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Journal of Food Quality ISSN 1745-4557

ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, SCAVENGING RADICAL ACTIVITY AND SELECTED CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF NATIVE APPLE CULTIVARS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE
jfq_387 187..194

OTAKAR ROP,

1,5

TUNDE JURIKOVA, JIRI SOCHOR, JIRI MLCEK1 and DANIELA KRAMAROVA4

2

3

1 Department of Food Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Namesti T. G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin, Czech Republic 2 Department of Natural and Informatics Sciences, Faculty of Central European Studies, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic 3 Department of Breeding and Propagation of Horticultural Plants, Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Lednice, Czech Republic 4 Department of Food Biochemistry and Analysis, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic

5 Corresponding author. TEL: 420-576031-129; FAX: 420-577-210-172; EMAIL: rop@ft.utb.cz

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to focus on 10 typical native apple cultivars from Central Europe and to determine the basic characteristics such as dry matter, soluble solid content, titrable acidity, the content of pectins, phenolics, ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity and the scavenging effect of 10% apple fruit extracts on hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide radical in them. In our experiments, it was found out that the highest content of organic acids was shown by the“Jeptiska”cultivar (5.40 g/kg of FM). As far as the content of pectins was concerned, the highest levels were found out in the “Strymka” cultivar (32.60 g/kg FM). In case of total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid content and scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide anion), high efficiency was determined in the local cultivars, namely, in“Matcino,”“Panenske ceske”and“Strymka.”

Received for Publication November 30, 2009 Accepted for Publication January 28, 2011 doi:10.1111/j.1745-4557.2011.00387.x

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
The results shown have wide use in the alimentary industry and human nutrition as apples belong to the most widespread core fruit. There exist many apple cultivars that have not been described in detail in literature and this study provides an insight into 10 not very common cultivars in the world; and although in Central Europe these cultivars are cultivated successfully, so far they have not been utilized commercially. However, their genetic uniqueness represents an irreplaceable ecological wealth and for that reason these local cultivars could become a new and outstanding source of nutrients and food. Today, they can also be used as a potential material for further breeding and selection.

INTRODUCTION
In Central Europe, apple growing has a long tradition and we can find tens of different local cultivars there. Because of their nutritional properties, apples are rather valued as fruit species (Gallus et al. 2005); so, e.g., in human nutrition some authors recommend them as a preventive tool against the occurrence of diseases (Kader 2008) or as a dietetic source of food (Kovacs and Meresz 2004). Thanks to the content of polypheJournal of Food Quality 34 (2011) 187–194 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

nolic compounds, the consumption of apples is recommended to prevent cardiovascular or oncogenic diseases (Wojdylo et al. 2008). As compared with some other core fruit species (e.g., pears), apples contain less energy (Kopec 1997) and show a high content of minerals, pectins and vitamin C (Kyzlink 1990). In association with the process of intensification of agricultural production, the last century was characterized by extensive growing and breeding of only a few selected and
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The samples were harvested in the area of Valasske Klobouky. The soil type was classified as the mesotrophic cambisol (Anon 2007). For analyses. many of these older cultivars show a significant tolerance to pathogens and pests. as performed in this study. apples were harvested from five trees of each cultivar under study in the stage of harvest ripeness. The main objective of this paper is to nutritionally characterize 10 local apple cultivars typical of Central Europe.. For comparison.” “Jeptiska. many of the recommended apple cultivars were spread in Central Europe in the past. Tens of others are only on the margin of general interest.e. food engineering and they could also be used in the breeding work and selection. During the process of landscape cultivation and care.e.NATIVE APPLE CULTIVARS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE O. The samples were stored in a controlled environment at the temperature of +2C and under conditions of 85% of relative humidity (Kyzlink 1990). a high adaptability to less favorable climatic and soil conditions. Chemical Analyses The dry matter content was measured after drying off to a constant weight at the standard temperature of 105C Ϯ 2C – the apparatus VENTICELL 111 (BMT.. irreplaceable and invaluable natural resource (Biedrzycka and Amarowicz 2008). nowadays commercially successful apple cultivars. is really unique. The cultivars addressed in this study could partly find a wider application in human nutrition.” “Kratkostopka kralovska. Moreover. the Czech Republic. the genetic diversity of apple cultivars represents a unique. ROP ET AL. Many of the cultivars mentioned in this study were not described in detail in the past. DESCRIPTION OF THE ATTRIBUTES OF APPLE CULTIVARS USED Cultivar Albrechtovo Bernske ruzove Hvezdnata reneta Jadernicka moravska Jeptiska Kratkostopka kralovska Lebelovo Matcino Panenske ceske Spartan Starkrimson Strymka Autumn/winter Autumn Autumn Winter Winter Winter Winter Autumn Autumn Winter Winter Winter Winter Shape Flat globular Oval Flat globular Oval Conical Round Flat globular Conical Conical Globular Conical Oval Size Medium Smaller Smaller Smaller Medium Smaller Smaller Medium to large Smaller Medium Medium to large Medium Color Red striped with yellow Red Red Yellow with small areas of red blushing Deep red Yellow with small areas of red blushing Yellow Red Red Red Deep red Red mottled over a yellow background 188 Journal of Food Quality 34 (2011) 187–194 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals. two cultivars grown worldwide. Every year.” “Bernske ruzove. . This process was also accompanied by the selection of local apple cultivars. Toth et al. 2004). respectively. peel and flesh together. i. The average samples were obtained by dividing into quarters after a thorough homogenization in a laboratory grinder SJ500 (MEZOS. Brno. especially as far as their chemical composition is concerned. some nearly forgotten and sometimes only locally grown cultivars should be brought to a wider market (Iwane 1991. and their occurrence is often confined to the regions of their original growing (Goland and Bauer 2004). These orchards are situated in the southwestern part of the White Carpathians near Zlin.” “Hvezdnata reneta.” “Panenske ceske” and “Strymka” (see the characteristics in Table 1). were used from the same locality (Kutina 1991). Ten native apple cultivars were used: “Albrechtovo. all fruits without core were used. Czech Republic). altogether 15). and. Just because of the uniqueness of their genetic base and its relationship to nutritional properties. and the mean annual temperature and precipitation are 7. “Spartan” and “Starkrimson” (see Table 1).” “Matcino. Inc. the White Carpathians were declared as a protected landscape area and the cultivars described are quite typical of that region (Tetera 2003). the White Carpathians. The average alti- tude is 340 m above sea level. Czech Republic). and their description.9C and 760 mm. The age of experimental trees ranged from 12 to 15 years. The results were expressed as the average of a 3-year experiment. in the past. Chemical analyses were performed in the stage of consume ripeness specific for each cultivar (Tetera 2006). Hradec Kralove.” “Jadernicka moravska. Each of these samples involved three replications (three fruits) from each tree (i. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sample Collection and the Preparation for Chemical Analyses Fruits were harvested in experimental orchards of Tomas Bata University in Zlin within the period of 2007–2009. and a good resistance to stress (Tetera 2003).” “Lebelovo. However. The soluble solid content (SSC) was determined by means of polarimetric measurements in juice obtained after TABLE 1.

Folin– Ciocalteau reagent was used. a chromatographic column – Model Supelcosil LC8 (150. The fruit sample (10 g) was extracted at the temperature of 80C in a shaker with hydrochloric acid c = 1 mol/dm for a period of 90 min.5 (filtrated through a filter Nylon. The obtained extract was filtered and titrated with sodium hydroxide to the pH value of 8.1 mL/min. 0.25 mm).0 ¥ 4. ESA Inc. e. a direct titration of fresh juice with sodium hydroxide (Vendramini and Trugo 2000) is used. For the measurement of SSC. the type of elution was isocratic. which is produced during the oxidation of 2. they were mixed with 6 mL of sodium tetraborate (c = 0.2 mm). This test is based on the monitoring of the course of inactivation of the cation ABTS+.000 rpm and filtered through a syringe filter (0. The content of ascorbic acid was calculated as mg/100 g of FM. Germany). the radical of ABTS+ by means of an addition of 1 g of MnO2 resulting solution was intermittently stirred for an activation period of 30 min. which was used as reference. ESA Inc. (2007). After the absorbance measured in time t0. the flask was covered with aluminum foil during the preparation. with a working electrode potential K1 = 600 mV.O.5 mL of the sample was added and the new absorbance value was measured in time t20.9–2. U. Olomouc. 2006). a guard cell (Model 5010A. there exist much quicker methods in which.).013 mol/dm) dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid. where the samples were extracted for 15 min. NATIVE APPLE CULTIVARS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE squeezing the fruit and the results were expressed as % Brix.500 Ϯ 0. the flow rate of the mobile phase was 1. 0.K. thereafter. Woonsocket. The chromatographic conditions were constant: 30C.0 min. filled up to the volume with distilled water and boiled for 5 min. and it was used as the cultivars originating from this country were compared. ROP ET AL. 5-mm particle size and an electrochemical detector Coulochem III (ESA Inc. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the method described by Sulc et al. and 2 mL of the filtrate was diluted with the phosphate buffer to the absorbance (t0) of 0. using 10 g of the fresh sample.1 by using the apparatus pH 211 (Hanna Instruments). (2008). Czech Republic). the retention time 1. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity Assay The extraction was performed according to the method described by Kim et al. Determination of Ascorbic Acid The determination of ascorbic acid content was carried out according to a modified method by Miki (1981). ABTS+ shows a strong absorbance in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (600–750 nm).g. The samples of 5 mL were gradually taken off and put into 50-mL flasks. The flask with the samples was placed into a water bath with a temperature of 25C. (2003). Boiled samples were let to stand for 20 min and thereafter they were measured (at 520 nm) together with the standards in the apparatus LIBRA S6 (Biochrom Ltd. This method is standardly used when measuring antioxidant capacity and its great advantage consists in reproducibility and a good fit with other methods also used for measuring antioxidant capacity (Thaipong et al. RI) was used. Pectins were thereafter measured photometrically as a colored complex consisting of the product of thermal decomposition of galacturonic acid with m-hydroxybiphenyl in concentrated H2SO4.5.9 mg of ABTS was dissolved in 20 mL of a phosphate buffer (pH 7..01. Bärenstein.5:0. 20 g of the homogenized sample was extracted for 30 min in a shaker in 200 mL of redistilled water at the temperature of 80C.. Of course. K2 = 650 mV. a digital instrument HI 96801 (Hanna Instruments. 54. Five grams of the sample was weighed in an Erlenmeyer flask by adding 25 mL of extractant methanol: H2O : H3PO4 in the ratio 99:0. as a mobile phase was used methanol: H2O : H3PO4 = 99:0. which was measured at a wavelength of 734 nm.0. The results were expressed as grams of gallic acid (GAE) per kilogram of fresh mass. Inc. To keep out the samples of daylight.5:0. The obtained result was converted to the content of acids (expressed as malic acid) in grams per kilogram of FM (Novotny 2000).) at a wavelength of 765 nm against a blind sample.. Cambridge. For the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC). 390 (Munktell. After the extraction the content of the flask was filtrated through paper Filtrapak no. the solution was centrifuged for 5 min and at 7. which was homogenized for 10 s in an extraction mixture hydrochloric acid: methanol : water in the ratio 2:80:18. . The method described for the measurement of titrable acidity and the units used in our work are taken as the only exact and comparative method for core fruit (The methodology of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic). The obtained hydrolyzate was quantitatively transferred into a 250-mL volumetric flask and refilled to the volume with water. The content of pectins was expressed in g/kg FM. i.e. The instrument used for ascorbic acid analysis consisted of a solvent delivery pump (Model 582. after 189 Pectin Content Assay The content of pectins was measured by means of a modified method described by Rop et al. Thereafter.2′-azinobis(3ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate). Journal of Food Quality 34 (2011) 187–194 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals. The filtrate prepared in this way before injection was diluted in ration of extractant and filtrated again through a membrane filter Nylon-0. The content of total acids was measured by potentiometric titration. MA). The resulting absorbance was measured in the spectrophotometer LIBRA S6 (Biochrom Ltd.).6 mm). Chelmsford. 5 mM) and activated on cation + . this solution is green and its antioxidant capacity can be measured easily by means of spectrophotometry. Altogether.).45-mm Nylon filter disk (Labicom.

More than 14% Brix of soluble solid content were also observed in the “Matcino” and “Starkrimson” cultivars (Table 2).01 mol/dm) was then added to the reaction solution. The superoxide anion scavenging activity was done according to the method described by Beissenhirtz et al. In addition.). Regarding TPC. The scavenging activities of hydroxyl radical.50 g/kg FM (“Jadernicka moravska”) to 5. 5. So.2 mol/dm.1 mmol/dm).KOH. As far as the total content of acids was concerned. c = 0.” “Matcino” and “Strymka” cultivars.0.70 to 2. and it is based on the reduction of cytochrome c. (1982).1 mmol/ dm. In the “Panenske ceske” cultivar this value was 14.0). in these cultivars there were high contents of ascorbic acid and high values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After the incubation at 20C for 3 min.5 mL of 1% thiobarbituric acid and 1 mL of 2.. High contents of TPC were also found in the “Matcino” or “Panenske ceske” cultivars. 2006). 20 min – using the apparatus LIBRA S6 (Biochrom Ltd. One milliliter of the extract was mixed with 0. c = 0.9624x . Scavenging Activity of Reactive Oxygen Species Assay To support the results of antioxidant capacity values. U. and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In addition.8% trichloracetic acid. v.g.1 mL (c = 0. The mixture was boiled for 10 min and cooled rapidly. Antioxidant capacity was calculated as a decrease in the absorbance value using the formula: the sample. nitric oxide and superoxide anion were calculated as follows: RESULTS The “Jadernicka moravska” cultivar showed the highest content of dry matter (17. The solution was incubated for 10 min at 37C prior to the addition of 0.64 mg/kg FM). pH 7. H2O2 of 0. iron ammonium sulphate. The assay of nitric oxide scavenging activity was done by the method described by Green et al. In this case. 2004). (%) = 100 − [( At 20 At 0 ) × 100] The calculated capacity was converted using a calibration curve of the standard and expressed in ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) (Rupasinghe et al. while the highest one was in the “Strymka” cultivar (32. Scavenging activity (%) = ( A0 − A1 A0 ) × 100% (1) where A0 is the absorbance of the control (without the sample) and A1 is the absorbance of the mixture containing 190 . a high content of ascorbic acid was found in the cultivar “Matcino” (152. For this purpose. Inc. The incubation at 37C for 1 h followed and 0. The lowest values were found in the “Jeptiska” cultivar (11. All tests were performed in triplicate. London. The absorbance was measured at 540 nm.).5 mL of the Griess reagent. All of the absorbances mentioned above were measured in the spectrophotometer LIBRA S6 (Biochrom Ltd. y = 0.5 mL of aliquot was then mixed with 0. ROP ET AL.1725. The absorbance of the mixture was measured at 532 nm.86% Brix. Correlation functions were calculated using the statistical package Unistat. (1998).75 mmol/dm. When estimating the correlations existing between TPC and TAC of all the cultivars. xanthine (c = 100 mmol/dm) and cytochrome c (c = 50 mmol/dm). deoxyribose. c = 1.40 g/kg FM (“Jeptiska”).1 (Unistat Ltd.”“Matcino” and “Strymka” cultivars and were statistically significant in comparison with other cultivars Journal of Food Quality 34 (2011) 187–194 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals.60 g/kg FM). which contained 3.8 mL of a reaction buffer (KH2PO4. (2004). e. pH 7. The obtained results were the highest in the “Panenske ceske. y = 37. the highest content was in the “Strymka” cultivar.05 (Snedecor and Cochran 1967). More than 16% of dry matter was also recorded in the “Strymka” and “Hvezdnata reneta” cultivars. hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined.41x + 41.98% Brix).9928.07 units per mL of xanthine oxidase.55 g/kg FM). Furthermore. pH 7.29 g of gallic acid/kg FM (Table 3). the absorbance at 550 nm was determined.91 AAE/kg FM) were observed in the “Panenske ceske. c = 0.NATIVE APPLE CULTIVARS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE O.57%).023). the calculated correlation coefficient was r2 = 0. the extract was diluted with the phosphate buffer (c = 50 mmol/dm. The “Strymka” cultivar also showed a high content of soluble solid content (15. there were considerable differences among individual cultivars. the measured values ranged from 1. One milliliter of the extract was mixed with 1 mL of the reaction solution containing sodium nitroprusside (c = 10 mmol/dm) in the phosphate buffer (c = 50 mmol/dm.0) and prepared as a 10% solution of the primary extract (Beissenhirtz et al. The titration acidity and the content of pectin substances were other important parameters determined in altogether 12 samples of cultivars under study. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was assayed according to the method of Ghiselli et al. ROS scavenging activity was measured in the cultivars. scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (superoxide anion. an interesting correlation coefficient was found between TAC and ascorbic acid (r2 = 0. One milliliter of the extract was mixed with 1 mL of the solution containing 0.) and Office Excel Microsoft.9623. The highest values of TAC (ranging from 2.. Statistical Evaluation The data obtained were analyzed statistically by the analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple range test for comparison of means at P < 0.K.4. The differences were also noticed in the contents of pectins.

191 .32de 11.36.92 Ϯ 1.90 Ϯ 0.8497x + 1.40 g/kg FM of organic acids.44d 11.52d 28. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT (GRAMS OF GALLIC ACID/kg FM).12%.90 Ϯ 0.80 Ϯ 0.36a 3.20c 1.18a 88.20a 3.47b 13.18a Ascorbic acid 121. So.31d b Pectins 20.50 Ϯ 0. As far as the correlation coefficients were concerned.85 and 20.3325 + 4. it can be said that local apple cultivars are well adapted to local climatic conditions (Melounova et al. In case of nitric oxide. DRY MATTER CONTENT (% w/w).90 Ϯ 2.37 Ϯ 0. y = 4.44d 1.17b 1.70 Ϯ 0. in quinces (Baker 1997).12d 24. in case of TPC and nitric oxide r2 = 0.21c 1.17c 2.12 Ϯ 0. 2004).23a TAC 2.18 Ϯ 4.9 g/kg FM).9478.39cd 1. and that they are determined by the genetic uniqueness of each of them (Goland and Bauer 2004).67cd 15.84 Ϯ 8.91 Ϯ 0. y = 5.19. these values were 21.33 Ϯ 0.97 Ϯ 0.60a 12.05 Ϯ 0.26c 3.61b e SSC 13.14c 117. It is also common knowledge that there are only slight differences in the contents of individual chemical compounds when comparing individual cultivars.81 Ϯ 2.51 and 18.30 Ϯ 0.50b 94.60 Ϯ 0.17 Ϯ 2.2449 and regarding TPC and superoxide anion r2 = 0.41 Ϯ 2.30 Ϯ 0. On the other hand. the content of acids and the content of pectins. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY (GRAMS OF ASCORBIC ACID/kg FM) AND ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT (mg/kg FM) OF FRUIT OF DIFFERENT APPLE CULTIVARS As far as chemical parameters under study are concerned.39d 14.46 Ϯ 0.57 Ϯ 0. 17.37d 11.38c 16.27a 148.45 Ϯ 0.20c 1.21 Ϯ 2.18a 1.32 Ϯ 0.53d 11. In apples.14 Ϯ 0.11c 21.39 Ϯ 0.66 Ϯ 0.09 Ϯ 6.50 Ϯ 0. the average content of pectins is about 11 g/kg FM (Kopec 1997).34bc 13.87d 32.31d 14. The inhibition of hydroxyl radical was 17.38d 5.20c 2.43a c Titrable acidity 3.95 Ϯ 0. Apples are important above all due to their content of pectins.95 Ϯ 0.24 Ϯ 0.45 Ϯ 0.40bc 4.55 Ϯ 0.05.29 Ϯ 0. the content of organic acids is represented mainly (90%) by malic acid (Kyzlink 1990). y = 4.05.40 Ϯ 0.70 Ϯ 0.38d 11.18b 2.64 Ϯ 5.41c 3.53e 13. the “Jeptiska” cultivar contained 5.11b 115.20c 3. the most important are the following: the soluble solid content.5637. some amino acids (with predominating aspartic acid) and polyphenolic chlorogenic acid (Stampar et al.31 Ϯ 6. which may contain as much as 30 g/kg FM of pectins in FM (Kovacikova et al.53 Ϯ 4.37 Ϯ 0.98 Ϯ 0.28c 91.49e 12.29d 3.86 Ϯ 0. however.39c 11. for example.80 and 24. 20.80 Ϯ 2.90a Different superscripts in each column indicate the significant differences in the mean at P < 0. Inc.20 Ϯ 0.38bc 14.26 11.41 Ϯ 7.34 Ϯ 5.58 Ϯ 0.23 Ϯ 0.64 Ϯ 0.05 Ϯ 2.25a 1.41bc 15.27b 2.60 Ϯ 0.91 Ϯ 4.20 Ϯ 0.15 Ϯ 0. which predetermine them for the processing to fruit spreads thanks to their capability of gelification in presence of saccharose under the conditions of low pH (Kyzlink 1990). shikimic and fumaric acids.60 Ϯ 2. In our Cultivar Albrechtovo Bernske ruzove Hvezdnata reneta Jadernicka moravska Jeptiska Kratkostopka kralovska Lebelovo Matcino Panenske ceske Spartan Starkrimson Strymka TPC 2.41d 13. similarly as Suni et al.04 Ϯ 2.74 Ϯ 0.23b 1.34bc 2.29a Different superscripts in each column indicate the significant differences in the mean at P < 0.25 Ϯ 4.55b 15.55 Ϯ 2. SOLUBLE SOLID CONTENT (% BRIX). respectively. n = 45.09ab 11. they were found to be between TPC and hydroxyl radical r2 = 0.89c 152.80 Ϯ 0. 1997).18c 2. Journal of Food Quality 34 (2011) 187–194 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals.42b 1.94% and concerning superoxide anion 25. (Table 4). DISCUSSION Although it is necessary to consider some differences in the chemical composition resulting from the year of the harvest and influenced by the locality (Little and Taylor 1981).6984.41d 28. NATIVE APPLE CULTIVARS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE TABLE 2.60 Ϯ 0.39b 14. In apples.28b 1.17c 2.60 Ϯ 0.02b 91. ROP ET AL.03.23 Ϯ 0. Among other organic acids it is possible to find malonic.33 Ϯ 2.99%. it was found. that the content of acids in the “Boskoopske” cultivar was low (1.9724. TABLE 3.7856 + 9.03 Ϯ 0.19 Ϯ 0.56 Ϯ 0.23a 2.25c 1.94c 93.06c 152.51b 17. TITRABLE ACIDITY (g/kg FM) AND PECTIN CONTENT (g/kg FM) OF FRUIT OF DIFFERENT APPLE CULTIVARS Cultivar Albrechtovo Bernske ruzove Hvezdnata reneta Jadernicka moravska Jeptiska Kratkostopka kralovska Lebelovo Matcino Panenske ceske Spartan Starkrimson Strymka Dry matter 11.60 Ϯ 0.43e 16. n = 45.17 Ϯ 0.80 Ϯ 0.86 Ϯ 0.27 Ϯ 5.34 2.01 Ϯ 0.25 Ϯ 6.22b 1. a high content of pectins can be found. 2002).81 Ϯ 0.29 Ϯ 0.21 Ϯ 0.84 Ϯ 0.41 Ϯ 0.28 Ϯ 0.37 11. 24.52a 1.91d 14.O.21b 2.85ab 15.40c 11. for example.35 Ϯ 0.20b 2. (2000) noticed.9714. Regarding other core fruit species.83b 116.

(2006) mentioned correlation coefficients ranging from r2 = 0.NATIVE APPLE CULTIVARS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE O. Rop et al. the contents of ascorbic acid are high in apples (Sanchez et al. this value was found in the cultivars with the lowest contents of pectin compounds (Table 2).11 Ϯ 0.20a 17.25c 24.44 Ϯ 0.04b 17. which may be considered typical of apple trees (Tetera 2006). From the technological and nutritional points of view. the phytochemical content of the fruits not only increases the quality of the fruit. pectins) are rather important and their highest content was found in the “Strymka” cultivar.74a 17.12 Ϯ 1. .. was an interesting exception.22c 12.80 Ϯ 1. the highest values of TPC and TAC were determined in local cultivars. n = 45. flavor and nutritional properties (Zardo et al. Glevitzky et al.10c 18.98 Ϯ 1. CONCLUSIONS All cultivars were characterized by the variability in the content of basic chemical components..31c 20. e. This fact was confirmed by using the extract of these cultivars and its effectivity on radical oxygen species scavenging activity.15c 21. e. The work by. Muthuswamy and Rupasinghe (2007) notice a positive relationship between higher values of TAC and resistance of apple fruit to fungal diseases during storage. (2008) emphasized high values of antioxidant capacity of local apple cultivars. 2009).12%. mulberry (Bae and Suh 2007) or fruits of Prunus species (Jung et al. Moreover.g. initial high values of TPC as well as TAC have an influence on good shelf life of fruit (Matthes and Schmitz-Eiberger 2009).78 Ϯ 1.05.94 Ϯ 1.31a Nitric oxide 17.95c 9.19 Ϯ 0.85b 12.04c 12.96b 12. nitric oxide by 20.12c 12.g. Drogoudi et al.g.54a 13.26b 16. Similar or even higher activity was noticed in some other fruit species. High scavenging activity was observed in case of hydroxyl radical.81b 9. Furthermore. the higher contents are described in quinces (Kopec 1997). Compared with other core fruit species. However. a 10% extract of the “Strymka” cultivar caused the percentage inhibition of hydroxyl radical by 18.85 Ϯ 1.90 Ϯ 1.11 Ϯ 0. 2003).81 to 0. The native cultivars of apples not only show resistance to a disease with good shelf life. It was also reported that the correlation between antioxidant capacity and the content of ascorbic acid was high (Schmitz-Eiberger et al.79 Ϯ 0.36 Ϯ 1. but also stimulate greater interest in the nutraceutical aspects of these fruits as well as in the processing (Tetera 2006). Many of the cultiJournal of Food Quality 34 (2011) 187–194 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals.55 Ϯ 1.98c 17. This cultivar is frequently used in the region of the White Carpathians (Tetera 2006).94% and superoxide anion by 24. e. nevertheless.45 Ϯ 1.68 Ϯ 1. Inc.9928.50 Ϯ 0.99 Ϯ 1.11b 21. Thanks to their antioxidant capacity.85 Ϯ 1.02c 9.38b 16. For example. The “Strymka” cultivar. 2003). Although there is a decrease in the TPC and TAC values during storage. ROP ET AL. (O2 192 Apple fruit extract has scavenging property against ROS (Maffei et al.50 Ϯ 1. some of them (e.02 Ϯ 1.51 Ϯ 0. there was also considerable variability of the vitamin C contents (from 88. which – as compared with commercial cultivars – contained considerable amounts of phenolic substances.16c 17.94b 20.25 Ϯ 1. Cultivar Albrechtovo Bernske ruzove Hvezdnata reneta Jadernicka moravska Jeptiska Kratkostopka kralovska Lebelovo Matcino Panenske ceske Spartan Starkrimson Strymka Hydroxyl radical 12.91 to 152. SCAVENGING EFFECT OF APPLE FRUIT EXTRACT (10%) ON HYDROXYL RADICAL (PERCENTAGE OF INHIBITION). 2002.32 Ϯ 0.90b 9.g. So.42 Ϯ 1. nitric oxide and superoxide anion using the extract of some local cultivars (see Table 4).99 Ϯ 1.03 Ϯ 1.42b 16. The highest antioxidant capacity was in“Strymka. (2005) mentioned that some local cultivars may contain as much as 50 g of pectins/kg FM. local cultivars can be used in the prevention of many diseases.90 Ϯ 0.31 Ϯ 1.34 Ϯ 0.01a 24.84c 25. NITRIC OXIDE (PERCENTAGE OF INHIBITION) AND SUPEROXIDE ANION (PERCENTAGE OF INHIBITION) Different superscripts in each column indicate the significant differences in the mean at P < 0.80c 16. but it also has a major impact on shelf life and susceptibility to diseases (Khanizadeh et al.”“Matcino” and “Panenske ceske” cultivars.85 Ϯ 1.47 Ϯ 1. e.68a 10.98 Ϯ 0.. 2009).97.25b 11.g. TPC and TAC influence the quality of apples and their products in appearance.14a TABLE 4. In our experiments. the value of correlation coefficient was r2 = 0.38a 20. this is not an extreme value because Bailoni et al. it was found out that there were high correlations between antioxidant capacity and the content of phenolic substances (Gil et al.12b 12.16 Ϯ 1.40a Superoxide anion 20. In our measurements. 2007). for apples Thaipong et al.73c 20. In our measurement. 2007). which contained as much as 32 g of pectins/kg FM. experiments. 2009)..64 mg/kg FM) in individual cultivars.10 Ϯ 1.31c 17. (2008) draws attention to this fact when higher values of TAC act advantageously on higher shelf life of the fruit. The nitric oxide radical has been implicated in pathogenesis of several diseases similar as other kinds of ROS including free radicals such as superoxide anion − ) and hydroxyl radical species (OH•) (Wang et al. Antioxidant composition of fruits varies among cultivars and genetics plays a significant role.03 Ϯ 1. 2002).99%..

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