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What is a Preposition?

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition: The children climbed the mountain without fear. In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed. There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing. The spider crawled slowly along the banister. The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled. The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes.

" which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding." which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers. the preposition "in" introduces a prepositional phrase "in his office. reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips). The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary. Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult.Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the porch. to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs). The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English: Prepositions – Time English  Usage      Example           on days of the week months / seasons time of day year after a certain period of time (when?) for night for weekend a certain point of time (when?) from a certain point of time (past till now) over a certain period of time (past on Monday in August / in winter in the morning in 2006 in an hour at night at the weekend at half past nine since 1980 for 2 years  in  at       since for  ." The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office. as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. Similarly in this sentence. Prepositions Prepositions are short words (on. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation. in. There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition.

at the party at the cinema. study. building. on the table on the left on the first floor . paper etc. in a taxi in the picture. country book. car. right) for a floor in a house     Example in the kitchen. I had read five pages. I will be back by 6 o’clock. By 11 o'clock. world meaning next to.  by   Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction) English   Usage room. at work  on           the picture on the wall London lies on the Thames. at school. town. work) attached for a place with a river being on a surface for a certain side (left. at the station at the table at a concert. taxi picture. in the world in         at     at the door. by an object for table for events place where you are to do something typical (watch a film. in London in the book in the car.English till now)      Usage Example ago before to past to / till / until till / until   a certain time in the past earlier than a certain point of time telling the time telling the time marking the beginning and end of a period of time in the sense of how long something is going to last in the sense of at the latest up to a certain time      2 years ago before 2004 ten to six (5:50) ten past six (6:10) from Monday to/till Friday         He is on holiday until Friday. street.

lower than (or covered by) something else lower than something else but above ground covered by something else meaning more than getting to the other side (also across) overcoming an obstacle higher than something else.English    Usage for public transport for television. on a plane on TV. but not directly over it getting to the other side (also over) getting to the other side something with limits on top. next to. radio left or right of somebody or something on the ground. beside under      below   the fish are below the surface  over         put a jacket over your shirt over 16 years of age walk over the bridge climb over the wall  above   a path above the lake   across    walk across the bridge swim across the lake  through   drive through the tunnel   to      go to the cinema go to London / Ireland go to bed  into    go into the kitchen / the house  towards  go 5 steps towards the house  onto   jump onto the table . bottom and the sides movement to person or building movement to a place or country for bed enter a room / a building movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it) movement to the top of something    Example on the bus. on the radio Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. the bag is under the table by.

English  Usage  Example  from in the sense of where from a flower from the garden Other important Prepositions English    Usage       Example              from of by who gave it who/what does it belong to what does it show who made it walking or riding on horseback entering a public transport vehicle entering a car / Taxi leaving a public transport vehicle leaving a car / Taxi rise or fall of something travelling (other than walking or horseriding) for age for topics. by bus she learned Russian at 45 we were talking about you  on    in off out of       by   at about   . on horseback get on the bus get in the car get off the train get out of the taxi prices have risen by 10 percent by car. meaning what about a present from Jane a page of the book the picture of a palace a book by Mark Twain on foot.