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Pioposal 1

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Pioposal 2

Technology is all aiounu us. It has maue its piesence known anu uoes not
seem to be going away. As euucatois, it is impoitant that we embiace this anu use it
to oui auvantage. The woilu is giowing in the way of technology anu it is impoitant
that we piepaie all stuuents foi citizenship, woik anu life in the new woilu (}ones,
2u11). This ieseaich pioposal will uiscuss the positive effect technology has hau in
all levels of euucation anu test how integiating it into oui elementaiy classiooms
might piove to be successful. The uiscussion will begin with technology integiation
in the classioom anu how it has been effective in many subjects. Next, the stuuy will
zoom in on the use of technology, specifically tablets, in the woikshop mouel. This
will leau to the puipose of the stuuy: to asses the effectiveness of using a tablet
computei in a fouith giaue classioom as pait of a math woikshop mouel.

Integiation of technology will only be as successful as teacheis anu
auministiatois aie willing to make it. "Reseaich has founu that the peisonal beliefs
anu uispositions of teacheis may ie- late to oi pieuict successful technology
integiation"(vannatta, 2uu4). Reseaich has shown that extensive tiaining shoulu be
given to teacheis along with encouiagement to accept change anu impiove
themselves as teacheis (vannatta, 2uu4). To help make the integiation of
technology easiei, piofessois aie staiting to incluue moie tiaining at the college
level foi pieseivice teacheis. 0ne example of how this is happening is the Tiickle
Bown Technology Pioject. "The Tiickle Bown Technology (TBT) Pioject, funueu
Pioposal S
thiough a giant fiom AT&T, offeieu the impetus neeueu to change the way both K-
12 anu univeisity euucatois capitalize on technology in the classioom" (Paikei,
2uuu). Theie aie many ways that technology use in a college couise can be
tianslateu in a way that elementaiy euucatois anu stuuents can finu useful. 0ne way
is the use of tablet computeis. Tablets aie set up to be the next textbook (0'Banlon,
2u1u) oi maybe even the next pictuie book.
0nce theie is buy in fiom piofessois anu classioom teacheis, the integiation
comes next. Nany stuuies aie being uone to see how effective technology can be in
an elementaiy setting. Teacheis aie finuing that the use of tablets has maue lesson
planning anu lectuiing veiy simple (Nilnei, 2uu6). Nany schools have maue the
switch fiom uesk oi laptop computeis to tablets foi theii stuuents. 0ne laige
uiffeience is "stuuents have theii uesks completely fiee of cluttei, anu can utilize the
tablets in whatevei way they wish"(Nilnei, 2uu6).
Technology has pioven to woik in all aieas of a classioom anu foi all ages. In
a stuuy by Leslie Couse anu Boia Chen, tablets weie given to a gioup of eaily
chiluhoou stuuents. Aftei using uiawing applications, it was stateu that "these active
leaining activities enhance chiluien's eye-hanu cooiuination, motoi anu cognitive
uevelopment, anu emeigent liteiacy skills" (Couse, 2u1u). Technology is not only
helpful in the basic ieauing anu math, it has also pioven to show positive iesults in
science classes. Nico Rutten uiu a stuuy on the effects of computei simulations in
science (Rutten, 2u12). Bis iesults showeu an inciease in unueistanuing when you
combine the tiauition leaining methou with computei simulations (Rutten, 2u12).
Pioposal 4
With the changing times, new styles of teaching aie also hitting the
classiooms. Teacheis aie tiying to finu ways to meet all stuuent's neeus. The
woikshop mouel is uesigneu to meet stuuents wheie they aie anu to help them
giow. uone aie the uays of whole gioup lectuies anu basal ieaueis. Stuuents aie
spenuing moie time woiking inuepenuently anu at theii level. With this way of
teaching, theie aie many oppoitunities to incoipoiate tablets.
0ne way to incluue technology in ieauing is by using auuio books. Reseaich
has shown that auuio books can impiove the ieauing schools of stuuents that aie
below level anu foi English language leaineis (Nontgomeiy, 2uu9). Auuio books
can be useu on NPS playeis oi tablets. Both let the stuuent heai which incieases
fluency. It has also been pioven that using a uevice that also shows the woius, like a
tablet, helps stuuents to inciease theii vocabulaiy, uepth of uiscussion anu quality of
wiiting (Nontgomeiy, 2uu9).
}ust like in ieauing oi science, stuuents in math can ieally benefit fiom the
use of tablet computeis. In an aiticle wiitten by Kiisten Bennett, it is stateu that
with this leaining mouel, you uo not neeu an entiie class set foi tablets to be
effective (2u12).
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The piimaiy pioblem is that many schools uo not see it to be cost effective to
invest in technology foi math. The goal of this ieseaich is to show that the use of
tablet computeis in the fouith giaue math woikshop mouel is effective in incieasing
Pioposal S
math fluency anu unueistanuing. This will hopefully peisuaue auministiatois to
invest in new technology.
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Technology: equipment uevelopeu fiom scientific knowleuge
Woikshop Nouel: uaily methou of teaching that uses a mini lesson, confeiiing anu
on level woik foi stuuents
Eaily Chiluhoou: chiluien ages S-8
Integiation: the act of combining
Tablet: a computei that is a single panel
Applications: a computei piogiam foi enu useis
Nath Fluency: the ability to quickly iecall math facts
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A stuuy like this woulu be veiy impoitant foi many people in the euucation
community. Auministiatois will be able to see the impoitance of spenuing money on
technology. They will also see the neeu foi gieatei piofessional uevelopment foi
teacheis to get them on boaiu tiaineu. 0nce teacheis aie awaie of the use of tablets
in the woikshop setting, they can begin implementing the new stiategy.
The intiouuction of this stuuy pioviues uetails fiom integiating technology
Pioposal 6
into classiooms, aieas that technology is useu, how it is useu in the woikshop mouel
anu then moie specifically, how it is useu in math. The following sections contain a
ieview of the liteiatuie, hypotheses anu methouology.
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In this section of the pioposal will be a ieview of liteiatuie ielateu to the
geneial iuea anu integiation of technology useu in euucation. In two aiticles, both
titleu "Tiickle Bown Technology", the authois uiscuss how the incoipoiation of
technology in the classioom staits at the college level. The aiticle by 0'Banlon
(2u1u) mentions how using tablets has become cost effective consiueiing the piice
of textbooks. In the aiticle by Paikei (2uuu), it uiscusses the TBT pioject wheie
piofessois weie to incoipoiate moie technology into theii teachings of pieseivice
In an aiticle wiitten by Rachel }ones (2u11), she states that technology in the
schools neeus to stait with state level technology leaueiship anu she gives examples
of how technology is cuiiently being successfully useu in the classioom. In the
aiticle by Rachel vannatta, it is pointeu out that the classioom teachei's willingness
to integiate new technology has a lot to say about its success (2uu4).
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In iepoits conuucteu in the 9us by Sivin-Kachala (1994) anu Schactei (1999)
Pioposal 7
it was stateu that technology has have positive effects on leaining. It shows the
longevity of technology anu helps to piove that it is woith the investment.
Ali Bozkuit uiu a stuuy on the integiation of technology in classiooms in
Tuikey. In his finuings, he stateu that theie aie foui funuamental uimensions to
integiation along with thiee piincipals. In the enu, he founu that foi piopei
integiation, a teachei must unueistanu why anu how to use ceitain technologies
anu use piopei planning (2u11). To help a teachei to fully unueistanu how to use
this, they must have appiopiiate anu effective piofessional uevelopment (Bam,
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Bewlett Packaiu uiu case stuuy in 2u12 at the Benvei School of Science anu
Technology. They pioveu that using a tablet computei in a 1:1 iatio helpeu to fill in
the gaps foi below level stuuents. As was mentioneu eaily in the intiouuction
Rutten (2u12) anu Cheung (2u11) both uiu stuuies on how tablet computeis weie
effective in the science anu ieauing uisciplines.
The aiticle by Leslie Couse (2u1u) was chosen to be pait of this liteiatuie
ieview because of the age it looks at. Nany of the stuuies mentioneu oluei stuuents
anu teacheis using technology, oi moie specifically, tablets. This stuuy chooses to
focus on eaily chiluhoou age chiluien. Even though this pioposal is foi fouith giaue,
it is goou foi auministiatois to see the usefulness acioss giaue levels.

Pioposal 8
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As mentioneu befoie, the woikshop mouel of teaching is giowing in
populaiity. It is mainly useu in math, wiiting anu ieauing instiuction. The woikshop
begins with stuuents heaiing a quick whole gioup lesson. Next they aie sent off to
woik inuepenuently using on level mateiial. The teachei takes this time to pull
stuuents foi small gioup instiuction anu confeiiing. In many classes, this time is
useu foi stuuents to woik in centeis on skills they neeu. In the aiticles by Black
(2uuS) anu Nontgomeiy (2uu9) the authois look at the use of auuio books to help
stuuents below level impiove compiehension anu vocabulaiy. 0sing auuio books on
a tablet computei not only gives a stuuent the option of listening to a stoiy but also
following along with the woius.
In an aiticle by Elizabeth Ciawfoiu (2uu8), she uesciibes how now
applications aie being uevelopeu to help stuuents in the wiiting piocess. The use of
tablets in wiiting coulu change how we teach wiiting in the futuie.
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Anuee Rubin (1999 uiscusses five poweiful uses of technology in math
euucation. This aiticle anu one othei by Linua uallaigan (2u1u), both show using
technology in math gives stuuents an auvantage anu helps to maximize leaining. In
this stuuy, the focus is not only on mathematics but also fouith giaue mathematics.
Fouith giaue is a yeai that many new concepts aie intiouuceu anu the thieat of
falling behinu giows gieatei.
Pioposal 9

In summaiy, stuuies have shown the use of technology fiom the college level
uown to eaily chiluhoou can gieatly impiove a stuuent's knowleuge. While
integiation anu implementation is an impoitant step we aie going to focus on the
use of technology aftei the integiation. This ieseaich will show that the use of tablet
technology in a fouith giaue classioom will impiove stuuent scoies anu fluency in
The benefits of using tablet technology in a fouith giaue classioom outweighs the
cost of puichasing the technology by showing an inciease in test scoies anu fluency
in mathematics.
In this section of the pioposal, foui main things will be uiscusseu. Fiist, theie
will be an explanation of the population anu sample size chosen foi this pioject. The
seconu section will auuiess the instiuments useu foi measuiing. Section thiee will
contain a uesciiption of the uesign anu pioceuuie that was chosen. Finally, the last
section, pioceuuie, will give uetails on how this stuuy will be conuucteu.

Pioposal 1u
The fouith giaue classes chosen foi this stuuy aie in the 0nion Public Schools
Bistiict in Tulsa, 0klahoma. Theie aie 1S elementaiy schools in the uistiict with
thiee to foui fouith giaue classiooms in each. At least two classes fiom each school
will be chosen to paiticipate. The paiticipating classes will have to have a full
implementation of the woikshop mouel in place piioi to beginning. These schools
weie chosen foi two main ieasons. The fiist is the accessibility of the schools. The
ieseaichei is an employee of the uistiict anu has access to othei teacheis in the
uistiict. Anothei ieason the ieseaichei ueciueu to incluue all elementaiy schools in
the uistiict is because of the uemogiaphics. The schools seivice a iange of families
with vaiying socioeconomic status going fiom 1u peicent fiee anu ieuuceu lunch to
1uu peicent. Also, many uiffeient iaces aie iepiesenteu.
0ne of the instiuments useu will be the enu of the unit test foi Eveiyuay
Nathematics. Stuuents in fouith giaue aie given a pie anu posttest foi each unit.
Theie is not concein foi pietest sensitization since all stuuents aie taught the
mateiial on both tests. Anothei instiument to be utilizeu will be timeu fact tests.
Stuuents in fouith giaue aie expecteu to know multiplication facts zeio to ten. They
neeu to be able to uo 1uu ianuom pioblems in five minutes. This test will hopefully
show stuuents masteiing this skill quickei than they woulu without the tablets.

Pioposal 11
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The uesign chosen foi this pioject is quasi-expeiimental since it is not possible to
ianuomly select the paiticipants.
This stuuy will be conuucteu at each elementaiy site. Each site will have two fouith
giaue classiooms involveu. 0ne will be the contiol, anu it will not ieceive the
tablets. The othei classioom will be pioviueu with five tablets that have a vaiiety of
math applications anu games on them. The lesson taught in each class will be the
same. The teacheis will tablets will incoipoiate them into theii iegulai math
woikshop as a centei. Both classes, the contiol anu the tieatment, will be measuieu
anu compaieu.
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Analysis of uata will begin at the enu of the fiist math unit taught. The scoies
on the posttest will be useu to compaie the classes. The ieseaichei will look foi
uiffeiences in scoies.

Pioposal 12
Bennett, K. R. (2u12). Less than a Class Set. B$#+&4&6 C B$#.4&6 D4"8 5$78&(-(62E
FG(4), 22-2S.
Black, N., Biill, A., Ebei, B., & Suomala, L. (2uuS). 0sing Technology to Compaie the
Instiuctional Effectiveness of Reau Alouu anu Reau Along Nateiials in an
Elementaiy Classioom: 0nline Submission.
Bozkuit, A. (2u11). A Classioom 0bseivation-Baseu Evaluation of Elementaiy
Teacheis' 0se of Technology in the Classiooms in Tuikey. H./7#"4(&#-
A$1$#+78 #&. A$I4$D1E J(4), S67-S7S.
Cheung, A. C. K., Slavin, R. E., & Centei foi Bata-Biiven Refoim in, E. (2u11a). The
Effectiveness of Euucation Technology foi Enhancing Reauing
Achievement: A Neta-Analysis: Centei foi Bata-Biiven Refoim in
Cheung, A. C. K., Slavin, R. E., & Centei foi Bata-Biiven Refoim in, E. (2u11b). The
Effectiveness of Euucational Technology Applications foi Enhancing
Nathematics Achievement in K-12 Classiooms: A Neta-Analysis. Best
Eviuence Encyclopeuia (BEE): Centei foi Bata-Biiven Refoim in Euucation.
Couse, L. }., & Chen, B. W. (2u1u). A Tablet Computei foi Young Chiluien. Exploiing
Its viability foi Eaily Chiluhoou Euucation. K(/+&#- () A$1$#+78 (&
5$78&(-(62 4& H./7#"4(&E LF(1), 7S-98.
Ciawfoiu, E. (2uu8). Notebook PCs anu Tablet PCs Belp. |Aiticlej. !78((- *-#&&4&6 C
?#&#6$%$&"E LM(6), 8-8.
ualligan, L., Loch, B., NcBonalu, C., & Tayloi, }. A. (2u1u). The 0se of Tablet anu
Relateu Technologies in Nathematics Teaching. >/1"+#-4#& !$&4(+
?#"8$%#"471 K(/+&#-E NL(1), S8-S1.
uousall, L., Ciescimano, L., & Blaii, R. (2uuS). Exploiing Tablet PCs. B$#+&4&6 C
B$#.4&6 D4"8 5$78&(-(62E FN(8), 16-21.
Bam, v. (2u1u). Paiticipant-Biiecteu Evaluation: 0sing Teacheis' 0wn Inquiiies to
Evaluate Piofessional Bevelopment in Technology Integiation. K(/+&#- ()
3464"#- B$#+&4&6 4& 5$#78$+ H./7#"4(&E NM(1), 22-29.
Bouges, T. E., & Connei, E. (2u11). Reflections on a Technology-Rich Nathematics
Classioom. ?#"8$%#"471 5$#78$+E OPL(6), 4S2-4S8.
Pioposal 1S
BP technology suppoits 1:1 PC piogiam foi motivateu stuuents. (2uu8).
}ones, R., Fox, C., Levin, B., & State Euucational Technology Biiectois, A. (2u11).
National Euucational Technology Tienus: 2u11. Tiansfoiming Euucation
to Ensuie All Stuuents Aie Successful in the 21st Centuiy: State
Euucational Technology Biiectois Association.
Nilnei, }. (2uu6). Tablet PCs: The wiite Appioach. |Aiticlej. 5 @ H K(/+&#-E FF(9), 2u-
Nontgomeiy, }. R. (2uu9). 0sing Auuio Books to Impiove Reauing anu Acauemic
Peifoimance: 0nline Submission.
0'Banlon, C. (2u1u). Tiickle uown Technology: Tech Lessons Leaineu fiom Bighei
Eu. 5Q@QHQ K(/+&#-E FM(1u-), 28-Su.
Paikei, A. (2uuu). Tiickle Bown Technology: A Bistance Euucation Appioach to
Piofessional Bevelopment.
Patten, K. B. C. B. v. (2uu7). iPous anu English-language leaineis: a gieat
combination. |Aiticlej. 5$#78$+ B4,+#+4#&E FL(S), 4u-44.
Rubin, A. (1999). 5$78&(-(62 ?$$"1 ?#"8 H./7#"4(&R H&I414(&4&6 # *+#7"47#- S/"/+$
S(+/% (& "8$ S/"/+$ () 5$78&(-(62 4& H./7#"4(&.
Rutten, N., van }oolingen, W. R., & van uei veen, }. T. (2u12). The Leaining Effects of
Computei Simulations in Science Euucation. :(%0/"$+1 C H./7#"4(&E TU(1),
Schactei, }., & Nilken Exchange on Euucation Technology, S. N. C. A. (1999). The
Impact of Euucation Technology on Stuuent Achievement: What the Nost
Cuiient Reseaich Bas To Say.
Sivin-Kachala, }., Bialo, E. R., & Inteiactive Euucational Systems Besign, I. N. Y. N. Y.
(1994). Repoit on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools, 199u-1994.
vannatta, R. A., & Foiuham, N. (2uu4). Teachei Bispositions as Pieuictois of
Classioom Technology 0se. K(/+&#- () A$1$#+78 (& 5$78&(-(62 4& H./7#"4(&E
FJ(S), 2SS-271.
Wenglinsky, B., & Euucational Testing Seivice, P. N. }. P. I. C. (1998). Boes It
Compute. The Relationship between Euucational Technology anu Stuuent
Achievement in Nathematics.
Pioposal 14
Wowzeis Launches viitual Nath Woilu. (2u11). |Aiticlej. H-$7"+(&47 H./7#"4(&
A$0(+"E OU(11), S-S.