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in collaboration with University of Sunderland ELX 218 Electronics Lab 1 Report SUBMISSION DATE: 2"12 1t!October NAME: RA#ENDRAN A$L MO%ANA ID: S&S# ""121'" ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 LABORATORY ETHICS 1. Sign in the attendance sheet. 2. A student coming in 20 minutes after laboratory session has started will be considered ABSENT. 3. Switch off the hand-phone during laboratory sessions. . !o eating and drin"ing inside the laboratory #. $orbid ma"e noisy or interfere other student. %. Students must obtain (ERMISSION from the instructor prior to leaving a laboratory session. &. Students must do (RE)LAB assignments and understand the relevant wor"sheets' ()*+) to attending the relevant laboratory session. ,. -ata ac.uired must approved by instructor /stamped and signed0. 1. -ata ac.uired by other students are not allowed and will be penali2ed heavily. 10. After complete the e3periment' students must tidy the table' chair and e.uipments before leave the laboratory SEGI University College 1 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 EAT11' ELE&TRONI&S (RIN&I(LES LABORATOR* ) RE(ORT E+ALUATION No 1. &riteria )eport format 4 +rgani2ation • 5eneral format 2. and structure 6over page' title' ob7ective • presentation and tidiness (re 9ab :uestions • +riginality of the answers and solution • )esults • )esults in the E,cellent 6omplete report and fully complied with criteria. !ice presentation. .oo/ 6omplete report and fully complied with criteria. (oor 2 Some criteria are missing. (oor presentation. +er0 (oor 1 8a7or criteria are missing' untidy' bad presentation 1ei2!ta2e Score 2 $ully answered the .uestion upon attending the lab' with correct details 6omplete and accurate results' neatly presented All points of discussion on the results obtained covered and elaborated. $ully answered the .uestions ' few errors 6omplete and neatly presented' minor mista"es Some points of discussion on results obtained covered and elaborated. Answer little .uestions' ma7or errors. :uestions are not answered. 3. form of data' graphs etc. *ncomplete result' ma7or mista"es 8a7or data are missing . -iscussion • Ability to #. present' inteprete' and analyse result • 6ompare with theoretical values ; ideal conditions • Answer .uestions or e3plain observation s posed on labsheet 6onclusion • Some points of discussion on results obtained covered but not properly elaborated. 3cellent 5ood $air (oor 2 SEGI University College 2 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 =otal Score/ma3 &2 0 ? SU8@Score 3 AeightageB =otal 8ar"s /ma3 300? =otal ScoreC2. Dany part of the report suspected of pla2iars3 will be given 2ero mar". 9ecturer E Signature E -ateE SEGI University College 3 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 EXPERIMENT 1: INVERTING AND NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVE To construct the inverting and non-inverting op-amp circuit and verify the output THEORY 1. 2. The op-amp is a dc amplifier which has high gain due to the high input impedance and low output impedance. The schematic diagram of an op-amp is shown below. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a basic op-amp. 3. &. '. ). +. -. /. basic op-amp re!uires two power supply" a #$ss and %$ss. There are two inputs" the inverting input and non-inverting input. The output of the op-amp depends on the two inputs and the feedbac( resistors. *hen the input of the inverting terminal is higher than the non-inverting terminal" the output produces an amplified out-of-phase voltage. ,n the contrary" if the input of the non-inverting terminal is higher" the output is an amplified in-phase voltage. The open-loop gain is the ma.imum possible gain of an op-amp since there is no feedbac( resistor. *hen feedbac( resistors are included" the effective voltage gain of the op-amp is reduced. This provides some form of control of the gain of the op-amp. APPARATUS REQUIRED No 1 2 3 & ' ) + Appara !" ,perational amplifier 2esistors Function generator 6read board 7ower supply :ultimeter 1onnecting wires 6attery Ra#$% 01+&1 1(3"'(3" 14(3 834-4-349$ 1.'$ Q!a# & ' 1 5ach ,ne 1 1 1 1 Few 1 SEGI University College 4 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Figure 2: ,pen loop op-amp with 1.' $ inverting input. Figure 3: ,pen loop op-amp with 1.' $ non-inverting input. Figure &: ,pen loop op-amp with non-inverting input higher than inverting input. SEGI University College ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 Figure ': ,pen loop op-amp with inverting input higher than non-inverting input. Figure ): 0nverting amplifier. Figure +: ;on-inverting amplifier SEGI University College ! ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. &. '. ). First the circuit is constructed as in Figure 2. The output of the inverting open loop opamp is recorded. ;e.t the input is connected to the non-inverting terminal as in Figure 3. The output is then noted. The circuit is then arranged as in Figure & where the input to the non-inverting terminal is higher. The output of the op-amp recorded. 6oth of the inputs are then swapped between the two terminals as in Figure ' so that the input of the inverting terminal is higher. The output is then recorded. The inverting amplifier circuit with feedbac( is then constructed as in Figure ). The output of the op-amp is recorded. Finally" the non-inverting amplifier with feedbac( is constructed as shown in Figure +. The output of the op-amp recorded. SEGI University College " ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 CALCULATION 1. The gain of the open loop op-amp is the ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage. The formulae is given as; 2. In figure 4 and 5 where there are two supplies, the input voltage is the voltage difference of the two terminals. Hence, the output phase is determined ! the terminal with higher input. ". #or inverting amplifier, the derivation is given as; $ince op-amp has high input impedance, I1%I2 $ince gain & is ver! large, . 'a is referred as virtual ground. SEGI University College 8 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 Therefore, &s we (now, )iven 'i%1.5', #or non-inverting amplifier, the derivation is given as; SEGI University College # ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 $ince, $ince gain is ver! large, *1 and *2 at denominator Hence, SEGI University College 1 0 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 &s we (now, )iven 'i%1.5', RESULTS RESULTS 1 #igure +, -pen loop op-amp with 1.5 ' inverting input with output measure ! multimeter using multisim software. #igure + RESULTS 2 SEGI University College 1 1 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 #igure ., -pen loop op-amp with 1.5 ' non-inverting input with output measure ! multimeter using multisim software. #igure . RESULT 3 #igure 1/, -pen loop op-amp with non-inverting input higher than inverting input with output measure ! multimeter using multisim software. #igure 1/ SEGI University College 1 2 ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 RESULT 4 #igure 11, -pen loop op-amp with inverting input higher than non-inverting input with output measure ! multimeter using multisim software. #igure 11 RESULT 5 #igure 12, Inverting amplifier with feed ac( with output measure ! multimeter using multisim software. #igure 12 RESULT 6 SEGI University College 1 3 #igure 1", 0on-inverting amplifier with feed ac( with output measure ! multimeter using multisim software. ELX 218 Electronics February 2012 #igure 1" CONCLUSION -perational &mplifiers have a ver! high open loop 12 gain. 3hen appl!ing some form of 0egative #eed ac(, then the operational amplifier circuit will has a ver! precise gain characteristic that is dependent on the feed ac( used. &n operational amplifier onl! reacts to the deviation etween the voltages on its two input terminals, (nown as the 4$i%%erential In&ut 'oltage4 and not to their common potential. If the same voltage potential is applied to oth terminals the resultant output will e 5ero. &n -perational &mplifiers gain is (nown as the -pen 6oop 1ifferential )ain7&o8. SEGI University College 1 4