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Microwave Transmission

Microwave Range
MOST PRACTICAL RANGE ALCATEL MW RANGE Microwave range starts from .3Ghz to 300Ghz FROM 1 GHz TO 100 GHz 7-8-13-15-18-23-25-28-38 GHz

ADVANTAGES OF MW
1. 2. 3.

1- COST EFFECTIVE. 2- SINGLE POINT MAINTENANCE. 3- QUICK DEPLOYMENT ACROSS RIVERS AND MOUNTAINS.

TYPES OF LINKS

TYPES OF THE LINKS ACCORDING TO CAPACITY
PDH
PHYLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIRARCHY 4E1,16E1,64E1 Alcatel PDH(CM-PAK PROJECT). 4E1,8E1,16E1,32E1.

SDH

SYHCRONOUS DIGITAL HIRARCHY STM-1,STM-4,STM16,STM-64. PRACTICALLY (Pakistan) USED STM-1 & XPIC(2STM-1)

PDH
▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ AUDIO FREQUENCY =3.4 Khz SAMPLING RATE = 8Khz sample/sec BITS PER SAMPLE = 8 bits/sample
INTELIGIBILITY NOT DISTURBED TO AVOID ALISING ENOUGH QUANTIZATION LEVEL TO DESCRIBE THE SIGNAL

DATA RATE = (8bits/sample )(8khz samples/sec)= 64kbps E0 = 64kbps E1 = (32 )(64Kbps) = 2.048 Mbps
(32 CHANNELS, FIRST USED FOR SYNCHRONISATION & 16TH SIGNALING)

▼ ▼ ▼

E2 = (4)*E1 = 4 (2.048) = 8.448 Mbps E3 = (4)*E2 = 4(8.448) = 34.36 Mbps E4 = (4)*E3 = 4( 34.36) = 139.264 Mbps.

52 Mbps 4*155.08 = 2.08 Mbps 4*622.52 = 622.488 Gbps 4*2.488 = 9.SDH DATA RATE EQUILENT PDH 63E1 252E1 1008E1 4032E1 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 155.953 Gbps .

) (CHANNEL PROTECTION) TWIN PATH (NODAL SOLUTION) .TYPES OF LINKS ▼ 1.2 TYPES OF THE LINKS ACCORDING TO CONFIGURATION 1+0 1+1 1+1 HST 1+1 SD 1+1 FD (EQUIPMENT PROTECTION) (EQUIPMENT + PATH PROTECTION +BEST METHOD TO MINIMIZE MULTIPATH INTERFERENCE.

LINK BUDGET ■ RF filter loss ■ IF filter loss .

MW DISH GAINS ■ DISH GAIN DEPENDS UPON FREQUENCY AND SIZE AND DISH TYPE .

RADIO MODEL .

OUT PUT POWER ▼ THE KEY IS SYSTEM GAIN .

EMISSION DESIGNATAR .

EMISSION DESIGNATAR ▼ Emission designator .

FREQUENCY CHANNELS .

▼ SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS 4E1 FREQUENCY .

SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS 16E1 ▼ FREQUENCY .

CAPACITY. MODULATION & BAND WIDTH ▼ AS THE CAPACITY INCREASES WE HAVE TO INCREASE BANDWIDTH OR MODULATION SCHEME. ▼ ITS DEPENDS UPON OUR CHOICE HOW TO SELECT BEST CHOICE. .

MODULATION & BANDWIDTH MODULATOR 100MB/s supposed that 100Mb/s data is carried by different level of the modulator 128QAM 64QAM 16QAM 8PSK 4PSK 2PSK -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 F0 +10 +20 +30 +40 +50 FREQUENCY (MHz) .

EIRP = 24 dbm – 1. IN THIS LINK BUDGET IT IS -85dBm. MODULATION SCHEME &.70 dbm RECEIVER SENSITIVITY (RX THRESHOLD) IS THE WEAKEST RF SIGNAL THAT A RADIO NEEDS RECEIVE TO DEMODULATE & DECODE A PACKET OF DATA WITHOUT ERRORS. FREQUENCY BAND .LINK BUDGET EIRP ( EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER) EIRP IS ACTUAL RF POWER MEASURED AS MEASURED IN THE MAIN LOOB. IT DEPENDS UPON BER THRESHOLD .65 dbm.4 dbm = 68. .35 dbm-(-85dbm) = 56. ▼ THERMAL FADE MARGIN (SYSTEM OPERATING MARGIN OR FADE MARGIN) FADE MARGIN= RX SIGNAL – RECEIVER SENSITIVITY = -28. CAPACITY.7 dbm + 46.

30+ 92. 23.46 = 28. .4 = 140.7dBm = -26.29 RX SIGNAL (dBm) RX Signal = EIRP .86dbm BY INCLUDING REGIONAL EFFECTS (PATH DEPENDENT LOSSES) RSL = -26.4 + 20Log D + 20Log F FSL = Free Space Loss (dB) F D FSL = = Frequency of transmission (GHz) = Distance between antennas (km).70dBm -140.86 -1.32 dBm.29 + 46.52 +24.4 dBi– 1. FSL = 92.FSL + RX Antenna Gain – Coax Cable Loss RX Signal = 68.LINK BUDGET FREE SPACE LOSS The Free Space Loss is predictable and given by the formula.

the better. BUT TO AVOID INTERFERENCE WE ALSO USE HORIZONTAL POLARIZATION. Most agree that 20 dB or more is quite adequate. but the higher it is. there is no absolute answer to this question. POLARIZATION ORIENTATION OF ELECTRIC COMPANENT OF EM WAVE WITH RESPECT TO GROUND TYPES USED IN MW LINKS HORIZONTAL VERTICAL CHOICE CRITERIA : VERTICAL POLARIZATION IS PREFFERED BECAUSE IT IS LESS PRONE TO NOISE & FADING.LINK BUDGET What Is the Minimum SOM(FADE MARGIN) Needed? Regarding the minimum SOM needed. Some think as low as 14 dB is still good. .

.IDU LEDs & FUNCTIONS .

LED’s FUNCTIONS ON GREEN WHEN POWERED ON OUT DOOR UNIT WORKING ODUW ( ) GREEN WHEN CARRYING TRAFFIC RDI (REMOTE DEFECT INDICATION) RED WHEN THERE IS ANY MINOR OR MAJOR ALARM ON FAR END LDI (LOCAL DEFECT INDICATION) RED WHEN THERE IS ANY MINOR OR MAJOR ALARM ON NEAR END MINOR ALARMS MAJOR ALARMS MIN (MINOR) RED MAJ (MAJOR) RED .

RECEVING A CALL ATTD (ATTENDED) YELLOW IT IS ON WHEN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BUTTON HAS BEEN PUSHED .YELLOW 3.LED’s FUNCTIONS EOW (ENGINEERING ORDER WIRE) EOW IS COMMUNICATION PATH FOR VOICE OR DATA THIS IS TRI STSTE LED 1. ENGINEERING ORDER WIRE BUSY.YELLOW BLINKING ENGINEERING ORDER WIRE FREE.GREEN 2.

IDU
▼ MAIN IDU

IDU
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
AND TURN ON YELLOW LED.

(PUSH BUTTON)

THIS PUSH BUTTON IS USED FOR CALL .IT TURNS OFF LEDs MAJ/MIN

LAMP TEST

(PUSH BUTTON)

IT IS USED TO VERIFY THAT LEDS ARE WORKING PROPERLY OR NOT.

RESET

(PUSH BUTTON)

IT IS USED FOR THE RESET .

IDU
TPH (
TELEPHONE PORT RJ-11) EOW TELEPHONE RJ11 PORT.

OS (OPERATING SYSTEM)10/100 base-T
ETHERNET CRAFT TERMIAL ACCESS. TWO LEDs ON IT 1- GREEN ETHERNET LINK IS UP

RJ-45 PORT

2- ORANGE BLINKING

TX OR RX ACTIVITY

IND (DEBUG) FOR FACTORY USE ONLY
OS & IND BOTH ARE 10/100 base-T INTERFACE(100MBPS OR 10MBPS OVER TWISTED PAIR CABLE

ECT (EQUIPMENT CRAFT TEMINAL)

RS-232 INTERFACE

9 PIN D TYPE FEMALE CONNECTOR

ESC (ENGINEERING SERVICE CHANNEL) 15 PIN FEMALE CONNECTOR ALM (ALARM HOUSEKEEPING) NMS-G703 USED TO ACCESS NE WITH ADJACENT NE. NMS-V11 USED TO ACCESS NE WITH ADJACENT NE. SCSI (SMALL COMPUTER SERIAL INTERFACE) 1+1 INTERCONNECTION .IDU 8E1/DS1 ( 37 PIN D-SUB FEMALE CONNECTOR) 1-8E1/DS1 TRIBUTRIES ACCESS.

8) 20% (9.6) THERE ARE THREE OPTIONS 12348 TO 24 VDC 48 TO 60 VDC 60 VDC WHY WE USE NEGATIVE VOLTAGE ( e. -48VDC) ? TO MINIMIZE THE INTERNAL NOISE IN – VOLTAGE THE ELECTRON FLOW IS EQUIPMENT TO GROUND SO NOISE POSSIBILITY IS LESS IN + VOLTAGE THE ELECTRON FLOW IS FROM GROUND TO EQUIPMENT SO NOISE POSSIBILITY IS HIGH .6) 20% (4.g.IDU POWER OPTIONS (3 PIN CONNECTOR) 20% (9.

COMMISSIONING ▼ STARTING THE CRAFT TERMINAL SUPERVISION ---------> START .

COMMISSIONING ▼ SHOW EQUIPMENT .

COMMISSIONING ▼ USER NAME = initial ▼ Password = initialing .

commissioning .

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commissioning .

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POWER CONTROL METHODS RTPC (RTPC STANDS FOR RADIO TRANSMITTING POWER CONTROL ATPC (AUTOMATIC TRANSMITTING POWER CONTROL) IN THIS CONFIGURATION WE SELECT THRESHOLD FOR THE POWER CONTROL ATPC MIN POWER ATPC MAX POWER RX THRESHOLD LEVEL 4 dbm 24dbm -50 to-100 dbm ATPC MAX VALUE DEPENDS UPON ACHIEVED RSL AND RX THRESHOLD LEVEL MTPC (MANUAL TRANSMITTING POWER CONTROL) IN THIS POWER CONTROL METHOD THE TRANSMITTING POWER IS SET BY DEFAULT TO MAXIMUM VALUE. .IF WE WANT TO REDUCE TX POWER WE HAVE TO INTRODUCE ATTENEUATION IN IT.

ATPC SETTINGS .

COMMISSIONING .

SHIFTER & CF SHIFTER & CENTRAL FREQUENCY(CF) FOR EASY IDENTIFICATION 1&2 ARE CONSIDRED TO BE LOW AND 1P & 2P ARE HIGH SHIFTER = HIGH FREQ – LOW FREQ Unis of the above entries mhz .

commissioning .

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STATUS CHECKING .

RSL CHECKING .

RSL CHECK .

VESTEGIAL .MW etc) & EQUIPMENT SPECFIC (Alcatel.FM. NEC.IF FREQUENCY ▼ IF FREQUENCY (INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCE) BAND SPECIFIC ( AM. HARRIS etc) TWO MAJOR CLASSES IF TX FREQUENCY IF RX FREQUENCY = 340 Mhz = 140 Mhz & IF TX FREQUENCY IF RX FREQUENCY = 850 Mhz = 450 Mhz .

.IF CABLE CHARACTERISTICS IF TX FREQUENCY IF RX FREQUENCY = 340 Mhz = 140 Mhz CABLE IMPEDENCE = 50 Ohm MAXIMUM LENGTH = 300m TNC CONNCETORS ARE USED AT EACH END.

. WATER etc. FEEDHORN THIS IS FEED MECHANISM. RADOME TO PROTECT THE REFLECTOR & FEED HORN AGAINST DUST.MW DISH PARTS REFLECTOR CONVERGE THE INCOMMING WAVES TO FEED HORN & DIVERGE THE OUTGOING WAVES TO REFLECTOR . SHROUDER ALLIGN THE MISS ALIGN WAVES TO MINIMISE DIFFEREACTION & REFLECTION TO MINIMIZE THE INTEFERENCE. ASSEMBLY TO ATTACHE THE DISH WITH POLE.

0. .HOW TO UPGRAD FLASH CARD Check the flash card version. After up gradation activate the upgraded version. CD of the required version. Insert the CD & make the path.3 then up gradation is required.2 or 2. if the flash card is of version 2.0.

HOW TO UPGRAD FLASH CARD .

Abnormal Condition List This option enables you to check if there is any loopback or TX Mute activation. .

.Abnormal Condition List This option enables you to check if there is any loopback or TX Mute activation.

Also used during alignment of SD links and XPIC links. .TX MUTE This option helps you to avoid interference during Alignment of new link in the congested environment.

at that time you are not on the site and you want to know the reason of fluctuations .EVENT LOG Event log is very useful for the links which flactuates during night hours. .

EVENT LOG .

EVENT LOG .

Loop Back .

RF LOOP BACK ▼ BY RF LOOP BACK YOU CAN CHECK YOUR HARDWARE (IDU.THAT THEY ARE WORKING PROPERLY .CONNECTORS).ODU.IF CABLE.

.TRIBUTRY LOOP BACK ▼ BY TRIBUTRY LOOP BACK WE CAN PERFORM BIT ERROR RATE TEST .

SAVE CURRENT CONFIGURATION MIB MANAGEMENT MIB INCLUDES ALL THE SYSTEM INFORMATION EXCEPT ROUTING CONFIGURATION DATA.BECAUSE IT IS CONSIDERED TO BE UNIQUE FOR EACH LINK. .

.BACK UP 17 BY using this option we can save NE configuration on CT( craft terminal) Write the suitable filename then click on confirm Backup to make the Back up on CT.

To activate new configuration click MIB Click activate .RESTORE & ACTIVATE SELECT ONE OF THE BACK UP PRESS Confirm Restore By pressing the Reset previous configuration will be cancelled & new is applied.

RESET BY SOFTWARE YOU CAN RESET NE FROM THIS OPTION. .

▼ ▼ BBE (Background block error) An error block which is not part of SES.BIT ERROR RATE THRESHOLD ▼ BER = ERRORS/TOTAL NUMBER OF BITS ▼ ▼ ▼ EB (Error Block) A block in which one or more bits are in error. UAS (Unavailable seconds) Unavailable time begins after 10 consecutive SES. ES (Error Second) A second during which an error block (EB) occurs. SES (Severely Error Second) Any second which contains more than 30% error Blocks. .

PERFORMANCE .

SES EXPLANATION .

Alarm Internal communication problem connection b/w odu & idu is lost Alarm Version Mismatch Mismatch between the CT software version and the equipment software version Download the new software version. . .EQUIPMENT ALARM Alarm Replaceable Unit Problem Problem on a replaceable Unit Replace the Unit Alarm Replaceable Unit Type Mismatch Mismatch between the installed unit and its software configuration change the software according to unit specs or change the unit.

Incompatible Frequency Frequency configuration setting incompatible with the ODU specs Adjust the frequency setting with the ODU frequency range or change the ODU.RADIO ALARM Cable LOS Problem on the IDU/ODU link cable or on the ODU itself. change the ODU. cut. loose connection. Incompatible PTx (ODU) Output power out of range Tx fail (ODU) Transmitter failure Replace the ODU . short circuited. defective connector etc…) If the alarm remains. Check the cable (disconnected.

Check the local station Rx path. Check the remote station Tx path first.RADIO ALARM Mod fail (ODU) modulator failure Replace the ODU Loss of frame & Rx fail (ODU) Loss of incoming frame at the antenna level. Check the antennas alignment & connection to ODU. Check the remote transmit path and the local receive path (Soft configuration and hardware.Investigate any frequency interference. High / Low BER High / Low Bit Error Rate at Rx side. Replace defective hardware part if any. Replace defective hardware part if any. Check the received level. . Check the received level.