4 and the studs may be considered as ductile.8 k N m exainplc 2 Page 11 . 3 Number of shear connectors [6.29~1~19'. = number of stud connectors in one rib and then PR. Mapl.25+0.0 required : 57 headed studs o 19 mm (Use 58) Actual number of studs based on one per rib = 12000/150 = 80 > 57 It is possible to reduce the number of studs in the middle of the span to give N = 57. ) = (0.5= 57. Check the minirnum value of N/N.Fc/PR.21 11/50.25]~10~3 = 73. = 0.03*12= 0.b) PR.L = 0.69 )e[ <zI dU 5 L4L Q where N.69. = 57/84 = 0.7 required : 83 headed studs o 19 mm Partial shear connection 2.61 N/N.25+0.d = 2.. = [0. 2 1 1 . N/Nf 2 0. 7 .Rd Mpl.7/dNr)* (bo/hp (Iflip)11 = = 0.61 Idd = (10051/19 = 5. S 85 inm and b.1)~106 = 363.1 = 50.03.
.Rd/Mapl............& = 0...6 mm’/m Longitudinal shear {*[ ...Rd = 1. I a Section aa a) VR d = 2 ..TdR +4: ........ where fRJ = 0...........5 and therefore the studs may be spaced uniformly. bar 4 8 m m / 300 m m 4 = 167..ql.. .002.30 N / W ‘ q=l 4 e..5] reinf....3. k q*f..k I*/...1000 = 130 m ’ / m [6.. 8.....4 * ~ ....... 2 ...fsk/yS+Vpd or b) VRd = 0 .+vP d l d 3 whichever is smaller.... 5 ......86 < 2....umple 2 = 651000 = 6510’ m ’ / m ( without concrete rib contribution ) Page 12 ....65. TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Minimum transverse reinforcement for comoosite slab 4 2 O....OOZ............
.p = (1575. 9. 9.235/1.f.L4/(384E.5 kN/m and therefore for each shear plane aa : a) VRd = (2.5~1000/150 = 168.1.00+0.2. Ap = 1575 mm2/m vpd = Ap. b e r f / n 145.2 Composite stage It is assumed hi this example that all the variable load is of longterm duration.1)10”=336.p/y. For lmm thick steel.3 kN/m b) VRd = (O.80)~103~120004/(384~210~33740.1 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION Calculation of maximum deflections of beams 9.5/43 = 410.0~104)= = 35.5 = 446.15)~10‘3+ 336.1.9 kN/m and the verification is satisfied.for profiled steel sheeting continuous over the beam.5)*1OJ+ 336.9 kN/m The longitudinal design shear is given by VSd = (1/2)~50.50+0.30+167.65*1O3*1*25/1.2 mrn E E 0 c example 2 Page 13 ~ ~~~~~ .5~65*103~1~0. Take the same value of 11 as for Example 1.1 Construction stage 6 ‘ = 5q.6~420/1.I) = = 5~(8.4 min 9.3 kN/m < 410.
z ) ~ I" inin3 inrn rnm4 mm4 m 4 2951.z 1'" e.9~104) = = 21.0 19323.1 9880.65 = 145.5 inin = L/289 < L/250 [Table 7.4+21.1= 152.2 inin 1 2 A min2 9443.L4/(384Ea*1) = = 5~(3.50 height of the rib 1.11 where a0 = precamber of the steel beain = 15inm in this case The effects of iiicoinplete interaction have been neglected because: N/Nf = 0.115 = 41.q. . = 2951. .0*103 159.beff /ii = 3000/20.8 332.4010~ 24108.9010' Aoz e.7 33740.7 inin = 5.33+6.0010~ 23042.10"'.33+3.6010~ 56782.6010~ 8 1223.61 > 0. example 2 Page 14 .1 Z inm 312.0.67)~10'3~120004/(384~210~81223.7010~ 2 W l . 6'+6"60 = 35. 2 0 1 0 ~ 152.1 inin Calculation of deflection due to shrinkage is not required as E . = 55 iiiin < 80 inin.103/19323. .5 A*(e. does not exceed 400.
WORKED EXAMPLE no.3
This worked example refers to a two equal span continuous composite beam considered as a floor beam in a building. Tlie spans of the beam are equal to 12m with a spacing of 3.33m. The variable load has been considered equal to 4.50 kN/m2 and the load for interior finislzings equal to 1.0 kN/m2. The beam is unpropped during construction. The effects of shrinkage and temperature have not been taken into account. Tlie structural solution considers a solid slab, rolled steel beam and headed stud connectors. Additional reinforcing bars are placed in the slab in the region of the central support.
Headed stud connectors diarn.19 rnm h100 rnrn concrete C25/30
IPE 450
Fe 360
3333
3333
example 3
Page 1
INDEX 1. COMPOSITE BEAM CHARACTERISTICS 2.VALUES OF ACTIONS
. ... . .. .. .page 3
........... ...........
........... ...........
...........
........... ........... .. . . . . . . . . . ...........
...........
3
3
3. LOAD COMBINATIONS
3.1 Ultimate limit states 3.2Serviceability limit states 4.MATERIALS 4.1Concrete 4.2Reinforcing steel 4.3 Structural steel 4.4Shear connectors 4.5Partial safety factors
5. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE
3 4 4
4 4 4 4 5
5
...........
5.1 Construction stage 5.2Composite stage
6.SHEAR CONNECTORS 6.1 Longitudinal shear force 6.2Design resistance of shear connectors 6.3Number of shear connectors
........... ...........
...........
5 9
13
...........
...........
...........
13 14 15
7. TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT
...........
17
18 18 20
8. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION ........... 8.1 Calculation of maximum deflection 8.2Cracking of concrete
........... ...........
esnniple 3
1.
COMPOSITE BEAM CHARACTERISTICS
Span : L = 12000 + 12000 mm Static scheme : continuous beam Beam spacing : b =3333 mm Construction type : unpropped
*
2.
VALUES OF ACTIONS
Characteristic values
permanent loads
I
g'k
g'lk
g"lk
= 3.00.3.33
= 10.00 kN/m normal weight concrete = 0.80 kN/m steel beam
=
1.00.3.33
= 3.33 kN/m interior finishings = 11.67 kN/m imposed load
= =
variable loads
qk
9"k
= 3.503.33
=
1.00.3.33
3.33 kN/m partitions 1.67 kN/m construction load
q"Ik
= 0.503.33
( reduced value to take account of lower
probability of loading in continuous beam )
accidental loads 3. 3.1
ak
=O
LOAD COMBINATIONS Ultimate limit states
YG.zGk,js"/Q'Qk,
1
[Table 3. I] considering only the most unfavourable action considering all unfavourable variable actions
YG *CGk+ j +O. 9*yQ*ZQk,j
whichever is larger Partial safety factors:
example 3
Page 3
j + 1.5 = 6.9CQk.i 4..3] : Fe 360 = 235 Nominal steel grade Nominal yield strength : f.2 Serviceability limit states CGk.ge 4 . = 325./(E. = 450 N/mm2 esaniple 3 P.3 Structural steel [4.21 n = E. N/mmz (t 5 40 mm) Modulus of elasticity : E. = 2 10 kN/mm2 4.2 Reinforcing steel Type of steel : S 420 Steel grade : fsk = 420 N/mm2 Modulus of elasticity : E.2.88 = 20. 4.2] n = E.2..&..j + 0.1] Concrete strength class : C25/30 Characteristic strength : fck= 25 N/mm' Shnkage : E. [Table 3.65 (short term effects) (long term effects) [4.0 Qk. = 2 10 kN/mm2 4.5 kN/mm2 modular ratios : [7.21 [4. = 30.21 considering only the most unfavourable variable action considering all unfavorable variable action EGk.1 MATERIALS Concrete ~4..106 Secant modulus of elasticity of shortterm loading : E. = 210/30.4 Shear connectors Type : headed studs 22 mm diameter Ultimate tensile strength : f.3./3) 4.2.2.
4.2 Serviceability limit states 5. * % 71 Flange ha = 450.1.1 5.1 5.5 Partial safety factors yM 4.50 Steel reinforcement ys = 1.5.6 = 6.0 mm (b/2)/tf = 9Y14.1 Ultimate limit states Structural steel Concrete ya = 1.25 4.51< 1 0 = ~ 10 and therefore the flange is in Class 1 example 3 Page 5 .51 ~ = (Fe360) l 6.15 Shear connectors yv = 1.5.10 yc = 1.8mm b = 190.0 mm d =378.1 Crosssection properties Cross section classification A cross section is classified accordins to the least favourable class of its steel elements i n compression. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE Construction stage E6.
08.2l d ' i Masimum positive bending moment Msd = (9/128).4 = 40.3 E = 1 (Fe 360) 40.08*12 = 128.10.0812218 = 307.1.9kNm .8+ 1.819.2 Global analysis Moments and forces are determined by elestic global analysis in this case.(gtk+gttk)+yQ . and the restrictions of the crosssection are determined by plastic section analysis.d t = 378.q"'k = 1.08ki'i'/m At internal support (maximum negative bendingmoment) MSd= 17.5lcNm At internal support (shear force) Vs(i = 0.3 < 72s = 72 and the requirements for Class 1 crosssection are satisfied. 5.625*17.1.122 = 172.5.6 7 = 1 7. a) Design loads on both spans yG .17.35.
2 inin? V S= ~ 128.08~122/16 = 163.08 kN/m "1 12000 9 12000 1L 1.04.0.10~~10~ = = 363. = 1.2. = 1.4 kNm Maximum positive bending moment MSd = 231.450.08~122/16+1.1.d = 271.W. = (235~1702~10~/1..4 Design plastic shear resistance A.5*Vp.51 Vsd < 0.08 kN/m 163.2 < Vpl.0. I exatnplc 3 . vertical shear lias no effect 0 1 1 the plastic resistance moment.9.3 Plastic resistance moment of the steel section Mapl.6 kNin MSd = 307. R d = f..04.1.5 < M a p l S K= d 363.4 = 4399.b) Concrete and coiistnictioii design loads on one span only yG +g"k) +yQ q " l k =I 7.ha.6 kNin 5.1.Rd = 542.08 kN/m 17./y.t.4 kNm At internal support (maximum negative bending moment) MSd = 17.3 kN therefore.8=1.6 kNm 5.08 kN/m YG*g"k = 1.6 k N 5.5 Bending and vertical shear L6...35..
451 = 164.5[1+( 1/20).33 ALT = 0 9(L/i.5.9= 1.(L/i. 5 .51 ~ L T = 0.330.2)+hLT2] = 2 1 1.332)O’]= 0. 1).[ l+aLT(ALT0.9.(235/fV)O.5*[ 1+O.4 kNm Therefore.2)’/450/14. e(  0LT = 0.5121.33’1 = 1.2)+ 1.)”.1 Check of stability for the bottom flange of BC span (load combination b) Mb.4 kNm where  XLT = 1/[0LT+(0’LT’hZLT)O5]= = l/[l.9(12000/41.5 =93.Rd = XLT‘P w*wpl. 2 Annex F 3 The design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam is given by Mb.(12000/41.y*fyhM 1 = .1.51+(l.4 kNm> Msd = 163.6 Lateraltorsional buckling of the steel beam [ EC3 .Rd = 164.Os[ 1+( 1/20).5 .21 (rolled section) hLT = (hLT/h~)*13w’” = 125193.00*1702*103*235/1.9 = 1.8790.’ = 93.0 C1 AI = 1.0 = kv YM 1 (class 1 section) 1.)/{C.45 = 0.879 ( for shape of bending moment diagram ) = ~*(E/f.2)/{1.6)’]0~’~} = = 125. the beam is stable without hrther restraint.~ = 93. esariiple 3 Page X .)2/(h/tf)2]O’3}= = 0.106= = (0.5.9.
L = 2400 mm At internal support.2.f.125..4*235/1.8*L/S = 0.3] for sections in negative bending = 0./(2t.L = 1500 IIUTI bey = 2*0..2. 12 mm/150 mm 4 = 1 130 mm' in the effective width of slab depth of the web in compression z.b/.0. beff= 2.7 = 122. .3 IIUII esample .1 Effective width of concrete flange: [6.) = 225412700/(2*9.3 Page 9 .5.1) = 225102.\~ = ha/2F.2 ComDosite stage Crosssection properties 5. negative moment resistance is obtained by considering the tensile resistance of the reinforcement.v. bar d i m .1.5*L/S for sections in Dositive bendinu.
~.2400.85*fck.4 = 40.yhc/~.2 < 3 9 6 . 1)= = 472.Map Rd +F.d = h. ~ 1 web in Class 1 FIange in compression (Table 6.d)/2 = 450122.1+412700*(450/2+90)4127002/(4~9. ~ 1= ) 43.2 mm a = 292.Rd .1) C/tf = 95/14...8 d/t.b. . 20/ Tension in steel 080 kN f.85.3 4 3 .25.=(0.~(h.Mpl.(ha/2+a)F..4~235/1..3(450378.4 kNm where a = distance of reinforcement from top of steel flange = 90 mm concrete cover = 30 mm Check of crosssection class Web in bending and compression d = 378.77 According to TabIe 6.10= 21 1 1 kN csaniple 3 Page 10 ~~ ~ . 2/(4twfy/ya) = = 1702000235/1.2/378. = 378.5 < 10 flange in Class 1 and therefore the section is in Class 1.6 = 6.*&/ya = 235*9880/1.8 mm a.8)/2 = = 292.8 = 0.W9. In midspan region compression in concrete: O.
6.7 kNm 5.4 h i m Moment after redistribution: M..*.~.(elk+g'lk)+l/Q.Rd is given by: = (f. = 0.12YS = 748.z..120.. for Class 1 section and "uncracked" elastic analysis .) = 62././.(10.j= 472. = (f.1 C M..2 Global analysis Bending moments Neeative moment Taking into account a negative moment redistribution equal to 40%.6.748.2.f.~/y~)/(O./2+h.4 kNm .b.SS..0621/2)~10' = = 662.)(h.l.8+3.5.1 IIUII < 120 IIUII Jc The plastic moment of resistance of the composite beam b$l.35.10)~(0.~/:/...33)+1.Therefore plastic neutral axis lies in the slab./2) = = (235~9880/1.Rd .451'2+0.33) =41. In this case the depth (z.(q I q I1k) = I = 1.1 lcNm Msd = 449.4 = 449. the des& moment at internal support results: Desip load = yG.(11.673.6 kN/m Moment before redistribution = 4 1.) of the neutral axis is given by: Z.
= ~ 69 and therefore the steel web is verified.3 Vertical sliear At iiitenial support Vpl.3 < 6 9 .6 k N > Vsd = 286.1 kN MSd = R2//(2. Positive moment From equilibrium the reaction at external support after redistribution is: R = qd*L/2Msd/L= 41.Rd = 542.12/(2.4 Bending and vertical shear at internal support 449.1 < 471.2.1/12 = 212.I !20@0 1 12000 541 KNm /n 449.41.2. hi this example patteni load for positive bending moment is not critical." = 40. 5. 5.6. But there is the need to consider such a load combination generally.7 kNin example 3 Page 12 .12/2449.qd) = 212.6) = 541 kNin and the verification is satisfied.1 KNrn It should also be noted that plastic global analysis could be used for Class 1 sections.9 k N Shear buckling d/t.
421.2. 6.3.12000 = 5052 inin where force transfer is 21 11 kN from the slab to the beam.2. ignoring the reinforcement: 5. 6948 12000 i length = 120005052 = 6948 min = 2111+(1130*420/1.1 * SHEAR CONNECTORS Longitudinal shear force Full shear connection a) between simple end support and point of maximum positive moment i6./y. "lie design is shown to be satisfactory as is normally the case.6.f..f+A. positive moment and internal support I Vi = F. b) between point of max.7 kN example 3 Page 13 1 . 6..5 Lateraltorsional buckling of composite section Checks have been camed out on the adequacy of the resistance to lateraltorsional buckling of the composite beam as in EC4 clause 4.where.15)*103 = = 2523. for the steel section.41 L 12000 length = 0.
25 = 98.22Y4)/1.25 = 109.kE. sagging bending and the internal support VI.2 Design resistance of shear connectors The design resistance of a stud shear connector is given by: a) P R d = 0.6)/(662.29. Try 22 mm diam. whichever is smaller.15).d2/4)/y.29.fu(~.1. studs 100 mm high a) P R d = 0. = 1252+(1130*420/1. degree of shear connection required so that Msd is achieved is 0. or b) P R d = 0.Partial shear connection where MSd = 541 lcNm 1Mpl.6) = = 21 110.7 lcNm M a p l .8..593= 1252 kN Therefore. = 21 11*(541363.103 = 1665 kN 6. The minimum degree of shear connection that is required is obtained as follows.6 kNm and then VI .222d(2530500)/1.8.7363. b) Shear connection between max.4 kN b) P i d = 0.d2~(f.0 kN esample 3 Page 14 .Rd = 662.)/y~.450.593. R d = 363.(~.a.
5 and therefore the studs may be spaced unifonnly over the entire beam length.53 < 2.61 > 0.6.~d = 1.3 a) fliimber of shear connecton Full shear coiiiiection FCf/PRd = 2111/98. example 3 Page 15 4 .6+0.Rd(red)/Mapl. Rd(red)=Mapl.0 So the plastic moment of resistance of the beam with 64% shear connection exceeds the design moment by 2.32 > 4 and the studs are considered as ductile.7363. R d ) ' ( N ~ f ) =363.14 headed studs U 22 mm to achieve the minimum degree of shear connection.593 Therefore provide no.64*(662.5 no.61 h/d = (1005)/22 = 4.Minimum degree of shear connection N/Nf 2 0. Spacui g Mapl.25+0.0 = 21.M a p l .6 kNin ( inay be 300 inin in practice ) Actual moment of resistance is: Mpl. K d f ( M p l .22 headed studs o 22 m m Partial shear connection .Rd = 5052/14 = 360 inm (Steel beam) = 363.6) =555. K d . N/Nf = 14/22 = 0.03 L = 0.5% Check: Mpl.64 > 0.
=14+ 1130.Miniinuin degree of shear connection Fcf/P. Use 300 m m spacing of shear con~iectors * rL'L'L full connection would require : XN=22+26=48 A partial connection : m = 1 4 + 1 9 =33 5052 6948 . spacing = 6948/19 = 365 m m ( inay be 300 in111in practice) over the entire span.7 110./P.26 headed studs U 22 rnm Partial shear connection N where: =14+F. =tensile force in rei~iforceinent.9800 N ~18. Tlierefore.7/98.0 = 25. CN = 1200/30 = 40.Full shear connection .2 Use 19 and the studs are considered as ductile.15.42Q 1.d = 2523.d F.
4 7 .10' O mm:/m Vpd =0 (contribution of the steel sheeting) and therefore = (2. qTR d +& .6 kN/m a) v R ~ b) vRJ = (0.7 .fskh.fck /yc +Vp d /d3 * s = 2.3 m ' / m Longitudinal shear in the slab Section aa a) VR d or b) VR d = 0 . 103 = 400 kN/m esample .420/1.2.15)~10~' = 273.~0+2~25 1.3 .51 reinf.120*10'* 1*25/1.5).. where ' I R ~= 0.~ O =O 120.3.1~0.= ~ ~ O .2 layers 4 = &+Ab = 2251.\ v .ls+vPd whichever is smaller. 2 .5.71 q=l 4.30 N/m' (C?5/30) (normal weight concrete) [Table 6.002.5.10'. TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Minimum transverse reinforcement for solid slab 4 2 0.002~120~1000 = 240 m ' / m C6..4 = 0.120. bar 4 8 m m / 200 m m .3.
5~225~1O3~1~0.2 Composite stage example 3 Page 18 .1000= 225.7 kN/in and the verification is satisfied.1.80*103~1 200O1/(210*3374O*1O4) = = 17.1000/300 = 326.) = = 0.7/2 = 163.The longitudinal design shear is given by VSd = 98.3 < 273. Section bb Acv = (295+35).00542*p1*L4/(E.1 8.1 Construction stage p1 = 10.0.3 kN/m = 352.0054210.15)~1O3 = 352. 8.103 mtn’/m VRd VRd = (2. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE VERIFICATION Calculation of maxiniuni deflection 8.I.7 kN/m For each shear plane aa vSd/2 = 326.80 kN/m 61 = 0.1 i n i n 8.3 kN/m >vsd = 326.6 kN/m and the verification is satisfied.1.3O+2~251.3~420/1.
42 This correction factor c = 0.5 kNm Puse 19 .33).0.33= 18.67+3.110.42 reduces the hogging bending moment in order to take account of the effects of cracking and yielding.1 1673.65 = 116.33 6 C 12000 12000 I 196.(18.81Oj mm mm' rnm' mmJ 13946. 18.8. The value seems to be conservative.2.5 mm Correction factor for support moment Mh C [7.' 21 151.063.101 beff /n = 2400/20.5] = 0.mm' 1 2 rnm mm' 3974.8 33740.33 kN/m and = 22.6.8 mm For simply supported beam and assuming full shear connection: Load considered for serviceability deflection = interior finishing. = 3974.0.10'/23826.7 = 166.5 kNrn blh = 0.10' 166. imposed load partition : p2= 3.122 = 196.710' 27495.7 285 9880.10' 19478. Detailed analysis of stresses may show that cracking and/or yielding does not occur. 13.6.6.1 18.6101 6 1235.7= 0.2 mm e.0 .33+3.33 kN/m A .33+11.
= I/{1+[hC/(2z./a.12*/8)= 0.75 6. (11.A. 12 mm/150 mm A.42*196.0 inin equal to W353 < L/250 Minitnuin degree of shear connection N/Nf = 0.8 A.2 CrackinP .88~9880) = = 138./2+h~)]/(b..9 tntn .7 k = 0.1 tntn zg = [b.3333.3. where: = 0. :itc n o a r en ti = = 17.5 = 16.of concrete Minimum reinforcement (for no control of crack widths): A.L2/8) =10.002.10 = 1130 mn2> 800 min2 The tnlliiinuin area of reinforcement required to ensure that the reinforcement remains elastic when cracking first occurs is given by: A.1 tntn k .7~3~180000/320 = 945 inin? z.160 = 78.565 < 0. = 0.78.120 = 180000 Inin‘ fctc = 3 N/mln’ us.88~9880(450/2+120)]/(1500~120+6.9 = 34.h’.10.h.lic = 1500./2 = 138. >k~k.61 > 0..5/( 18. 2 0.8~0. = zgh.5 and the effects of incomplete interaction are ignored.120 = 800 1nm2 Use bar diatn.22.75.3 tnrn ) example 3 Page 20 . ff. = 113.f.42*M. ff.A.= 320 N/mm2 (for crack width wk = 0.a .1+16..)1 1= = 1/{1+[120/(2.33./2+11.A. 8..) = = [ 1500~120’/2+6. = 0.+~i./(p2.1)]}= 0. = beff.7 and then k.
.10 = 1130 mm2 > 945 mm2 where A. = 113. is referred to the effective width. esimple 3 Page 2 1 .A.
WORKED EXAMPLE no. The length of the column is 4 m. 300 e.4 The example refers to a concrete encased composite column subject to compression load and uniaxial bending. The verification has been carried out according to the simplified method given in this publication.wple 4 Page 1 . No influence of shear forces has been considered.
. age . .... CROSS SECTION GEOMETRIC AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE CHECKS 5..................3 Nondimensional slenderness 5. 3 Structural steel 3. ..1 Resistance of crosssection to axial compression 5...2 Effective elastic flexural stiffness of crosssection 5.... ..1 Concrete 3...... ... .... . 4 4 4 5 6 ..4 Partial safety factors .......... 4 5....... COMPOSITE COLUMN CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN VALUES OF ACTIONS MATERIALS 3...... 2.... ..INDEX 1.... ..... esample 4 ................. . 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4... ... ...... .....2 Reinforcing steel 3 .. .... ... ..p 3 ...4 Simplified method ..... ........ ..
1 . COMPOSITE COLUMN CHARACTERISTICS Columnlength : L = 4000mm Type of construction Steel profile 2 .1] Concrete strength class: 20/25 Characteristic strength: fCk = 20 N/mm2 Secant modulus of elasticity of shortterm loading: E. 3 . 1 Page 3 .Sd = 0 kNm 3 .3] Nominal steel grade : Fe 510 nominal yield strength : fv= 3 5 5 N / m 2 modulus of elasticity : E. 3 Structural steel [4.2] type of steel : S 420 steel grade : fsk = 420 N / m 2 modulus of elasticity : E. = 210 kN/mm2 3 .Sd = 140 kNm = M.2.0 kN/mm2 Modular ratios: 3 . = concrete encased section = HEA200 DESIGN VALUES OF ACTION Design axial load for the column length Maximum secondorder design bending moment about axis yy Maximum design bending moment about axis zz  N..2.2. 2 Reinforcing steel [4. = 29. 1 MATERIALS Concrete [4.max. =850kN . = 2 10 kN/mm2 (t I 40 mm) esamplr.Mvmas..
4m. = 452..1 J 5. Ya Y C = 1. Rd = & *fy/ya+&.+E.10 = 1. = 1.I.d.2 Effective elastic flexural stiffness of crosssection Short term loading The flexural stiffness of crosssection about the main axes is (E. example 4 = E.15 CROSS SECTION GEOMETRIC AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS c.8 5*f.50 y .k/y. Page J .m' 5.+O.'fsk lys 5.3.E. CZ = (300200)/2 = 50 IYKII = (300190)/2 = 55 mm Reinforcement : 4412 bars A.(0. )+A.I.3.S.4.1 The plastic resistance to axial compression is given by Np1.I. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE CHECKS Resistance of crosssection to axial compression 18..I).1 Ultimate limit states structural steel concrete steel reinforcement 4.4 Partial safety factors YM 3.
*I.998.2.300 = 0. +O.10')+2 10.~I.8.165/0.I). = 140/850 = 0..8*E.about yy (E*I).226.d .3 5).(29/1. = E..I.8~(E.m/y. = = 2 10*3692*10+0.10" kN*mm2 about zz (E.+Es*Isz = = 2 10*1336.y+0.ICZ+Es *Isz= = E.226.d .102+0. 8.. 5.(300'/123692*1P)+2 10.55 < 2 where d is the overall depth of the cross section in the plane of bending considered. *Iaz +O.Z+0.10'O kN. = 0 e/d = 0.165 e. The nondimensional slenderness results h < 0.(3OOJ/121 336.2.m2 long term loading The eccentricity e of the normal force is defined by e = Mm as .1152 = = 1.8*(29/1 .~I.~I.y+E.S dmS d in this case e.m.3 Nondimensional slenderness The slenderness for the determination of the load bearing capacity of the column is given by e s m p i e I Page 5 .E.+E.35).8~(E.2. *Is = = E.)I.543.!.8(see 4.)~I.115 2 = 1.m/y.3) and therefore the influence of creep and shrinkage on the ultimate load need not to be considered. = E.2.
k)+As.536  A..(O.355+(30025380).where Npl. < 0.4. = 4000 mm buckling length of the column N.1)/2860 = 0.3. = (E*I)e..+A..10'"*~'/4000' = 9520 kN and then &.f.610 Simplified method C8.~2/12 = 1.Ic~/~. = 0.607 0.b = 0.4 The conditions to be satisfied for the applicability of the method are: a) crosssection Izeometry The cross section of composite column (under examination) is doublesymmetrical and uniform over the entire length.61 5. b) steel contribution ratio 6 = (b'fy/ya)/NpI ..f..2 < 6 < 0.f. = 0.! Ncrz  = (E*I)ey*7t2/Iy2 = 1 .103/1.L = = [5380.85.85.I)...20)+452. 1.~ = 1.54~. Rd = (5380~355..(0.998*10'o*~2/4000' = 12320 kN = (E.9 c) nondimensional slenderness h ?.as = h..R = ~.420)]103 = = 3538 kN N..610 < 2 d) concrete cover cy = 50 mm 40 mm < C. = 0.4.4200= 80 IIMII esample 4 Page G .
780. .N = I/[D+(Q’~’)~~] = 0.2)+h2] = 0.2860 = 2230 k.N 5.4 mm2 5.2] where N .49 curvec and then 850 < 0.003. < 0.4 = 0.04.4 m 2 Minimum reinforcement = 0.003.3.3ha = 57 mm e) longitudinal reinforcement 4 4 12 bars A.[l+a(h0. .4 = 0.cz = 55 mm 40mm < c.2 Resistance of crosssection in com bined compression and and uniaxial bending [8.4> 452. = 452.4.5.1 Check of column axial compression resistance The check is satisfied if for both axes [8.780 b d on buckling about zz = 0.786 a =0. .3.04*(300’5380) = 3384.3] Compressive resistance of the whole area of concrete: esample 4 Page 7 i .9< 452. . X Q = 2860 k.4.4mm2 Maximum reinforcement that may be considered in calculations 0.(30025380) = 253.
= [ ~ ~ f c ~ .5. = 1901210 = 85 ITII~) W.zWpanWpsn= 520944. ~ f c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .Plastic bendine resistance MpI Rd plastic section modulus of reinforcement W.10jT I~ P II Asn = 4(12'~/4) = 452.2....W. = fw*h.4.711.fyd.f~d. = 6269.8 Puze 8 .3.6.322. = [959000452..3+2.f c ~ ) ] / [ ~ ~ b .3)]/[2.7~(42900011537)+0.1Oj W' position of neutral axis (in the web) h.(WpcWpcn)'fsJ.'/4Wp.j.1 mm .42.~h.8 kXm M (kNm) example 4 0 lZo Mpl.365..(506680)= 185.7.~ .211.1' = 11537.Rd 155.3)] (h.h.(WpsW %l.(WpaWpan)+0.300~ 11. < h/2t.0 W' Wpcn= bc.(6269000520944)+ +365.(2.(2.' = 6..5~11 .5.~/4). =4*(122.Rd Psn )= = 322.4 W ' plastic modulus of structural steel plastic modulus of concrete part of section Wpc = b.0 mm3 = 42.112= 50. ( 2 ~ ) ] where h. ~ ( ~ ~ f s ~ .
4] where 1 x= 0.5.1 Id\lm MmaXu.0.l.780 Xd<Xprn p = l(lX)‘Xd/[(lXpm).874.4. The maximum axial load N*Sd allowable with Msd = 140 lcNm is given by N*Sd = E’X*Npl.X 1 = = 1( 10.335).1 kNm and the member check is satisfied.Rd esample 4 Page 9 .Rd 1MSd = 140 b L a s .780] = 0.9*0.g‘p’b$.874 = O.8 = 146. R d = 146.3.780)*0.185.Rd= 0.3 Resistance of member in combined compression and and uniaxial bending [8.297/[( 10.
9* 1 85.8)= = 0.R~) = = 1.2860.where 5 = lMsd*(IX~~)/(O.443 N * s ~ = 0.780.443.~*M~~.140410.5 = 988 kN esampls I Page 1 0 .3 3 5)/(0.0.