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M. Sc. Environmental Engineering

Padma Sunder Joshi

• • Theory Lectures Assignments • Home Assignment 1 • Home Assignment 2 • • • • Term paper 1 Term paper 2 Observation tour in KV Class Assessment
P S Joshi, IOE Pulchowk Campus

5 points 5 points 10 points 10 points 10 points

Each students has to attend not less than 70% classes to be eligible for final examination



1. Introduction 2. Sources and types of SW 3. Collection, transfer and transport 4. Disposal of solid wastes 5. SW treatments/resource recovery 6. Overview of SWM in Nepal 7. Course related activities 4 lectures 6 lectures 12 lectures 12 lectures 10 lectures 4 lectures 12 lectures Total 60 lectures

P S Joshi, IOE Pulchowk Campus



Reference Books
George Tchobanoglous, Kilary Theisen, Samuel Vigil; McGraw-Hill Inc.


Howard Peavy, Donald Rowe, George Tchobanoglous; McGraw-Hill Inc. Frank Kreith, McGraw-Hill Inc.

NPC/IUCN National Conservation Strategy Implementation Program

The World Bank

P S Joshi, IOE Pulchowk Campus



industrial and mineral wastes. refuge and trash Wastes arising from human and animal activities that are discarded as useless and unwanted that are solid in nature Includes heterogeneous throwaways from urban communities as well as homogeneous accumulation of agricultural. IOE Pulchowk Campus 6 3 . useless or worthless Subjective and relative Things in wrong place What is solid waste? • • • Generic term used to describe the things we throw away including garbage. IOE Pulchowk Campus 5 Lecture I INTRODUCTION What is waste? • • • Anything rejected.LECTURE I INTRODUCTION P S Joshi. P S Joshi.

semisolid. mining. and agricultural operations. demography. P S Joshi. engineering. etc. conservation. etc. or byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. water supply treatment plant. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of USA (RCRA) The term ''solid waste'' means any garbage. or air pollution control facility and other discarded material. public health. IOE Pulchowk Campus 7 Lecture I INTRODUCTION SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the Control of: Generation Storage Collection Transfer Transport Processing. liquid. geography. economics. or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point sources subject to permits under section 1342 of title 33. other environmental considerations The solution may involve complex inter disciplinary relationship among such fields as: Political science. and Engineering functions Accordance with the best principles of: Public health Economics Engineering Conservation Aesthetics And. P S Joshi. communication. sociology. or source.Lecture I INTRODUCTION Basel Convention 1997 Substances or objects which are disposed off or are intended to be disposed off or are required to be disposed off by the provision of national law. sludge from a waste treatment plant. but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage. commercial. and disposal The scope of the study includes: Administrative Financial Legal. urban & regional planning. special nuclear. and from community activities. material science. including solid. IOE Pulchowk Campus 8 4 . refuse. or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial.

IOE Pulchowk Campus 9 Lecture I INTRODUCTION In domesticated ecosystem there is little waste • Short circuiting natural ecosystem Agriculture Man Food Animal Husbandry Organic Waste There is nominal waste in domesticated ecosystem P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 10 5 .Lecture I INTRODUCTION In natural ecosystem there is no waste Crops as food for man/ animals Produce waste Plants produce crops Waste as nutrients for plants There is no waste in nature P S Joshi.

IOE Pulchowk Campus Raw materials production and recovered materials Waste materials flow 12 6 .Lecture I INTRODUCTION In fabricated ecosystem there is always problem of waste Waste (Heat. air pollution) Energy Resources (food. etc. water. IOE Pulchowk Campus 11 Lecture I INTRODUCTION Material flow and generation of SW in a technological society Raw materials Residual debris Manufacturing Processing & recovery Consumer Residual waste materials Secondary manufacturing Final disposal G. Tchobanoglous et. minerals. sound. al.) CITY Finished products Raw materials Waste (Waste water and solid waste) P S Joshi. 1993 P S Joshi.

Lecture I INTRODUCTION In fabricated ecosystem there is always problem of waste Depletion of resources Resource from one place is used in other place Accumulation of waste • • • Why there was no problem of SWM in natural ecosystem? Why there was little problem of SWM in domesticated ecosystem? Why there is huge problem of SWM in fabricated ecosystem? P S Joshi.bubonic plague Impact on public health due to improper storage. water and land P S Joshi. spreading) ASSIMILATION CAPACITY When assimilation capacity of nature exceeds • • • Littering of solid waste in streets. IOE Pulchowk Campus 14 7 . collection and dispersal of SW Ecological impact. IOE Pulchowk Campus 13 Lecture I INTRODUCTION dilute Nature has capacity to disperse degrade absorb reduce the impact of unwanted residues in air (atmosphere) in water & GWT) (surface in land (dumping.pollution of air.breeding of rats.

source of cooling water and WASTE DISPOSAL • Concentrate and contain • • • Emerged due to growth and lack of space ‘CONTAINMENT’ did not always happen NIMBY P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 15 Lecture I INTRODUCTION ……….easy transportation. IOE Pulchowk Campus 16 8 .Lecture I INTRODUCTION Development of SWM • • • Industrial revolution (1750 ~1850) boomed urban population Motivated by public health concerns Two major sources of waste: domestic and industrial Early waste management concepts • Out of sight out of mind • Dilute and disperse • Factories located on river banks. and Burning/incineration P S Joshi. source of water. Development of SWM • Common methods of final disposal of SWM were • • • • • • Dumping on land Dumping in water Ploughing into the soil Feeding the hogs Reduction.

water and soil of the area Effects as ill health. people evacuated Comprehensive Environmental Response. Compensation and Liabilities Act. IOE Pulchowk Campus 17 Lecture I INTRODUCTION The Minamata Case (1953~1956) • Discharge of mercuric sulphate used in plastic manufacturing plant in river River water was polluted with mercuric sulphate Effect on human being due to eating fish Minamata Disease . Niagara City.Lecture I INTRODUCTION The Love Canal Incident • • • • • • • • • Love canal.43 dead and 18000 victims 1993 Supreme Court of Japan penalized the polluters • • • • P S Joshi. USA is an unfinished hydropower project abandoned after excavation of the canal The canal was used for dumping solid waste including toxic chemical waste from 1930 to 1952 More than 20 000 tonnes of waste containing over 248 chemicals were dumped in the canal Following the sale of the land a housing estate and a school was built on the landfill In 1977 foul smelling liquid and sludge seeped into the basements of the housing Various toxic elements were found in air. 1980 was introduced in USA and made the producer of the waste responsible for the consequences P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 18 9 . low growth rate of children were noted The area was declared Federal Disaster Area. birth defects.

applied in field Extensive use of human resource for management of waste (1960 – 1975) Level II • • • • • (1976 – 1990) Debate on SWM was global Development of sectoral policies Environmentally acceptable land filling/sanitary land filling Incineration technologies applied Use of equipments P S Joshi.waste feeding to animal. IOE Pulchowk Campus 20 10 . awareness building and the discipline became important function of municipalities 3R principles: serving the nature…………………………… • P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 19 Lecture I INTRODUCTION …………Development of SWM Level III • • (1990 onwards) Development of concept of Integrated Solid Waste Management Comprehensive planning.Lecture I INTRODUCTION …………Development of SWM Three levels in recent development of SWM Level I • • • Small scale approach.collection by hand carts Uncontrolled waste dumping.

IOE Pulchowk Campus 21 Lecture I INTRODUCTION Traditional SWM system in Kathmandu • The domesticated ecosystem – agrarian society • Recycling the resource: SAAGAA – the manure pit • emptied at least twice a year • the story of hiding Shiva – the motivation to clean Residential buildings Saagaa. P S Joshi.Lecture I INTRODUCTION Development of SWM in Nepal (Quick review) • Traditional system in Kathmandu • SWM was incorporated in the culture • Being the important urban centre of the time Kathmandu had waste management system at that time • They had a unique urban setting with concentric circles Humane domain Agricultural domain Devine domain P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 22 11 .the compost pit • The feudal caste system was utilized for waste management • farmers and “untouchable class” are involved in unloading the pits • street sweeping and toilet/sewer cleaning was solely with Chyame the “untouchable” ones • They were dominated and exploited by the society. They were paid by rest over food. used clothes etc.

Lecture I INTRODUCTION …………Traditional SWM system in Kathmandu • In 1917 SAFAI ADDA. especially the street sweeping • The city of Kathmandu observed major urbanization thrust after the success of democratic movement in 1950 • Kathmandu Municipality was established whose major responsibility was to keep the city clean • Until 80s the city office use to sweep the streets and dump the waste on the waste land or river banks • Pair of buffalo rib bones. the sanitary office was established to take charge of solid waste. IOE Pulchowk Campus 23 Lecture I INTRODUCTION The German Project • In 1980 German Government came up with a comprehensive SWM project Phase I (1980~82) First formal waste management system introduced Introduction of basic collection and disposal system in selected few wards of the municipalities Improvement in collection equipments and tools Street cleaning and collection of domestic waste along main roads and public places Establishment of dumping site at Teku A composting plant was established at pilot level P S Joshi. shoulder basket and bamboo broom were the tools they were using with few tractors P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 24 12 .

IOE Pulchowk Campus 26 13 . IOE Pulchowk Campus 25 Lecture I INTRODUCTION Phase III (1987~90) Enactment of Solid Waste Management Act 1988 Establishment of a separate entity called Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Centre Tariff system for services were introduced Initiated to mobilize funds for self-sustaining the waste management system In 1990 composting plant was closed due to public opposition P S Joshi.Lecture I INTRODUCTION Phase II (1984~86) Activities of phase I continued and expanded Clearing of waste heaps in inner courtyards and river banks of the valley initiated Introduction of public toilets. bathing places and mobile toilets A full scale composting plant establishment at Teku Construction of sanitary landfill site at Gokarna Public awareness campaign on solid waste management P S Joshi.

Lecture I INTRODUCTION Phase IV (1990~93) Although the project period was completed in 1990. there was no smooth transfer of activities . IOE Pulchowk Campus Lecture I INTRODUCTION …….The German Project +ve side of the German Project • The project was pioneer in SWM in Nepal • It introduced system approach in SWM • It has mechanized the system. introduced mechanical composting system • Established sanitary landfill site • Initiated public awareness activities although in later stage only • Institutional development and transfer of responsibilities to national staff -ve side of the German Project • Institutional sustainability was missing • Financial sustainability was missing • Community participation and awareness part was missing P S Joshi. Therefore the project was extended until 1993. IOE Pulchowk Campus 28 14 . More educative programmes were brought in Development of alternative landfill site at Syuchatar Institutional development and transfer of responsibilities to national staff 27 P S Joshi..

landfill site problem and anarchy in waste management Strengthening of municipal fleet for SWM by donation Increase in awareness of local people – civil society initiatives Involvement of NGOs and private sector in local level waste collection systems Breaking the sweeper monopoly and formal acceptance of private sector in SWM Reuse Recycle & Reduce are getting popular. technologies and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals P S Joshi.Lecture I INTRODUCTION The endeavors of last decade Confusion and duplication of authority Vested interest of politicians and bureaucrats “Bribing” the locals. IOE Pulchowk Campus 29 Lecture I INTRODUCTION Integrated Solid Waste Management Don’t look from THROW AWAY side Look from CONSERVATION side Resource Management Principles Efficiency : in economy in finance in environment in resource use Definition SUSTAINABILITY Selection and application of suitable techniques.debate on land filling versus composting started P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 30 15 .

1993 P S Joshi.Lecture I INTRODUCTION Functional Elements of SWM System Waste generation Waste handling. Tchobanoglous et. IOE Pulchowk Campus 32 16 . Processing and transformation of SW Disposal G. IOE Pulchowk Campus 31 Transfer & transport Lecture I INTRODUCTION …………ISWM Objectives of a sustainable solid waste management program can be summarized as: Protection of public health and promotion of urban hygiene. air quality and the environment. and Creation of a high degree public participation in order to establish a cost-effective solid waste management program that is affordable by its intended beneficiaries P S Joshi. and processing at the source Collection Separation. separation. Stimulate the public and the industry to prevent waste production. storage. encouragement of recovery. recycling and reuse of particular waste fractions. Avoid the accumulation of solid waste in the urban environment in order to reduce its negative impact on urban drainage. al.

Lecture I INTRODUCTION STAKEHOLDERS •Local authorities and Govt. Lecture I INTRODUCTION Waste Management Hierarchy Waste Prevention Product substitution Non production of material Hierarchy of ISWM Source reduction Recycling Recovery (waste transformation) Energy Recovery Residual management Landfill Gas Recovery Materials/ Waste Minimization Source Reduction Waste Minimizati on Product formulation Process Modification Equipment redesign Recycling Materials sorting Materials separation Materials refining New product development Present Emphasi Recycling Treatment Thermal destruction Chemical destruction Physical. Biological Higher Technolo y Landfill Disposal Disposal Landfill Residual Repository Past Emphasis 34 P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 33 ISWM………. IOE Pulchowk Campus 17 . •NGOs/CBOs •Service users •Informal sector •Private sector •Donor agencies WASTE SYSTEM ELEMENTS Generation & separation Collection & transfer Treatment & disposal ISWM Diagram Process Time Reduction Reuse Recycle Recover ASPECTS •Technical •Environmental •Financial / economical •Socio-cultural •Institutional •Policy/legal/political P S Joshi.

heat P S Joshi. IOE Pulchowk Campus 35 Lecture I INTRODUCTION …………ISWM Recycling Reduce volume of waste for disposal Reduce the consumption of source resources Separation and collection of waste materials at source Itemwise separation: paper. IOE Pulchowk Campus 36 18 . EM Chemical: Heat. glass. methane Physical : Briquette.Lecture I INTRODUCTION Residual management …………ISWM Disposal of waste after minimizing Waste that can not be recycled Residual matter from Material Recover Facilities (MRF) Residue from recovery of conversion products and energy Land fill or Ocean dumping Recovery (waste transformation) Reduce volume of waste for disposal Destruction of harmful substances Recovery of resources through alteration of physical. electricity. battery adopting financial incentives to separate Processing of the separated waste Reuse of the recycled products Create pride on reuse/recycled paper Reuse of construction waste: much under research P S Joshi. biological or chemical properties of waste to recover the conversion product Biological: Composting.

etc Using cotton bags against plastic Industries Design. bottles.Lecture I INTRODUCTION …………ISWM Reduction at source Implemented at the point of waste generation by the generator At household level. using empty cans. IOE Pulchowk Campus 38 19 . IOE Pulchowk Campus 37 Lecture I INTRODUCTION Basic information for ISWM design Know your waste The source of waste The composition of waste The density of waste Know your city and neighborhood Road and traffic capacity Traffic condition Space for temporary storage of waste Land use P S Joshi. toys. at industry level or at commercial units Household level by selective buying pattern: buying goods with longer life buying goods with less packaging: bulk buying Reuse: one side used paper. manufacturing and packaging of products with minimal value of materials P S Joshi.

Lecture I INTRODUCTION Know your citizens and clients Ability to pay Willingness to pay Community composition. Changing consumption habits in society 2. Development of new technologies Conservation of nature Cost effective P S Joshi. Making landfill safer Less toxic material deposition Selection of landfill for long term containment 5. homogeneity Their attitude towards waste and its management Know all waste management activities in your city Waste managed by municipality/authority Waste managed by scavengers Waste managed by recycling Waste managed by animal feeding Waste managed by composting. IOE Pulchowk Campus 39 Lecture I INTRODUCTION In Europe approximately 35% of MSW ends up in landfill sites: for Austria. etc. IOE Pulchowk Campus 40 20 . Reducing volume of waste at source 3. Italy and UK 40~45% …………ISWM Future challenges and opportunities 1. Denmark and the Netherlands ~10% for Greece. P S Joshi.