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By: Michael Ling AIRCOM Consultants RF Optimization North


GSM Architecture

GSM Architecture

GSM Architecture .

Interface .

2) Transfers signaling information to and from Mobile Stations. . • • • Each BTS network component provides radio channels (RF carriers) for a specific RF coverage area. All BTS network components that provide RF channels for the same geographic area are located at a single BTS.GSM Architecture-BTS • 1) The BTS performs the following functions: Manages the radio channels. The RF channel is the communications link between the MS within an RF coverage area and the BSC.

However.GSM Architecture-BSC • 1) The BSC performs the following functions: Controls the BTS and RXCDR components 2) Performs call processing. operations. Control channels are always under the control of the BSC. • • The BSC receives signaling and traffic data from the MSC via the RXCDR. many types of call handling messages do not directly affect the BSC and for these the BSC serves simply as a relay point between the MSC and the MS. 3) Provides the interface between the RXCDR and the BTSs. BSC to perform handovers between the BTSs under its control without involving the MSC (inter-BTS. • . and maintenance. inter-cell and intra-cell).

four 16 kbit/s traffic channel can be fitted on each 64 kbit/s terrestrial circuit. • .GSM Architecture-RXCDR • • • The RXCDR routes the O&M data packets between the BSS and the OMC-R. and traffic channels (voice) between the BSS and MSC. usually located in the same area as the MSC. Thus. Each link between the BSSs and the RXCDR typically consists of two 64 kbit/s O&M links plus traffic channels. The RXCDR is located between the MSC and the BSS. The primary feature of the RXCDR is that it converts the 64 kbit/s PCM output of the MSC to a 16 kbit/s rate required for transmission over the air interface (between the BSS and the MS).

Exercise • 30 PCM channel can carry how many 16kbits traffic channel? .

• GMSC-When the MSC provides the interface between the fixed and mobile networks. it is known as the Gateway MSC (GMSC). .GSM Architecture-MSC • The MSC handles the call set up procedures and controls the location registration and handover procedures for all except inter-BTS. • Location registration (and location update) allows MSs to report changes in their locations enabling automatic completion of MS-terminated calls. inter-cell and intra-cell handovers.



GSM Architecture-Location Register • The Visitor Location Register (VLR) • The Home Location Register (HLR) • The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) .

• • • • . When the MS makes a call. The VLR contains temporary subscriber information needed by the MSC to provide service for visiting subscribers. the VLR connected to that MSC requests data about the MS from the HLR and stores it. the VLR already has the information needed for call set-up. When a Mobile Station (MS) roams into a new MSC service area.GSM Architecture-VLR • The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a database containing information about all MS that currently are located in the MSC service area. A subscribers TMSI can be periodically changed to secure the subscribers identity. The VLR can be seen as a distributed HLR. The VLR also controls allocation of new Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) numbers.

is a centralized database for validating the International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI). • The database contains three lists: • 1) The white list contains the IMEIs of valid MSs. • 3) The black list contains IMEIs of MSs which have been reported stolen or are to be denied service.GSM Architecture-EIR • The Equipment Identity Register (EIR). • 2) The grey list contains IMEIs of equipment to be monitored and observed for location and correct function. .

When the SIM is inserted in the mobile equipment. The following information is stored in the SIM: 1) IMSI. This can be done using a removable Subscriber Information Module (SIM). 2) TMSI. a GSM PLMN can route calls and perform billing based on the identity of the subscriber rather than the mobile equipment being used. allowing the correct routing of incoming calls. a location update procedure registers the subscribers new location. This is made up of a country code. This is used to authenticate the SIM. This is transmitted at initialization of the mobile equipment. This is updated periodically by the PLMN. 3) MSISDN. 4) Local Area Identity (LAI). This identifies the current location of the subscriber. a national code and a subscriber number.SIM Module • By making a distinction between the subscriber identity and the mobile equipment identity. A smart card is one possible implementation of a SIM module. • • • • • • • . 5) Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki).

IMSI & TMSI • What is IMSI? • What is TMSI? .

International Mobile Subscriber Identifier (IMSI) • • Globally unique subscriber identity (15 digits max) Comprises: – Mobile Country Code (MCC) – Mobile Network Code (MNC) (operator) – Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN) MCC 3 digits MNC 2-3 digits 01 – MOBILINK MSIN 9-10 digits Example: 410 – Pakistan 123456789 .

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) • • • • Replaces IMSI Unique only within a LA Issued on IMSI attach and LA change Comprises 32-bits: Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits .

International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI) • • Globally unique MS equipment identity Comprises: – Type Approval Code (TAC) • (2-digit (49 = Germany) country code + 4-digit approval code ) – Final Assembly Code (FAC) • (Manufacturer: e.g. 10 & 20 = Nokia) – Serial Number (SNR) • (unique 6-digit code) – Spare digit • (default to 0) TAC 6 digits Example: 495020 FAC 2 digits 10 SNR 6 digits 123456 X 1 digit 7 .

Location Area Identifier (LAI) • Globally unique Identity • Comprises: – Mobile Country Code (MCC) – Mobile Network Code (MNC) (operator) – Location Area Code (LAC) MCC 3 digits MNC 2-3 digits 01 LAC 2 octets Example: 410 – Pakistan 54 .

Cell Identifier (CI) and Global CI (GCI) • CI: – Identity unique to a cell within a location area (LA) – Fixed Length of 2 octets: Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits • GCI: – Globally unique cell identity – Comprises LAI +CI Location Area Identity (LAI) Cell Identity (CI) .

Interfaces • A, B, C, E, F, G, H………..

GSM Interface
• Air Interface: MS-to-BTS (also referred to as the UM Interface). • Abis Interface: Remote BTS-to-BSC. • A Interface: BSC-to-MSC. • B Interface: MSC-to-VLR. • C Interface: MSC-to-HLR/AUC. • E Interface: MSC-to-MSC. • F Interface: MSC-to-EIR. • G Interface: VLR-to-VLR. • H Interface: HLR-to-AUC.

System Specification Of GSM
• • • • • • • • • • • 890 MHz – 915 MHz on uplink 935 MHz – 960 MHz on downlink EGSM Including 880 - 890 MHz on uplink 925 - 935 MHz on downlink. Channel Number (ARFCN): 1 --- 125 Duplex distance 45 MHz Carrier separation 200 kHz, (the first carrier at 890.2 MHz) Modulation GMSK Air transmission rate 270 kbit/s Access method TDMA

• • • • 1710–1785 MHz on uplink 1805–1880 MHz on downlink The duplex distance is 95 MHz. Channel Number (ARFCN): 512 --- 885

Time Slot & TDMA Frames
• • • A TS has duration of 3/5200 seconds (0.577 ms). Eight TSs form a TDMA frame, with approximately 4.62 ms duration. At the BTS the TDMA frames on all of the radio frequency channels in the downlink direction are aligned. The same applies to the uplink. The start of a TDMA frame on uplink is, however, delayed by a fixed time corresponding to three TS periods as shown in. The reason for this delay is to allow the same TS number to be used in both uplink and downlink directions without requiring the MS to receive and transmit simultaneously.

TDMA Frames .

. • One multiframe 26-frame = 120ms. • Last frame. The MS will go to “search mode” in a effort to interrogate (decode) a neighboring BSIC. • The frame number 12 (13th frame) used by SACCH which carry link control info to and from MS and BTS.26 frames-TCH multi frame • Multiframe 26-frames traffic channel multiframe • From 26 TDMA frames. UL and DL transmission is temporary stop at this frame. frame number 25 ( 26th frame) is idle frame.

26 frames-TCH multi frame .

. plus that of the link from the BSS itself and also an indication of the quality of the current connection. uplink) contains the Receive Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of the adjacent cells.26 frames-TCH multi frame • It completes this process every 480ms. or four 26-TCH multi frames. • The message that it sends to the BSS (on SACCH.

4ms • How to get this value? .51-frame control channel multi frame • One multiframe 51-frame = 235.

51-frame control channel multi frame .

CHANNEL CONFIGURATIONS Configuration of Signaling Channels Combined Configuration 0 7 ts0=bcch/sdcch/4/pch/agch Separated Configuration 0 7 ts0=bcch/pch/agch ts1=sdcch/8 .

3. Uplink f sr r r r r r r r r frrrr rr rrrr frr r r tt t t t t ft t r rt t t t t t t r r s sss sss 0 CHANNELS f = FCCH b = BCCH s = SCH/SACCH c = CCCH r = RACH i=idle t = SDCCH/4 . 4.CHANNEL CONFIGURATIONS Combined CCCH/SDCCH/4 Multiframe Downlink 51 TDMA frames = 235 ms f s bb b b c c c c f s c f ccccccc f s t ft t t t t t t f st f t t t t t t t f ss f ss ss ss s 1. 2.

Channel Concept-Logical Channel .

we shall define the term burst. These logical channels are mapped onto the physical channels in a certain way. • Question: How many types? What are the usages? .Physical Channel • We have so far looked at the different logical channels existing in the system. Before we examine how. • The information format transmitted during one time slot in the TDMA frame.

Burst .

5 types of Burst • • • • • Normal burst Frequency correction burst Synchronization burst Access burst Dummy burst .

This is called frequency hopping. • This capability provides a high degree of immunity to interference and fading. Interference N ohopping F1 Interference F1 W ithhopping F3 F1 F1 F2 F2 F3 F2 F3 average F2 F 3 M S _1 M S _2 M S _3 M S _1 M S _2 M S _3 .Frequency Hopping • Every burst transmitted over the Air Interface can be sent on a different RF carrier frequency.

• • . GSM specifications limit the total number to 64 frequencies for a SFH transceiver unit. BBH-In this method. Frequency hopping is done by switching the information frame of one call from one radio to another radio within a cell. In theory. the transceiver unit will always transmit at an assigned frequency. there is no restriction on the number of frequencies the transceiver unit can hop on.Frequency Hopping • • • • SFH BBH SFH-The transceiver re–tunes to a different frequency set (Tx & Rx) on each TDMA burst (approx 577ms). However.

Frequency Hopping • MA • HSN • MAIO .

Frequency Hopping Exercise Given: • • • • MAIO Offset : 6 MAIO Step : 2 HSN : 5 3 cells with 1 TRX(BCCH) & 3 TRX(TCH) Fill In The Blank: Sector 1 HSN MAIO Offset MAIO step ? 0 ? TRX trx1 trx2 trx3 trx4 ? ? MAIO value for all RTF ? 2 3 ? ? 6 12 ? ? ? ? .

Ld .Lfb + Gab .Lc .Lp + Gam .Downlink Power Budget Gab Antenna Gain Lp Duplex Filter Loss Path Loss Lfb Feeder Loss Combiner Loss BTS Tx Output Power PoBS Feeder Loss MS Antenna Gain G am Ld Lfm Lc Input to mobile PinMS PinMS = PoBS .Lfm .

Lfm PoBS Lc Ld Lfb Gab Lp Gam Lfm = = = = = = = = Power output from BTS TRX BTS combiner loss BTS duplex filter loss BTS Feeder loss BTS antenna gain Path loss Mobile antenna gain Mobile station feeder loss dBm dB dB dB dBi dB dBi dB .Lfb + Gab .Ld .Downlink Power Budget Analysis • Power input to the mobile (dBm): PinMS = PoBS .Lp + Gam .Lc .

required given the following data: BTS combiner loss Lc = 6 dB BTS duplex filter loss Ld = 1 dB BTS feeder loss Lfb = 7 dB Omni antenna gain Hata path loss for 10 km Mobile antenna gain Mobile station feeder loss Gab = 12 dB Lp = 132 dB Gam = 0 dBi Lfm = 0 dBi • . we take the minimum signal strength at the cell boundary as . Allowing a margin for fading. Find the BTS output power.Downlink Power Budget Example • A class 4 mobile has a sensitivity of -102 dBm. PoBS .90 dBm. This is to be 10 km from the base station.

Lp + GdBS + Gab .Ld .Lfb .Uplink Power Budget Antenna Gain Gab GdBS Diversity Gain Ld Duplex Filter Loss Lfb Input to BTS Rx BTS Rx PinBS Output from mobile PoMS Feeder Loss Path Loss Lp MS Antenna Gain G am Feeder Loss Lfm PinBS = PoMS .Lfm + Gam .

Example • Using the data given earlier for downlink. find the input power to the base station if: • Output power of mobile PoMS= 33 dBm (2 W class 4 mobile) • Diversity reception gain at base station GdBS= 5 dB .Uplink Power Budget .

Other Power Budget Factors • • • • Building/Vehicle Penetration Loss Body Loss Additional Fast Fade Loss Interference Degradation Loss .

Propagation Model Okumura-Hata COST 231 Which is use and why????? .

Propagation Model-Exercise Exercise: Calculate free space loss in 1800MHz frequency at 5km with antenna height is 40m? .

Base Station Identity code (BSIC) NCC 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 1 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 2 2 10 18 26 34 42 50 58 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 3 BCC 4 3 11 19 27 35 43 51 59 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 4 12 20 28 36 44 52 60 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 5 5 1 3 2 1 2 9 3 7 4 5 5 3 6 1 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 6 6 14 22 30 38 46 54 62 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 7 7 15 23 31 39 47 55 63 NCC: 0-7 BCC: 0-7 Oct Dec .

Paging • How many types? • What is the different? • Why need paging? .

System Information • Sys_info 1 1) Cell channel description 2) RACH control information • Sys_info 2 1) Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list 2) Indication of which NCC allowed to monitor • Sys_info 2ter 1) Neighbor cell BCCH frequency in different band 2) RACH control information .

System Information • Sys_info 3 Cell Option 1) Cell identity 2) LAI 3) Power central information 4) DTX information 5) RLT Cell selection parameters 6) Cell reselect for LA reselection 7) Maximum transmit power allowed 8) Minimum access RXlev of cell 9) RACH control information .

System Information • 1) 2) 3) 4) Sys_info 4 LAI Cell selection parameters (same as in sys_info 3) RACH control information CCCH channel description • Sys_info 5 1) Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list • Sys_info 5ter 1) Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list in different band .

System Information • Sys_info 6 1)Cell Identity 2)LAI 3)Cell options: • Power control information • DTX • RLT • NCC .

System Information • Sys_info 13 1)SI 13 Rest Octets 2)GPRS MA 3)GPRS cell Allocation 4)GPRS Power Control parameters .

Sys Information Type 1 .

Sys Information type 2 .

Sys Information Type 3 .

System Information Type 4 .

System Information Type 5 .

System Information Type 6 .

System Information Type 13 .

Call Flow • Call Events 1) Idle Mode 2) Call Attempt 3) Dedicated/Signaling Mode 4) Call Setup 5) Call Established 6) Call End .

Call Processing-MOC Mobile Originating Call MS CHAN REQ IMM ASSIGN CM SERV REQ NETWORK Immediate assignment Service Request AUTH REQ AUTH RES CIPH MOD CMD CIPH MOD COM Authentication Ciphering Mode Setting .

MOC SETUP CALL PROC ASSIGN CMD ASSIGN COM ALERT Call Initiation Assignment of Traffic Channel Call Confirmation CONNECT CONNECT ACK Call Accepted .

Call Processing-MTC Mobile Terminating Call MS PAG REQ CHAN REQ IMM ASSIGN PAG RES NETWORK Immediate assignment Service Request AUTH REQ AUTH RES CIPH MOD CMD CIPH MOD COM Authentication Ciphering Mode Setting .

Call Processing-MTC SETUP CALL CONF ASSIGN CMD ASSIGN COM ALERT Call Initiation Assignment of Traffic Channel Call Confirmation CONNECT CONNECT ACK Call Accepted .

MS Initiated MS DISCONNECT REL REL COM NETWORK Call Clearing CHAN REL Release .MS Trigger Disconnect Disconnect.

LU Location Update MS CHAN REQ IMM ASSIGN LOC UPD REQ NETWORK Immediate assignment Service Request AUTH REQ AUTH RES CIPH MOD CMD CIPH MOD COM LOC UPD ACC TMSI REAL COM CHAN REL Authentication Ciphering Mode Setting Channel Release .

LU 3 different type of Location Update • Normal • • Periodic IMSI attach .

.Normal LU • Normal location updating is initiated by the MS when it detects that it has entered a new location area. • compare the broadcast Location Area Identity (LAI) with the one stored in the MS • location updating type normal will be initiated and the new LAI will be stored in the MS.

Periodic LU • To reduce unnecessary paging of a mobile that has left the coverage area. there is a type of location updating called periodic registration. has run out of battery power or for any other reason has the wrong status in the MSC/VLR. . It will be reinitiated every time the MS returns to idle mode after being in dedicated mode. • The periodic registration timer is implemented in the MS.

IMSI attach • IMSI attach/detach operation is an action taken by an MS to indicate to the network that it has entered into idle mode/inactive state. an IMSI attach message is sent to the MSC/VLR. MS is powered off. an IMSI detach message is sent • This prevents unnecessary pagings of powered off mobiles. • • MS is powered on. .

In case of a MO SMS. it is called SMSIWMSC (Inter working MSC) . the MSC interfacing with the SC is called SMS-GMSC. SC = Service Center In the case of a MT SMS. SME = Short Message Entity.SMS • Short Message Service (SMS) provides a means of sending text messages consisting of up to 160 alpha numeric characters.

Handover .


HO Non-Syn Handover. HANDO ACC PHYS INFO HANDO COM NETWORK Old Channel. Old Cell New Channel. Non-Synchronized MS ACTIVE CALL HANDO CMD HANDO ACC . New Cell ACTIVE CALL .

New Cell Old Channel. Old Cell RLT or Interference New Channel. Old Cell HANDOVER FAIL ACTIVE CALL .Handover Failure MS ACTIVE CALL HANDOVER CMD NETWORK Old Channel.

e. – RXQUAL_SUB measurements are taken over 12 TDMA frame periods only. – With DTX. the time taken to transmit one full SACCH message on the uplink as a measurement report • RXQUAL_SUB – measurements are used when DTX is implemented. providing comfort noise only. the remainder are filled with SID frames.FULL – SUB Measurements • RXQUAL_FULL – measurements are taken over a full 104 TDMA Multiframe cycle i. only certain TDMA frames contain speech information. RXQUAL_SUB should be used when comparing power measurements with neighbouring cells that also have DTX implemented . – However.

a person generally only speaks for about 30% to 40% of the time DTX makes use of this by reducing transmission when no voice signal is detected Uses a Voice Activity Detection (VAD) unit Advantages: – Reduces interference – Prolongs battery life of mobile .Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) • • • • In a conversation.

they can be extrapolated from previous frame to fill the gap Voice activity SID frames Signal transmitted by mobile .Silence Descriptor (SID) • • • • Silence Description Frames (SID) are sent at the end of a speech frame .prevents sudden cut off of sound SID frames also sent periodically during periods of silence Receiver produces ‘comfort noise’ for the listener If speech frames are lost.

Discontinuous Reception (DRX) • Allows MS to power down parts of its circuitry in idle mode • MSs within a Location Area divided into paging groups • MS only listens paging requests within its own group • Increases battery life of MS .

TA • TA=32=?km • Why? .

Timeslot 1 2 3 time 1 MS2 .Timing Advance Concept • • Signal from MS1 takes longer to arrive at BTS than that from MS2 Timeslots overlap .Timeslot 2 2 3 time 1 1 2 2 3 3 time Timing Advance .Timeslot 2 2 3 time 1 2 3 time 1 2 3 • Timing Advance signal causes mobiles further from base station to transmit earlier compensates for extra propagation delay 1 MS1 .Timeslot 1 2 3 time 1 MS2 .collision 1 MS1 .

Timing Advance – Tx / Rx Delay • Timing Advance value reduces the 3 timeslot offset between downlink and uplink 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Downlink Delay 3 timeslots Uplink 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Timing Advance Uplink 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Actual delay • The Timing Advance technique is known as adaptive frame alignment .

Thank you .