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Call Flow and Call Processing Call Flow and Call Processing

Created by
Pulok Sinha (Trainer, ALUMS)
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( , )
09320096525
Call Flow and Call Processing
Objectives :
After successful completion of this program, You will be able to
Describe
Swap and Types Swap and Types
Coverage, Quality and Hand Over issues
Involvement of Channels in a call Process
Mobile originating Call Flow in GSM
Mobile terminating Call Flow in GSM
Introduction to Layer 3 –System Info Messages y y g
Location Updating Flow
Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Some More Layer 3 Messages
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
2
Swap and Types
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Swap and Types
Swap : Swap :
Wh th f d bl f th t f it t i t h d it When the feeder cables of the sector of a site gets interchanged it
is commonly termed as SWAP.
Basicall can be of 3 t pes Basically can be of 3 types
− Sector Swap
− Diversity or TX cable Swap between two sectors
Di it bl i t d TX bl i th − Diversity cable swap in one sector and TX cable swap in other.
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Swap and Types
Sector Swap Sector Swap
• Both the Tx and Rx feeder cable
are interchanged between sectors
• Coverage is good.
• Network Parameter are reversed
• Poor Handover
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Swap and Types
• BCCH Sec-2 • BCCH Sec-1 BCCH Sec 2
• Cell ID Sec-2
• Poor HOs
BCCH Sec 1
• Cell ID Sec-1
• Poor HOs
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Swap and Types
Diversity cable Swap between two sectors Diversity cable Swap between two sectors
• Only Rx feeder cable are
interchanged between sectors g
• Good Coverage near to Site but
bad coverage far from the site. g
• Some times lead to poor Quality
• Poor Handover
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Swap and Types
• BCCH Sec-1 • BCCH Sec-2 BCCH Sec 1
• Cell ID Sec-1
• Poor Rx Level with dist
• Unexpected HOs
BCCH Sec 2
• Cell ID Sec-2
• Poor Rx Level with dist
• Unexpected HOs
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Swap and Types
Div cable swap in one sector and TX cable swap in other Div cable swap in one sector and TX cable swap in other
• Only Tx feeder of one sector and
Rx feeder cable of another sector
are interchanged
• Coverage of both the sector will be • Coverage of both the sector will be
nearly equal.
• Some times lead to poor Quality p y
• Level of both the sector is high
near Sector-2 and poor in Sector-1
in this case in this case
• Ping pong Handover between the
two sector and poor handover with
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p
other cells
Swap and Types
• BCCH Sec-1 & Sec-2
• Cell ID Sec-1 & Sec-2


• Rx Lev almost equal of both
the sec
• Ping Pong HOs betwn the
sectors

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sectors
Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Coverage issues: Coverage issues:
L k f D i t S C t h d b t Lack of Dominant Server Causes too many handovers between
the same Cells which may lead to poor RxQual as well as drop.
Cur e Formation due to Tunnel also lead to sudden degradation Curve Formation due to Tunnel also lead to sudden degradation
of the Signal Level
Effect causing sudden level decrease and Ping Pong Handovers Effect causing sudden level decrease and Ping Pong Handovers
sometimes leading to call drops
Levels of 3–4 cells are too closed to each other – This might point Levels of 3 4 cells are too closed to each other This might point
overlapping cells. Optimization for dominant server is needed as
it leads to quality problems.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Coverage issues: Coverage issues:
L k f D i t S C t h d b t Lack of Dominant Server Causes too many handovers between
the same Cells which may lead to poor RxQual as well as drop.
Cur e Formation due to Tunnel also lead to sudden degradation Curve Formation due to Tunnel also lead to sudden degradation
of the Signal Level
Effect causing sudden level decrease and Ping Pong Handovers Effect causing sudden level decrease and Ping Pong Handovers
sometimes leading to call drops
Levels of 3–4 cells are too closed to each other – This might point Levels of 3 4 cells are too closed to each other This might point
overlapping cells. Optimization for dominant server is needed as
it leads to quality problems.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Coverage issues: Coverage issues:
Th di t t ll l i th d t t The distant cell always popping up as the second strongest
neighbor in the list through a large area might show an
overshooting cell the cell need to be physically optimized.
Signal Strength may change fast due to far away server being
blocked by obstacles from the terrain.
Even the signal of a cell may be low near the site. This may be
due to high VSWR and hardware issue like loose connectors,
damaged feeder cable, antenna issue, etc. damaged feeder cable, antenna issue, etc.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Quality issues: Quality issues:
RXQUAL can be poor because of poor RXLEV (coverage), low
carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N), co-channel interference, adjacent
channel interference or multipath p
If RXQUAL is poor and RXLEV is good, then it is generally
assumed that the cause is interference and C/I is verified. /
TCH carriers are also reused, and hence can contribute to co-
channel interference, although this interference will not always
be present; it will only be present when these TCH carriers have
call activity.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Quality issues: Quality issues:
The collision of frequencies with neighboring cells MAIO list
frequencies become more significant with dropping signal level.
Bad Quality due to Signal Strength – Bad FER. As the signal
strength drops down, not only Rx Quality is bad, but also FER is
high. g
Bad Quality due to Signal Strength – Good FER. If the Signal
strength is poor and FER is fine. The area in this case should
most probably be a flat area without any obstacles to create
reflection.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Overshooting Example Overshooting Example
30115 is overshooting in the 30115 is overshooting in the
vicinity of 10333.
May lead to poor quality even May lead to poor quality even
call drop in dedicated mode.
The orientation and tilt of
30115 need to be checked.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Swap Suspected Swap Suspected
Need to check,,
If orientation is proper
If swap is there in the site
If the cell 30056 radiating
properly
If not then check for H/W
issues issues.
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Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
Issue with HO Issue with HO
There is issue in HO between 30364 and
20375.
Need to check,
If both the cells defined as neighbor
If the cell was radiating.
If the cell was in congestion.
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g
If there was any H/W issue in the cell.
Coverage, Quality and Handover Issues
What's the issue? What's the issue?
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Involvement of Channels in a call process
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Involvement of Channels in a call process
Role of channels as soon as MS is switched on till a call is Role of channels as soon as MS is switched on till a call is
completed. completed.
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Mobile Originating Call Flow in GSM
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Mobile Originating Call Flow in GSM
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Call Flow Mobile Originating Call
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Call Flow Mobile Originating Call
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Mobile Terminating Call Flow in GSM
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Call Flow Mobile Terminating Call
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Call Flow Mobile Terminating Call
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Call Flow Mobile Terminating Call
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Information System Information
i f i i d b h k h h d i System information is data about the network that the MS needs in
order to communicate with the network.
ll h f Basically the system information messages are sent on
− BCCH in Idle Mode
− SACCH in Dedicated Mode
There are different types of System information and are numbered
from 1-8
− System information 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 are sent on BCCH in idle mode
− System Information 5 and 6 are sent in dedicated mode on SACCH.
− System information 13 is for GPRS
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 1 Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 1 System Info 1
The System Info 1 is generally sent if frequency hopping is used The The System Info 1 is generally sent if frequency hopping is used. The
MS is informed about Cell Channel Description and RACCH Control
Parameters.
Cell Channel description gives the frequencies that are used in the Cell Channel description gives the frequencies that are used in the
cell. In non hopping case may give BCCH and TCH frequencies.
ACC ACC
The access control class is described using a bit map with 16bits All The access control class is described using a bit map with 16bits. All
MSs are spread out on ACC 0-9. Priority group MSs use ACC 11-15.
Bit 10 is used to indicate if emergency calls are permitted.
EC EC EC EC
EC=0 means that all MSs are allowed to make emergency calls, while
EC=1 means that only MSs belonging to priority classes 11-15 are
allowed to make emergency calls
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allowed to make emergency calls.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
CB
Cell barred for access is denoted by using one bit only (yes/no).
RE
Call re-establishment allowed is also denoted by using one bit
(yes/no). (yes/no).
MAXRET
Maximum retransmission is the maximum number of channel request q
message retransmissions allowed when an MS attempts to access the
system. MAXRET can have the value 1, 2, 4 or 7.
TX TX
This is the number of slots to spread random access retransmissions
over when an MS attempts to access the system. The values TX can
have are 3-12 in increments of one 14 16 20 25 32 and 50
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have are 3 12 in increments of one, 14, 16, 20, 25, 32 and 50.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 2 Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 2 System Info 2
System information type 2 contains a list of
− Neighbor cells description.
− The MS is also receives information about which PLMN permitted.
− RACCH Control Parameters.
BA-NO
This is a BCCH allocation number. BA-NO=0 means GSM 900.
BA-IND
This is a BCCH allocation sequence number indication. When the
operator changes the frequency list, the BA-IND changes from 1 to 0 p g q y , g
or vice versa.
BA ARFCN
These are absolute RF channels of neighbor cells
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These are absolute RF channels of neighbor cells
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
EXT-IND
Bit indicates whether the information element carries the complete
information or whether a complementary information element is sent information or whether a complementary information element is sent
in another message.
− 0 ⇒ this information element carries the complete frequency list
− 1 ⇒ this information element carries part of the frequency list only and a 1 ⇒ this information element carries part of the frequency list only and a
complementary information element is located in another message
NCCPERM NCCPERM
The MS gets information about which NCCs of the BCCH carriers it is
allowed to monitor for handover purposes.
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 3 Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 3 Message [Cont…]
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 3 System Info 3
Network sends following information in System Info 3
− Cell Identity
− Location Area Identification
− Control Channel Description
− Cell Options
− Cell Selection Parameters
− RACH Control Parameters
Cell Identity (CI)
Two octets (16 bits) identifying a cell within a location area.
Location Area Identification (LAI) Location Area Identification (LAI)
MCC Mobile Country Code (3 digits)
MNC Mobile Network Code (2-3 digits)
LAC L ti A C d (2 t t 0 65535 diff t LAC )
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LAC Location Area Code (2 octets: 0-65535 different LACs)
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
ATT
Whether or not the MS is to perform IMSI Attach and IMSI Detach
procedures (ATT=1) or (ATT=0) procedures (ATT=1) or (ATT=0).
CCCH_CONF
This is the number of Basic Physical Channels used for the CCCH. (1-
4 BPC h t bi d ith SDCCH 1 BPC if bi d) 4 BPCs when not combined with SDCCH, 1 BPC if combined).
AGBLK (BS_AG_BLKS_RES)
This is the number of CCCH blocks reserved for the AGCH, CBCH or
BCCH Extended. The range of this parameter is 0-2 if CCCH is
combined with SDCCH and 0-7 for non-combined CCCH.
MFRMS (BS_PA_MFRMS)
This is the number of 51 multiframe periods for transmission of
Paging Request messages to the same paging group (2-9) i.e. MFRMS
is the multiframe period and defines the transmission interval of
paging messages to the same paging group
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paging messages to the same paging group.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
T3212
This is the time-out value for MS periodic location updating. T3212
has values from 0 to 255 has values from 0 to 255.
Cell options
DTX
Discontinuous transmission indicator (may, must or must not).
PWRC
PWRC = 0 means not set PWRC 0 means not set
PWRC = 1 means set.
If the PWRC parameter is set, it means that the MS is not to include
measurements on the BCCH carrier in the calculated average. If the measurements on the BCCH carrier in the calculated average. If the
parameter is not set, the BCCH measurements are included.
RLINKT
This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter
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This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter
that has been defined for the serving cell.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Cell Selection Parameters
ACCMIN (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN)
Thi i h i i i d i l l l h MS f hi h i i This is the minimum received signal level at the MS for which it is
permitted to access the system. Range (0-63): -110 dBm up to -48
dBm.
ACCMIN value Signal strength value
0 Below ‐110 dBm 0 Below  110 dBm
1 ‐110 dBm to ‐109 dBm
2 ‐109 dBm to ‐108 dBm
.
. .
62 ‐49 dBm to ‐48 dBm
63 G h 48 dB
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63 Greater than ‐48 dBm
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
CCHPWR (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH)
Th CCHPWR fi ld d fi th i t t MS i The CCHPWR field defines the maximum output power an MS is
allowed to use when accessing the cell. Signal Strength value for
corresponding power level for GSM is shown below:
CCHPWR value Signal strength value
0 ‐ 2 39 dBm
3 37 dBm
4 35 dBm
..
. .
18 7 dBm
19 31 5 dBm
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19 ‐ 31 5 dBm
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
CRH (CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS)
This represents cell reselect hysteresis. The measured signal strength
is decreased by CRH (range 0-14 dB) in increments of 2 dB if the cell is decreased by CRH (range 0 14 dB) in increments of 2 dB if the cell
belongs to a new LA.
ACS
This field defines the additional reselect parameters indicator and is This field defines the additional reselect parameters indicator and is
spare in a system information type 3 message.
NECI
This parameter is used for new establishment causes indication (0 or This parameter is used for new establishment causes indication (0 or
1). It indicates whether the phase 2 establishment causes are
supported by the system. The establishment cause is included in the
channel request message on the RACH.
RLINKT
This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter
that has been defined for the serving cell.
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
SI 3 Rest Octets
System information type 3 rest octets may contain parameters that
are used by a phase 2 MS for calculating the cell reselection criterion are used by a phase 2 MS for calculating the cell reselection criterion
C2.
2TI
This is system information type 2 ter indication (0 or 1) 2TI is used by This is system information type 2-ter indication (0 or 1). 2TI is used by
the MS to determine, if the network broadcasts system information
type 2 ter.
2TI=0 means that system information type 2 ter is not available. y yp
2TI=1 means that system information type 2 ter is available.
ECSC
The setting of the early classmark sending control bit informs MSs The setting of the early classmark sending control bit informs MSs
with the “control early classmark sending” option whether early
sending of additional classmark information is accepted or not
accepted by the system. Early in this case means as soon as possible
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after access.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
PI
Cell_reselect_param_ind can have the value 0 or 1. PI is used by the
MS to determine if the C2 parameters are broadcast by the network in MS to determine if the C2 parameters are broadcast by the network in
this message.
PI=0 ⇒ C2 parameters are not present
PI=1 ⇒ C2 parameters are present PI=1 ⇒ C2 parameters are present
CBQ
Cell bar qualify (values: 0 or 1) is used by the network to control MS
cell selection and re-selection.
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
A system information value used by the MS to apply a positive or
negative offset to the value of C2. Range is 0-63, which corresponds to
0 126 dB in 2 dB steps
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0-126 dB in 2 dB steps.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
TEMPORARY_OFFSET
A system information value used by the MS to apply a negative offset
to the value of C2 for the duration of PENALTY TIME to the value of C2 for the duration of PENALTY_TIME.
Range : 0 – 7 with increment of 10 dB and & 7 is infinity
PENALTY_TIME
This parameter defines the length of time for which
TEMPORARY_OFFSET is active.
Range: 0-31, with 20 second increments and 31 indicate that
TEMPORARY_OFFSET is to be ignored.
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 4 Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 4 Message [Cont…]
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 4 System Info 4
Network sends following information in System Info 4
L ti A Id tifi ti − Location Area Identification
− Cell Selection Parameters
− RACH Control Parameters
CBCH Ch l D i ti − CBCH Channel Description
− CBCH Mobile Allocation
− SI 4 Rest Octets
Cell Selection Parameters Cell Selection Parameters
ACS
Additional reselect parameters indicator (0 or 1).
0 ⇒ the system information type 4 rest octets, if present, are used to
derive the PI value and any existing C2 parameters.
1 ⇒ the PI value and any existing C2 parameters in system
i f ti t 7 d 8 t b d
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information type 7 and 8 message are to be used.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
CBCH Channel Description (Optional)
CHANNEL TYPE
This is the channel combination and sub-channel used for CBCH For This is the channel combination and sub channel used for CBCH. For
example, SDCCH/4 + SACCH/C4 or CBCH, sub channel 2.
TN
This represents the time slot number This represents the time slot number.
TSC
This is the training sequence code. BCC part of BSIC is recommended.
HH
This is the hopping parameter, where H=0 means single RF channel
and H=1 means RF hopping channel.
CHANNEL SELECTOR CHANNEL SELECTOR
H=0 ⇒ the channel selector field consists of the absolute RF channel
number
H 1 th h l l t fi ld i t f th bil ll ti
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H=1 ⇒ the channel selector field consists of the mobile allocation
index offset, MAIO, and the hopping sequence number HSN
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
CBCH Mobile Allocation (Conditional)
This information element must be present if the CBCH channel
description information element indicates frequency hopping. p q y pp g
SI 4 Rest Octets
System information type 4 rest octets may contain the parameters System information type 4 rest octets may contain the parameters
needed for C2 calculations as described under SI type 3 rest octets.
These are PI, CBQ, CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET, TEMPORARY_OFFSET,
and PENALTY_TIME.
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 5 Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 5 System Info 5
In dedicated mode The network sends the System info 5 in Downlink
and MS send the measurement report in Uplink and MS send the measurement report in Uplink.
In down link the message contains
− Neighbor Cell Description
In Uplink the measurement report “Message type 21” is send by the MS In Uplink, the measurement report Message type 21 is send by the MS
which contains:
− DTX USED
− BA USED
− RxLev Full Serving Cell: The value is given by (RX level – (-111))
− RxLev Sub Serving Cell : The value is given by (RX level – (-111))
− RxQual Full Serving Cell
− RxQual Sub Serving Cell
− Neighbor cell measurements
− RxLev: The value is given by (RX level – (-111))
− BSIC
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BSIC
− BCCH-INDEX: the value represents the BA index no.
Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 6 Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
System Info 6 System Info 6
S t I f 6 i d t MS i d di t d System Info 6 is send to MS in dedicated.
In Sys Info 6 consist of
Cell identity (CI) : May also given in Hexadecimal
Mobile country code (MCC) Mobile country code (MCC)
Mobile network code (MNC)
Location area code (LAC)
Power control indicator (PWRC): If the PWRC parameter is set, it means that the MS is not ( ) p ,
to include measurements on the BCCH carrier in the calculated average. If the parameter
is not set, the BCCH measurements are included.
DTX indicator: Indicates whether MS “May Use”, “Shall Use” or “Shall Not Use” DTX.
RADIO-LINK-TIMEOUT O OU
NCC permitted values
Band indication 1800
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Layer 3 Messages in Call Origination Layer 3 Messages in Call Origination
Channel Request Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Immediate Assignment Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
CM Service Request Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Authentication Request Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Authentication Response Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Ciphering Mode Command Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Ciphering Mode Complete Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Setup Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Identity request Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Identity Response Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Call proceeding Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Assignment Command Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Assignment Complete Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Alerting Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Connect Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Connect Acknowledge Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Layer 3 Messages in Call Termination Layer 3 Messages in Call Termination
Paging Request Type 1 Message (2 TMSI )
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Paging Request Type 1 Message (1 IMSI & 1 TMSI)
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Paging Request Type 1 Message (2 IMSI )
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Paging Request Type 2 Message (1 IMSI & 2 TMSI)
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Paging Request Type 2 Message (3 TMSI)
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Paging Request Type 3 Message (4 TMSI)
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Channel Request Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Immediate Assignment Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Paging Response Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Ciphering Command Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Ciphering Mode Complete Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Identity Request Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Identity Response Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Setup Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Call Confirmed Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Assignment Command Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Assignment Complete Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Alerting Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Connect Message
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Introduction To Layer 3 - System Info
Connect Acknowledge Message
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Location Updating Flow
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Location Update Flow
Location Updating Location Updating
When a MS moves from one location area to another location area it
f L ti d t t i f th t k b t it l ti performs a Location update to inform the network about its location.
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Location Update Flow
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Channel Request Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Immediate Assignment Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Location updating Request Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Authentication Request Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Authentication Response Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
TMSI Reallocation Command Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
TMSI Reallocation Complete Message
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Layer 3 Messages in Location Update
Location Updating Accept Message
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
DL Disconnect Normal Cause
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
DL Disconnect Due to No Circuit
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
Release Message
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
Release Complete Message
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Some More Layer 3 Messages
Channel Release Message
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Example for Layer 3 Messages
Drop Call Example
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Example for Layer 3 Messages
HO Fail Example 1
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Example for Layer 3 Messages
HO Fail Example Contd…
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Example for Layer 3 Messages
HO Complete Example 1
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Example for Layer 3 Messages
HO Fail Example Contd…
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Questions Questions
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