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Richard Barbrook Barbrook R. (1998). ‘The High-Tech Gift Economy ! "ir#t $onday (%o&. '! n(m. 1)). En htt*+,,---.fir#tmonday.

dk,i##(e#,i##(e'.1),barbrook,inde/.htm& During the Sixties, the New Left created a new form of radical politics: anarcho-communism. Above all, the Situationists and similar groups believed that the tribal gift econom proved that individuals could successfull live together without needing either the state or the mar!et. "rom #a $%&' to the late Nineties, this utopian vision of anarcho-communism has inspired communit media and D() culture activists. *ithin the universities, the gift econom alread was the primar method of socialising labour. "rom its earliest da s, the technical structure and social mores of the Net has ignored intellectual propert . Although the s stem has expanded far be ond the universit , the self-interest of Net users perpetuates this hi-tech gift econom . As an ever da activit , users circulate free information as e-mail, on listservs, in newsgroups, within on-line conferences and through *eb sites. As shown b the Apache and Linux programs, the hi-tech gift econom is even at the forefront of software development. +ontrar to the purist vision of the New Left, anarcho-communism on the Net can onl exist in a compromised form. #one -commodit and gift relations are not ,ust in conflict with each other, but also co-exist in s mbiosis. -he .New /conom . of c berspace is an advanced form of social democrac .

0ontent# The Legacy of the New Left The Net as Really Existing Anarcho-Communism The 'New Economy' is a Mixed Economy Notes References

The 1egacy of the 2e- 1eft

& The Net is haunted 'y the disa**ointed ho*es of the #ixties "ecause this new technology sym'olises another *eriod of ra*id change( many contem*orary commentators loo% 'ac% to the stalled re$olution of thirty years ago to ex*lain what is ha**ening now Most famously( the editors of *ired continually *ay homage to the New Left $alues of indi$idual freedom and cultural dissent in their co$erage of the Net -owe$er( in their Californian ideology( these ideals of their youth are now going to 'e realised through technological determinism and free mar%ets The *olitics of ecstasy ha$e 'een re*laced 'y the economics of greed !.& /ronically( the New Left emerged in res*onse to the 'sell-out' of an earlier generation "y the end of the 0ifties( the heroes of the anti-fascist struggle had 'ecome the guardians of Cold 1ar orthodoxies E$en within the arts( a$ant-garde ex*erimentation had 'een transformed into fashiona'le styles of consumer society The ado*tion of inno$ati$e styles and new techni2ues was no longer su'$ersi$e 0rustrated with the recu*eration of their *arents' generation( young *eo*le started loo%ing for new methods of cultural and social acti$ism A'o$e all( the #ituationists *roclaimed that the e*och of the *olitical $anguard and the artistic a$ant-garde had *assed /nstead of following the intellectual elite( e$eryone should instead determine their own destinies "The situation is made to 'e li$ed 'y its constructors The role *layed 'y a *assi$e '*u'lic' must constantly diminish( while that *layed 'y those who cannot 'e called actors 'ut rather 'li$ers' must steadily increase ' !3& These New Left acti$ists wanted to create o**ortunities for e$eryone to ex*ress their own ho*es( dreams and desires The -egelian 'grand narrati$e' would culminate in the su*ersession of all mediations se*arating *eo*le from each other 4et( des*ite their -egelian modernism( the #ituationists 'elie$ed that the uto*ian future had 'een *refigured in the tri'al *ast 0or exam*le( tri'es in 5olynesia organised themsel$es around the *otlatch6 the circulation of gifts 1ithin these societies( this gift economy 'ound *eo*le together into tri'es and encouraged coo*eration 'etween different tri'es /n ." when !"en #li$%a& suggested that Microsoft consider gi$ing away its 'rowser( ) la Netsca*e( +ates ex*loded and called him a 'communist' " !.

contrast with the atomisation and alienation of 'ourgeois society( *otlatches re2uired intimate contacts and emotional authenticity !7& According to the #ituationists( the tri'al gift economy demonstrated that indi$iduals could successfully li$e together without needing either the state or the mar%et After the New Left re$olution( *eo*le would recreate this idyllic condition6 anarcho-communism !8& -owe$er( the #ituationists could not esca*e from the elitist tradition of the a$ant-garde 9es*ite their in$ocation of -egel and Marx( the #ituationists remained haunted 'y Niet:sche and Lenin As in earlier generations( the rhetoric of mass *artici*ation simultaneously .ustified the leadershi* of the intellectual elite Anarcho-communism was therefore transformed into the 'mar% of distinction' for the New Left $anguard As a conse2uence( the gi$ing of gifts was seen as the a'solute antithesis of mar%et com*etition There could 'e no com*romise 'etween tri'al authenticity and 'ourgeois alienation After the social re$olution( the *otlatch would com*letely su**lant the commodity !<& /n the two decades following the May .=<> re$olution( this *urist $ision of anarcho-communism ins*ired community media acti$ists 0or instance( the radical 'free radio' stations created 'y New Left militants in 0rance and /taly refused all funding from state and commercial sources /nstead( these *ro.ects tried to sur$i$e through donations of time and money from their su**orters Emanci*atory media su**osedly could only 'e *roduced within the gift economy !?& 9uring the late#e$enties( *ro-situ attitudes were further *o*ularised 'y the *un% mo$ement Although ra*idly commercialised( this su'culture did encourage its mem'ers to form their own 'ands( ma%e their own fashions and *u'lish their own fan:ines This *artici*atory ethic still sha*es inno$atory music and radical *olitics today 0rom ra$es to en$ironmental *rotests( the s*irit of May '<> li$es on within the 9/4 culture of the Nineties The gift is su**osedly a'out to re*lace the commodity !>& The 2et a# Rea&&y E/i#ting 3narcho-0omm(ni#m 9es*ite originally 'eing in$ented for the @ # military( the Net was constructed around the gift economy The 5entagon initially did try to restrict the unofficial uses of its com*uter networ% -owe$er( it soon 'ecame o'$ious that the Net could only 'e successfully de$elo*ed 'y letting its users 'uild the system for themsel$es 1ithin the scientific community( the gift economy has long 'een the *rimary method of socialising la'our 0unded 'y the state or 'y donations( .

ournals The colla'oration of many different academics is made *ossi'le through the free distri'ution of information !=& 1ithin small tri'al societies( the circulation of gifts esta'lished close *ersonal 'onds 'etween *eo*le /n contrast( the academic gift economy is used 'y intellectuals who are s*read across the world 9es*ite the anonymity of the modern $ersion of the gift economy( academics ac2uire intellectual res*ect from each other through citations in articles and other forms of *u'lic ac%nowledgement #cientists therefore can only o'tain *ersonal recognition for their indi$idual efforts 'y o*enly colla'orating with each other through the academic gift economy Although research is 'eing increasingly commercialised( the gi$ing away of findings remains the most efficient method of sol$ing common *ro'lems within a *articular scientific disci*line !..scientists don't ha$e to turn their intellectual wor% directly into mar%eta'le commodities /nstead( research results are *u'licised 'y 'gi$ing a *a*er' at s*ecialist conferences and 'y 'contri'uting an article' to *rofessional .& 1hen New Left militants *roclaimed that 'information wants to 'e free' 'ac% in the #ixties( they were *reaching to com*uter scientists who were already li$ing within the academic gift economy A'o$e all( the founders of the Net ne$er 'othered to *rotect intellectual *ro*erty within com*uter-mediated communications Bn the contrary( they were de$elo*ing these new technologies to ad$ance their careers inside the academic gift economy 0ar from wanting to enforce co*yright( the *ioneers of the Net tried to eliminate all 'arriers to the distri'ution of scientific research Technically( e$ery act within cy'ers*ace in$ol$es co*ying material from one com*uter to another Bnce the first co*y of a *iece of information is *laced on the Net( the cost of ma%ing each extra co*y is almost :ero The architecture of the system *resu**oses that multi*le co*ies of documents can easily 'e cached around the networ% As Tim "erners-Lee .A& 0rom its earliest days( the free exchange of information has therefore 'een firmly em'edded within the technologies and social mores of cy'ers*ace !.& ..the in$entor of the 1e' .*oints out6 "Conce*ts of intellectual *ro*erty( central to our culture( are not ex*ressed in a way which ma*s onto the a'stract information s*ace /n an information s*ace( we can consider the authorshi* of materials( and their *erce*tionC 'ut there is a need for the underlying infrastructure to 'e a'le to ma%e co*ies sim*ly for reasons of !technical& efficiency and relia'ility The conce*t of 'co*yright' as ex*ressed in terms of co*ies made ma%es little sense " !.

3& /n 0rance( the nationalised tele*hone mono*oly has accustomed *eo*le to *aying for the on-line ser$ices *ro$ided 'y Minitel /n contrast( the Net remains *redominantly a gift economy e$en though the system has ex*anded far 'eyond the uni$ersity 0rom scientists through ho''yists to the general *u'lic( the charmed circle of users was slowly 'uilt u* through the adhesion of many localised networ%s to an agreed set of *rotocols Crucially( the common standards of the Net include social con$entions as well as technical rules The gi$ing and recei$ing of information without *ayment is almost ne$er 2uestioned Although the circulation of gifts doesn't necessarily create emotional o'ligations 'etween indi$iduals( *eo*le are still willing to donate their information to e$eryone else on the Net E$en selfish reasons encourage *eo*le to 'ecome anarcho-communists within cy'ers*ace "y adding their own *resence( e$ery user contri'utes to the collecti$e %nowledge accessi'le to those already on-line /n return( each indi$idual has *otential access to all the information made a$aila'le 'y others within the Net E$eryone ta%es far more out of the Net than they can e$er gi$e away as an indi$idual " the Net is far from altruistic( or it wouldn't wor% "ecause it ta%es as much effort to distri'ute one co*y of an original creation as a million you ne$er lose from letting your *roduct free as long as you are com*ensated in return 1hat a miracle( then( that you recei$e not one .1ithin the commercial creati$e industries( ad$ances in digital re*roduction are feared for ma%ing the '*iracy' of co*yright material e$er easier 0or the owners of intellectual *ro*erty( the Net can only ma%e the situation worse /n contrast( the academic gift economy welcomes technologies which im*ro$e the a$aila'ility of data @sers should always 'e a'le to o'tain and mani*ulate information with the minimum of im*ediments The design of the Net therefore assumes that intellectual *ro*erty is technically and socially o'solete !.

thing in $alue in exchange .<& 4et( at the 'cutting edge' of the emerging information society( moneycommodity relations *lay a secondary role to those created 'y a really existing form of anarcho-communism 0or most of its users( the Net is somewhere to wor%( *lay( lo$e( learn and discuss with other *eo*le @nrestricted 'y *hysical distance( they colla'orate with each other without the direct mediation of money or *olitics @nconcerned a'out co*yright( they gi$e and recei$e information without thought of *ayment /n the a'sence of states or mar%ets to mediate social 'onds( networ% communities are instead formed through the mutual o'ligations created 'y gifts of time and ideas "This informal( unwritten social contract is su**orted 'y a 'lend of strong-tie and wea%-tie relationshi*s among *eo*le who ha$e a mixture of moti$es and e*hemeral affiliations /t re2uires one to gi$e something( and ena'les one to recei$e something / find that the hel* / recei$e far outweighs the energy / ex*end hel*ing othersC a marriage of altruism and self-interest " !.indeed there is no ex*licit act of exchange at all .'ut millions of uni2ue goods made 'y othersD" !.7& 9es*ite the commercialisation of cy'ers*ace( the self-interest of Net users ensures that the hi-tech gift economy continues to flourish 0or instance( musicians are using the Net for the digital distri'ution of their recordings to each other "y gi$ing away their own wor% to this networ% community( indi$iduals get free access to a far larger amount of music in return Not sur*risingly( the music 'usiness is worried a'out the increased o**ortunities for the '*iracy' of co*yrighted recordings o$er the Net #am*ling( 9E-ing and mixing are already 'lurring *ro*erty rights within dance music -owe$er( the greatest threat to the commercial music cor*orations comes from the flexi'ility and s*ontaneity of the hi-tech gift economy After it is com*leted( a new trac% can 2uic%ly 'e made freely a$aila'le to a glo'al audience /f someone li%es the tune( they can download it for *ersonal listening( use it as a sam*le or ma%e their own remix But of the free circulation of information( musicians can form friendshi*s( wor% together and ins*ire each other "/t's all a'out doing it for yourself "etter than *un% " !.?& .8& 1ithin the de$elo*ed world( most *oliticians and cor*orate leaders 'elie$e that the future of ca*italism lies in the commodification of information B$er the last few decades( intellectual *ro*erty rights ha$e 'een steadily tightened through new national laws and international agreements E$en human genetic material can now 'e *atented !.

Bn the Net( enforcing co*yright *ayments re*resents the im*osition of scarcity on a technical system designed to maximise the dissemination of information The *rotection of intellectual *ro*erty sto*s all users ha$ing access to e$ery source of %nowledge Commercial secrecy *re$ents *eo*le from hel*ing each other to sol$e common *ro'lems The inflexi'ility of information commodities inhi'its the efficient mani*ulation of digital data /n contrast( the technical and social structure of the Net has 'een de$elo*ed to encourage o*en coo*eration among its *artici*ants As an e$eryday acti$ity( users are 'uilding the system together Engaged in 'interacti$e creati$ity'( they send e-mail( ta%e *art in listser$s( contri'ute to newsgrou*s( *artici*ate within online conferences and *roduce 1e' sites !.ects( this $irtual machine is 'eing continually de$elo*ed 'y its techie users "ecause its source code is not *rotected 'y co*yright( the *rogram can 'e modified( amended and im*ro$ed 'y anyone with the a**ro*riate *rogrammings%ills 1hen someone does ma%e a contri'ution to a shareware *ro.A& /nstead of 'eing mar%eted 'y a commercial com*any( this *rogram is shareware !..& Li%e similar *ro.& The greater social and technical efficiency of anarchocommunism is therefore inhi'iting the commercial ta%e-o$er of the Net #hareware *rograms are now 'eginning to threaten the core *roduct of the Microsoft em*ire6 the 1indows o*erating system #tarting from the original software *rogram 'y Linus Tor$alds( a community of user-de$elo*ers are together 'uilding their own non-*ro*rietary o*erating system6 Linux 0or the first time( 1indows has a serious com*etitor Anarchocommunism is now the only alternati$e to the dominance of mono*oly ca*italism "Linux is su'$ersi$e 1ho could ha$e thought e$en fi$e years ago that a world-class o*erating system could coalesce as if 'y magic out of *art-time hac%ing 'y se$eral thousand .ect( the gift of their la'our is rewarded 'y recognition within the community of user-de$elo*ers The inflexi'ility of commodified software *rograms is com*ounded 'y their greater unrelia'ility E$en Microsoft can't mo'ilise the amount of la'our gi$en to some successful shareware *rograms 'y their de$otees 1ithout enough techies loo%ing at a *rogram( all its 'ugs can ne$er 'e found !..=& The hi-tech gift economy is e$en at the forefront of software de$elo*ment 0or instance( "ill +ates admits that Microsoft's 'iggest com*etitor in the *ro$ision of 1e' ser$ers comes from the A*ache *rogram !.>& Lac%ing co*yright *rotection( information can 'e freely ada*ted to suit the users' needs 1ithin the hi-tech gift economy( *eo*le successfully wor% together through " an o*en social *rocess in$ol$ing e$aluation( com*arison and colla'oration " !.

<& The New Left antici*ated the emergence of the hi-tech gift economy 5eo*le could colla'orate with each other without .8& "Ca*ital thus wor%s towards its own dissolution as the form dominating *roduction " !.3& The 42e.7& 4et( at exactly this moment in time( a really existing form of anarcho-communism is 'eing constructed within the Net( es*ecially 'y *eo*le li$ing in the @ # 1hen they go on-line( almost e$eryone s*ends most of their time *artici*ating within the gift economy rather than engaging in mar%et com*etition "ecause users recei$e much more information than they can e$er gi$e away( there is no *o*ular clamour for im*osing the e2ual exchange of the mar%et*lace on the Net Bnce again( the 'end of history' for ca*italism a**ears to 'e communism 0or the hi-tech gift economy was not an immanent *ossi'ility in e$ery age Bn the contrary( the mar%et and the state could only 'e sur*assed in this s*ecific sector at this *articular historical moment Crucially( *eo*le need so*histicated media( com*uting and telecommunications technologies to *artici*ate within the hi-tech gift economy A manually-o*erated *ress *roduced co*ies which were relati$ely ex*ensi$e( limited in num'ers and im*ossi'le to alter without reco*ying After generations of technological im*ro$ements( the same 2uantity of text on the Net costs almost nothing to circulate( can 'e co*ied as needed and can 'e remixed at will /n addition( indi$iduals need 'oth time and money to *artici*ate within the hi-tech gift economy 1hile a large num'er of the world's *o*ulation still li$es in *o$erty( *eo*le within the industrialised countries ha$e steadily reduced their hours of em*loyment and increased their wealth o$er a long *eriod of social struggles and economic reorganisations "y wor%ing for money during some of the wee%( *eo*le can now en.Economy4 i# a $i/ed Economy 0ollowing the im*losion of the #o$iet @nion( almost no'ody still 'elie$es in the ine$ita'le $ictory of communism Bn the contrary( large num'ers of *eo*le acce*t that the -egelian 'end of history' has culminated in American neo-li'eral ca*italism !.oy the delights of gi$ing gifts at other times Bnly at this *articular historical moment ha$e the technical and social conditions of the metro*olitan countries de$elo*ed sufficiently for the emergence of digital anarcho-communism !.de$elo*ers scattered all o$er the *lanet( connected only 'y the tenuous strands of the /nternetF" !.

>& The *urity of the digital 9/4 culture is also com*romised 'y the *olitical system The state isn't .tell me( do you ha$e any strategic *ro'lem right now that is 'igger than whether Microsoft is going to either crush you or own your soul in a few yearsF NoF 4ou don'tF BG( well( listen carefully then 4ou cannot sur$i$e against "ill +ates !'y& *laying "ill +ates' game To thri$e( or e$en sur$i$e( you're going to ha$e to change the rules "" !.ust the *otential censor and regulator of the Net At the same time( the *u'lic .needing either mar%ets or states -owe$er( the New Left had a *urist $ision of 9/4 culture6 the gift was the a'solute antithesis of the commodity 4et( anarcho-communism only exists in a com*romised form on the Net Contrary to the ethical-aesthetic $ision of the New Left( money-commodity and gift relations are not .?& ""-i there Mr CEB !Chief Executi$e Bfficer& .ust in conflict with each other( 'ut also co-exist in sym'iosis Bn the one hand( each method of wor%ing does threaten to su**lant the other The hi-tech gift economy heralds the end of *ri$ate *ro*erty in 'cutting edge' areas of the economy The digital ca*italists want to *ri$atise the shareware *rograms and enclose the social s*aces 'uilt through $oluntary effort The *otlatch and the commodity remain irreconcila'le 4et( on the other hand( the gift economy and the commercial sector can only ex*and through mutual colla'oration within cy'ers*ace The free circulation of information 'etween users relies u*on the ca*italist *roduction of com*uters( software and telecommunications The *rofits of commercial Net com*anies de*end u*on increasing num'ers of *eo*le *artici*ating within the hi-tech gift economy 0or instance( Netsca*e has tried to realise the o**ortunities o*ened u* 'y such interde*endence from its foundation @nder threat from the Microsoft mono*oly( the com*any has to ally itself with the hac%er community to a$oid 'eing o$erwhelmed /t started 'y distri'uting its 1e' 'rowser as a gift Today the source code of this *rogram is freely a$aila'le and the de$elo*ment of *roducts for Linux has 'ecome a to* *riority The commercial sur$i$al of Netsca*e de*ends u*on successfully colla'orating with hac%ers from the hi-tech gift economy Anarcho-communism is now s*onsored 'y cor*orate ca*ital !.

ority of *eo*le *artici*ate within the hi-tech gift economy for entirely *ragmatic reasons #ometimes they 'uy commodities on-line and access state-funded ser$ices -owe$er( they usually *refer to circulate gifts amongst each other Net users will always o'tain much more than will e$er 'e contri'uted in return "y gi$ing away something which is well-made( they will gain recognition from those who download their wor% 0or most *eo*le( the gift economy is sim*ly the 'est method of colla'orating together in cy'ers*ace 1ithin the mixed economy of the Net( anarcho-communism has 'ecome an e$eryday reality "1e must redisco$er the *leasure of gi$ing6 gi$ing 'ecause you ha$e so much 1hat 'eautiful and *riceless *otlatches the .=& At the end of the twentieth century( anarcho-communism is no longer confined to a$ant-garde intellectuals 1hat was once re$olutionary has now 'ecome 'anal As Net access grows( more and more ordinary *eo*le are circulating free information across the Net Crucially( their *otlatches are not attem*ts to regain a lost emotional authenticity 0ar from ha$ing any 'elief in the re$olutionary ideals of May '<>( the o$erwhelming ma.sector *ro$ides essential su**ort for the hi-tech gift economy /n the *ast( the founders of the Net ne$er 'othered to incor*orate intellectual *ro*erty within the system 'ecause their wages were funded from taxation /n the future( go$ernments will ha$e to im*ose uni$ersal ser$ice *ro$isions u*on commercial telecommunications com*anies if all sections of society are to ha$e the o**ortunity to circulate free information 0urthermore( when access is a$aila'le( many *eo*le use the Net for *olitical *ur*oses( including lo''ying their *olitical re*resentati$es 1ithin the digital mixed economy( anarcho-communism is also sym'iotic with the state This miscegenation occurs almost e$erywhere within cy'ers*ace 0or instance( an on-line conference site can 'e constructed as a la'our of lo$e( 'ut still 'e *artially funded 'y ad$ertising and *u'lic money Crucially( this hy'ridisation of wor%ing methods is not confined within *articular *ro.ects 1hen they're on-line( *eo*le constantly *ass from one form of social acti$ity to another 0or instance( in one session( a Net user could first *urchase some clothes from an e-commerce catalogue( then loo% for information a'out education ser$ices from the local council's site and then contri'ute some thoughts to an on-going discussion on a listser$er for fiction-writers 1ithout e$en consciously ha$ing to thin% a'out it( this *erson would ha$e successi$ely 'een a consumer in a mar%et( a citi:en of a state and an anarcho-communist within a gift economy 0ar from realising theory in its full *urity( wor%ing methods on the Net are ine$ita'ly com*romised The 'New Economy' is an ad$anced form of social democracy !.

affluent society will see . Eames 1allace( 2verdrive. .whether it li%es it or notD .when the exu'erance of the younger generation disco$ers the *ure gift " !3A& This article is a remixed extract from -he 0ol "ools: a criti1ue of the avant-garde in the age of the Net which will 'e *u'lished 'y Herso "oo%s early in .<< .==8J 0or the last few years( Richard has 'een coordinator of the -y*ermedia Research Centre at the @ni$ersity of 1estminster and was the first course leader of its MA in -y*ermedia #tudies /n colla'oration with Andy Cameron( he wrote "The Californian /deology" which was a *ioneering criti2ue of the neo-li'eral *olitics of *ired.=== 3bo(t the 3(thor 5r. 0or a criti2ue of the neo-li'eral *olitics of *ired. At *resent( Richard is com*leting -he 0ol "ools: a criti1ue of the avant-garde in the age of the Net for Herso "oo%s A selection of his writings is a$aila'le on the -y*ermedia Research Centre's 1e' site E-mail6 richardKhrc wmin ac u% htt*6LLwww hrc wmin ac u%L 2ote# . see Richard "ar'roo% and Andy Cameron( "The Californian /deology " 3 +uy 9e'ord( "Re*ort on the Construction of #ituations and on the /nternational #ituationist Tendency's Conditions of Brganisation and Action(" * . * . Richard Barbrook was educated at Cam'ridge( Essex and Gent uni$ersities 9uring the early Eighties( he was in$ol$ed in *irate and community radio 'roadcasting -e hel*ed to set u* #*ectrum Radio( a multilingual station o*erating in London( and *u'lished extensi$ely on radio issues /n the late Eighties and early Nineties( Richard wor%ed for a research institute at the @ni$ersity of 1estminster on media regulation within the E@ This research was later *u'lished in #edia "reedom: the contradictions of communications in the age of modernit ILondon6 5luto 5ress( .8 7 The #ituationists disco$ered the tri'al gift economy in Marcel Mauss( -he 3ift.

. < 0or instance( in their famous analysis of the . . = #ee 1arren B -agstrom( "+ift +i$ing as an Brganisational 5rinci*le in #cience(" * ..A7-..7 Risha' Aiyer +hosh( "Coo%ing 5ot Mar%ets(" * . .3.=<8 Los Angeles 1atts riots( the #ituationists *raised looting as the re$olutionary su*ersession of money-commodity relations6 " instead of 'eing eternally *ursued in the rat race of alienated la'our and increasing 'ut unmet social needs( real desires 'egin to 'e ex*ressed in festi$al( in *layful selfassertion( in the *otlatch of destruction " #ituationist /nternational( "The 9ecline and 0all of the #*ectacleCommodity Economy(" * . Tim "erners-Lee( "The 1orld 1ide 1e'6 5ast( 5resent and 0uture(" * . 0or its later influence on the new social mo$ements( see +eorge Gatsiaficas( -he (magination of the New Left.<- .= ... ** .8 #te$e Elliot of #lug B$en 2uoted in Garlin Lillington( "NoD /t's Not BG( Com*uter(" *age 3 Also see Andrew Leonard( "Mutiny on the Net " .88 ? #ee Eohn 9owning( 4adical #edia. > 9/4 stands for 'do-it-yourself' This slogan is used to em*hasise the need for *eo*le to tac%le social *ro'lems through collecti$e direct action rather than to wait for someone else to sol$e them #ee Elaine "rass( #o*hie 5o%lews%i Go:iell and 9enise #earle( 3athering "orce.==3 @ruguay Round of the +eneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade I+ATTJ was increased *rotection for *atents and co*yrights( es*ecially with agriculture and medicine( see Eohn 0row( "/nformation as +ift and Commodity " .A . #ee Mar% +eise( "0rom AR5Anet to the /nternet(" ** .or com*onents of the ..8. ** ==-.8 0or the historical antecedents of New Left anarchocommunism( see Richard +om'in( Les 2rigins du 3auchisme.< 0or instance( one of the ma.3 #ee Neil Gleinman( "9on't 0ence Me /n6 Co*yright( 5ro*erty and Technology " .A This is why the increasing role of *ri$ate funding can ham*er as well as hel* academic research #ee 9a$id No'le( "9igital 9i*loma Mills " .

.3 #ee Andrew Leonard( "Let My #oftware +oD " Eric # Raymond( "The Cathedral and the "a:aar(" * .ust 'elie$e that free software is 'communism'( 'ut e$en allowing other com*anies to ha$e access to Microsoft *roducts 'efore their release dateD #ee Eames 1allace( 2verdrive. * ?AA .> Tim "erners-Lee( "Realising the 0ull 5otential of the 1e'(" * 8 .A Geith 1 * .= "ernard Lang( "0ree #oftware 0or All(" * 3 . ..8 "+ift cultures are ada*tations not to scarcity 'ut to a'undance They arise in *o*ulations that do not ha$e significant material-scarcity *ro'lems with sur$i$al goods " Eric # Raymond( "-omesteading the Noos*here(" * = . * 8? . #hareware is also often %nown as freeware or o*en source software All these names em*hasise that the *rogram is a gift to anyone on the Net( es*ecially those who ha$e the s%ills to im*ro$e its code #ee the use of these terms in 9ouglas Rush%off( "0ree Lessons in /nno$ation"C 0ree #oftware 0oundation( "1hat is 0ree #oftwareF"C and Eric # Raymond( "-omesteading the Noos*here " .< Garl Marx( 3rundrisse.? -oward Rheingold( The Hirtual Community( ** 8?-8> .7 #ee 0rancis 0u%uyama( "The End of -istory and the Last Man " .= *ired uses 'The New Economy' as a synonym for its neoli'eral fantasies a'out the Net #ee Ge$in Gelly( "New Rules for the New Economy " 3A Raoul Haneigem( The Re$olution of E$eryday Life( * ?A .> Eric Raymond descri'ing his *itch on 'ehalf of shareware to commercial software com*anies in Andrew Leonard( "Let My #oftware +oD(" * > "ill +ates doesn't . 5orterfield( "/nformation 1ants to 'e Halua'le(" . .? #ee Netsca*e Communications Cor*oration( "Netsca*e Announces 5lans to Ma%e Next-+eneration Communicator #ource Code A$aila'le 0ree on the Net " ..

"oston6 #outh End 5ress 0ree #oftware 0oundation( "1hat is 0ree #oftwareF(" at htt*6LLwww fsf orgL Eohn 0row( .==<L**f html Tim "erners-Lee( .=>.( and at htt*6LLma hrc wmin ac u%Lma the ory 7 .==? 3athering "orce: D() culture . Milton Geynes6 The B*en @ni$ersity . "er%eley( CalifM6 "ureau of 5u'lic #ecrets Eohn 9owning( .==< "The 1orld 1ide 1e'6 5ast( 5resent and 0uture(" htt*6LLwww w3 orgL5eo* leL"erners-LeeL.==< "0rom AR5Anet to the /nternet6 a cultural clash and its im*lications in framing the de'ate on the information su*erhighway(" /n6 Lance #trate( Ron Eaco'son and #te*hanie " +i'son IeditorsJ( +ommunications and + berspace: social interaction in an electronic environment. Cress%ill( N E 6 -am*ton 5ress Risha' Aiyer +hosh( . num'er . $olume .( ** 77-?.=?. London6 5enguin -he /nd of 0istor and the Last #an.= I#e*tem'erLBcto'erJ 0rancis 0u%uyama( ..==.<( $olume < *art .==? "Realising the 0ull 5otential of the 1e'(" htt*6LLwww w3 orgL. "+ift +i$ing as an Brganisational 5rinci*le in #cience(" /n6 "arry "arnes and 9a$id Edge( Science in +ontext: readings in the sociolog of science.==< "/nformation as +ift and Commodity(" New Left 4eview.==< "The Californian /deology(" Science as +ulture.==? "Coo%ing 5ot Mar%ets6 an economic model for the trade in free goods and ser$ices on the /nternet(" 0irst Monday( $olume 3( num'er 3 IMarchJ Richard +om'in( . Mar% +eise( .L5otent ial html Elaine "rass and #o*hie 5o%lews%i Go:iell with 9enise #earle IeditorJ( .=>7 4adical #edia: the political experience of alternative communication. d' Tim "erners-Lee( .=>. London6 "ig /ssue +uy 9e'ord( . "Re*ort on the Construction of #ituations and on the /nternational #ituationist Tendency's Conditions of Brganisation and Action(" /n6 Gen Gna'' IeditorJ( Situationist (nternational Antholog .==>LA. 5aris6 1arren B -agstrom( .Reference# Richard "ar'roo% and Andy Cameron( .radical action for those tired of waiting. Editions du #euil Les 2rigins du 3auchisme.

==>LA7Lco$N.L.==> "Mutiny on the Net(" at htt* 6LLwww salonmaga:ine comL.=A( .77( .==> "Netsca*e Announces 5lans to Ma%e Next-+eneration Communicator #ource Code A$aila'le 0ree on the Net(" 5ress Release for .==>LA.==>LA3Lco$N.==? "New Rules for the New Economy6 twel$e de*enda'le *rinci*les for thri$ing in a tur'ulent world(" *ired.=? Neil Gleinman( . Cress%ill( N E 6 -am*ton 5ress "ernard Lang( . IEanuaryJ Geith 1 5orterfield( "/nformation 1ants to 'e Halua'le6 a re*ort from the first B'Reilly 5erl conference(" at htt*6LLwww netaction orgL articlesLfreesoft html Eric # Raymond( ..=<-.==> "NoD /t's Not BG( Com*uter(" 3uardian.==>a "The Cathedral and the "a:aar(" 0irst Monday( $olume 3( num'er 3 IMarchJ .+eorge Gatsiaficas( .=>? -he (magination of the New Left: a global anal sis of $%&'..>>( . London6 Routledge Netsca*e Communications Cor*oration( .stLfeatureL.freesoft html Andrew Leonard( ..=?3 3rundrisse.7feature ht ml Garlin Lillington( . Bn-Line #ection IA*ril <J Garl Marx( .==> "0ree #oftware 0or All6 freeware and the issue of intellectual *ro*erty(" Le #onde Diplomati1ue IEanuaryJ( and at htt*6LLwww mondedi*lomati2ue frLmdLenL. London6 5enguin Marcel Mauss( .=7( . "oston6 #outh End 5ress Ge$in Gelly( .==> "9igital 9i*loma Mills6 the automation of higher education(" 0 irst Monday( $olume 3( num'er . $olume 8( num'er = I#e*tem'erJ( ** .==A -he 3ift: the form and reason for exchange in archaic societies.==>( at htt*6LLwww netsca* e comLnewsrefL*rLnewsrelease88> html 9a$id No'le( .><( . Eanuary .7A-.==< "9on't 0ence Me /n6 Co*yright( 5ro*erty and Technology(" Lance #trate( Ron Eaco'son and #te*hanie " +i'son IeditorsJ( +ommunications and + berspace: social interaction in an electronic environment.Afeature ht ml Andrew Leonard( .stLfeatureL.=..==> "Let My #oftware +oD(" at htt* 6LLwww salonmaga:ine comL.( .

==>' "-omesteading the Noos*here(" 0irst Monday( $olume 3( num'er .A IBcto'erJ -oward Rheingold( . London6 #ec%er O 1ar'urg 9ouglas Rush%off( "0ree Lessons in /nno$ation(" 3uardian. BnLine #ection IA*ril =J #ituationist /nternational( .==? 2verdrive: 6ill 3ates and the 4ace to +ontrol + berspace. "er%eley( Calif 6 "ureau of 5u'lic #ecrets Raoul Haneigem( .=?.m U V d K W .==7 -he 5irtual +ommunit : finding connection in a computerised world. 5ractical 5aradise -he 4evolution of /ver da Life.==>( Q R S s T . N 4 6 Eohn 1iley Co*yright P .=>. London6 Eames 1allace( . "The 9ecline and 0all of the #*ectacle-Commodity Economy(" /n6 Gen Gna'' IeditorJ( Situationist (nternational Antholog .Eric # Raymond( .