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Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems for Remote Northern Communities

Hydrogen Millennium
10th Canadian Hydrogen Conference May 28 - 31, 2000

Glenn D. Rambach

Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems

Hydrogen as a utility energy storage medium.  To buffer the intermittency and phase differences of renewables an loads.  Where current electricity values are high (premium power).  Niche applications in isolated locations.  Permits full autonomy from a fossil fuel supply infrastructure.  Provides utility AND transportation functions
Storage function of hydrogen systems is more complex than either battery storage systems or fossil fueled fuel cell systems.  Batteries have one power/energy element.  Fossil fuel cell system have two power elements and a simple energy element.  Four separate power or energy elements permit optimization in H2 system. The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote applications. Models are yet to be developed for optimization of design and control of a hydrogen system.

) (0. .) India Indonesia 1000 202 World 6000 4.A.6 0.)/year/person) USA China 270 1200 (4.7 x W.5%) (37%) 23.) Two billion people on earth do not have electricity.Energy Demographics Country Population (millions) Per capita energy use (Bbls oil(equiv.A.12 (W.79 0.79 (5.19 x W.A.

hydroelectric and geothermal electricity Renewable Biomass Municipal solid waste and LFG Natural gas. propane may have a delivery infrastructure Natural gas may be locally available or deliverable as LNG .The relationship between renewable energy sources and fuel cells is generally through hydrogen The primary fuel for a fuel cell is hydrogen Hydrogen can be produced from: Gasoline Diesel fuel Nonrenewable Propane Coal Wind. Methanol. solar. the most likely indigenous resource that can produce local-energy-economy quantities of hydrogen are: Wind. Ethanol Either In isolated communities. hydroelectric and geothermal electricity Diesel. solar.

OR - Hydrogen Storage Intermittent renewable electricity Electrolyzer .Fuel Cell Utility Power Systems Configuration options Liquid fossil fuel Reformer and purifier Local grid .OR Hydrogen Delivered Hydrogen Fuel cell PEM SOFC PAFC MCFC AFC Electrical power Remote load .

storage and load options Customer Nature • Wind • Sunlight • Water flow • Community • Mine • Military post • Autonomous device •__________ Energy Storage • Hydrogen-fuel cell • Hydrogen-ICE gen • Halogen fuel cell • Zn-Air fuel cell • Zn-FeCN fuel cell • Flywheel • Compressed air • Pumped hydro • Battery • Grid Power Production • Wind turbine • m Hydro • Solar PV • Low-q water turbine Power logic controller . process.Source.

Stor) Compressor (if needed)   QC = f(QEH2) PC-out = f(Ps) PC-in = f(PEH2-Out) Intermittent load P(t)load = f(COE(t). hComp. Pload-avg) Hydrogen storage DEs = f(hf/c. Eelec. P(t)Ren. User) Cogenerated heat Customer HC = f(hf/c. vehicles) Ps = f(Costvessel. DCf/c) Es = f(Qmax. site space) . PRen) PEH2-out = f(CostEH2 .Design criteria for remote hydrogen fuel cell utility power system Intermittent. hEH2. hf/c. renewable source PRen = f(Pload-peak. TypeEH2) Nature Fuel cell Pf/c = f(Pload-peak. CFRen. CostRen ) Power logic controller CostPLC = f(PThru-peak) Electrolyzer PEH2 = f(Pload-peak.

hydrogen. fuel cell isolated power system Cogen heat .Wind.

efficiencies to the power of renewable and electrolyzer (1 . capacity factor.CfR) PlAV PE = PR = Cf h h h R E FC C PE = Electrolyzer rated power PR = Renewable peak capacity PlAV = Average load power Cf = Capacity factor h = Efficiency (<1) C = Compressor FC = Fuel cell system .Relationship of load.

Effects of renewable capacity factor.75 .65 .55 .40 .40 .70 .40 .54 .75 .70 hE = Electrolyzer efficiency hFC = Fuel cell power system efficiency hFC .55 .70 . electrolyzer efficiency and fuel cell system efficiency on renewable power and electrolyzer power needed Load average is 100kW hE .

50 .60 .45 .70 .35 .30 .25 .40 .Effects of renewable capacity factor and turn-around efficiency on renewable power and electrolyzer power needed Load average is 100kW hTurn-around .

0 kW each Hydrogen Storage 150 psi Hydrogen Dispensing .5kW Computer and Power Logic Controller Electricity Hydrogen Electrolyzer 5 kW Fuel cell 2 kW PEM Solar arrays and trackers 1.5 kW each Computer Controlled Load 0 . fuel cell test facility and refuel station Wind turbines 1. renewable hydrogen.DRI residential scale.

fuel cell test facility Two 1.5 kW Wind Turbines Two 1 kW Solar Arrays 2 kW PEM Fuel Cell Hydrogen Generator Hydrogen Storage Tank Hydrogen Refueling Station Planned Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle .Components of DRI renewable hydrogen.

Renewable Hydrogen Energy Research System at DRI .

George Seward . Alaska wind turbine site 650 kW of wind power in 10 wind turbines Wales Kivalina Kotzebue Deering Nome Fairbanks Anchorage Juneau St. Paul St.Kotzebue.

AK wind turbine site AOC 15/50 Wind Turbines Wind Turbine Power Control Building KOTZ Radio Transmitter Tundra .Kotzebue.

Wind. fuel cell power for KOTZ Radio Transmitter Village of Kotzebue 11-MW Diesel Power Plant Three miles Proportional Power KOTZ Radio Transmitter Switch Out Condenser Water recycling Fuel cell system and inverter KEA Wind Farm (650 kWp) . hydrogen.

Wind. Proportional Power Water storage KEA Wind Farm (650 kWp) . 1/2” Dia. hydrogen. fuel cell power for village loads Fuel cell system and inverter Switch Out Village of Kotzebue Three miles 11-MW Diesel Power Plant Three miles Hydrogen transmission line 250-psig.

George Island Kotzebue Village System $/Wp .Evolution of system capital costs for different loads Evolution of system capital costs for different loads 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Today Near-term Time frame Far-term KOTZ Radio transmitter Kivalina Village St.

Summary Integrated hydrogen utility systems are an ultimate goal for future power systems. New system models are key enablers to permitting development of the market for integrated hydrogen systems     .  Cost is a greater challenge than technological development at this point. and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote applications. Wind power. The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system are available.  The inclusion of transportation fuel in remote locations adds significant value.  Other storage systems include pumped hydro and batteries. micro-hydroelectric and low-q water current are promising power input stream sources for northern communities.

(High value. can we think of a way to convince financing sources to invest in selling any niche product? • Niche is where it’s at! • How much of this is an individual activity? How much is a group (NHA?) activity? • Niche markets. Start there. . • With what we now know. not the research marketplace. sustained commercial support. • Test out implementation ideas for hydrogen with people who want to make money in the commercial marketplace. small production runs) • Past the “valley of death” for new technologies. Implement hydrogen? Find the beginning. To transition from exclusively publicly funded research to successful private enterprise. from early adopters to small.How do we implement hydrogen in the near term? • Implement: To render commercially practical. To get into the mainstream of society.

aquifers.Carbon management CO2 sequestration. only a physical process away from the environment. • Since any CO2 resequestered remains as CO2 forever. done by nature: • Sequester CO2 from the atmosphere in the form of biomass.500 million years ago) • Convert biomass into chemically and physically stable form of sequestered carbon. CO2 resequestration. • Maintain chemically and physically stable form of carbon (coal and oil) for 10s to 100s of millions of years. • Reinsert into oceans. done by people : • Recover sequestered carbon and call it hydrocarbon fuel. the resequestering needs to last longer than the sequestering of nuclear waste. earth. (50 . . CO2 recovery. done by people: • Collect CO2 from power systems. • Convert it into energy and the original CO2 to power a few 10’s of decades of humanity.

(over 65¢/gallon) • Health care costs in the U. Who will be the purveyors? . every 2. spends over $50 billion a year to defend our oil interests in the Persian Gulf. (15 million/year) • The U.S.S. •The US and the world are beginning to become customer bases for new energy technologies. 7 days a week.Ponderous points to ponder • An automobile engine is made in the U. 24 hours a day. related to fossil fuel combustion are in excess of $50 billion a year. pays $1 billion a week to import foreign oil.S. not counting periodic conflicts. (more than 1/3 of trade deficit) • The U. (over 65¢/gallon) • 2 billion people (1/3 of the world population) have yet to benefit from utility electricity.S.1 seconds.