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SEGI COLLEGE, SUBANG JAYA

in collaboration with
University of Sunderland

COURSEWORK
Laboratory Report (20%)
ELX 214
Electrical Power System
& Machines
SUBMISSION DATE:
NAME: ______________________________________________
ID: ___________________________________________________
GROUP MEMBERS:
_____________________________________________________
__
_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

LABORATORY ETHICS
1. Sign in the attendance sheet.
2. A student coming in 20 minutes after laboratory session has started will be
considered ABSENT.
3. Switch off the hand-phone during laboratory sessions.
4. No eating and drinking inside the laboratory
5. Forbid make noisy or interfere other student.
6. Students must obtain PERMISSION from the instructor prior to leaving a
laboratory session.
7. Students must do PRE-LAB assignments and understand the relevant
worksheets, PRIOR to attending the relevant laboratory session.
8. Data acquired must approved by instructor (stamped and signed).
9. Data acquired by other students are not allowed and will be penalized heavily.
10. After complete the experiment, students must tidy the table, chair and
equipments before leave the laboratory.

ELX214 ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS & MACHINES LABORATORY - REPORT EVALUATION

No

Criteria

1.

Report format &
Organization
• General format
and structure
• Cover page,
title, objective
• presentation
and tidiness
Results
• Results in the
form of data,
graphs etc.

3.

4.

5.

6

Discussion
• Ability to
present,
inteprete, and
analyse result
• Compare with
theoretical
values @ ideal
conditions
• Answer
questions or
explain
observations
posed on lab
sheet
Conclusion
• Provide
answers to
objectives
stated earlier
• Ability to learn
something from
the experiment
Attitudes

Punctuality
to the lab

Cooperatio
n with
group
members.

Excellent
4
Complete
report and fully
complied with
criteria. Nice
presentation.

Good
3
Complete
report and
fully complied
with criteria.

Poor
2
Some criteria
are missing.
Poor
presentation.

Very Poor
1
Major criteria
are missing,
untidy, bad
presentation

Complete and
accurate
results, neatly
presented

Complete
and neatly
presented,
minor
mistakes
Some points
of discussion
on results
obtained
covered and
elaborated.

Incomplete
result, major
mistakes

Major data
are missing

Some points
of discussion
on results
obtained
covered but
not properly
elaborated.

Very few
points of
discussion,
not properly
elaborated

All points of
discussion on
the results
obtained
covered and
elaborated.

Weightage

2

4

4

The closing
paragraph
summarizes
and draws a
well developed
conclusion

Excellent

The closing
paragraph
summarizes
and draws a
sufficient
conclusion

Good

Total Score(max 56 ) = SUM{Score x Weightage}
Total Marks (max 20)= Total Score/2.8

The closing
paragraph
attempts to
summarize
but draws a
weak
conclusion

Fair

Concluding
paragraph is
not apparent
2

Poor

2

Score

*any part of the report suspected of plagiarism will be given zero mark. Lecturer : ______________________________________________ Signature : _______________________________ Date: ________________ .

1. It is calculated by applying known DC voltages and measuring the resulting current flows.3 FORMULAE PARAMETER Winding Voltage Winding Current Winding Resistance SYMBOL V I R UNIT Volts Amperes Ohms R=V/ I 1.1.1. 1. Therefore it must be as low as possible.1 OBJECTIVES Calculate the winding resistance of various DC machines with the Volt-Ampere method (Ohms Law). 1.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW The windings resistance cause internal voltage drops that reduce the machine’s efficiency.EXPERIMENT 1:DC MACHINES LABORATORY 1.1.1 MEASUREMENT OF THE WINDINGS RESISTANCE This experiment can be performed on various DC Machine.4 COMPONENTS DC Compound Excitation Machine DC Series Excitation Machine DC Shunt Excitation Machine Power Supply Cables Cables Support Voltmeter Ammeter Model A4240 Model A4242 Model A4244 Model A0240 Model A4890 Model A4891 With adequate range for this test With adequate range for this test . 1.

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. windings voltage PS3 = 0 V.6 EXECUTION The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must be grounded.1. Increase PS3 gradually by operating on the front knob. Do not exceed 10 % of nominal winding voltage to avoid excessive winding temperature .Repeat the above steps for all windings and calculate their resistance with the formula given above. It must be increased in 2% steps up to 10% max.Set the D. .C.Switch on the power supply. .Measure the voltage and current for any step and enter them in the worksheet tables.1. MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS .

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2 MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS This experiment can be performed on shunt excitation DC generators.1.1 OBJECTIVES Plot the magnetization characteristics of a DC machine.3 MEASUREMENTS PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT Armature Voltage V Volts Excitation Current le Amperes Speed n rpm 1.2. 1. Usually the medium value of Eo is considered.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW This experiment shows the electromotive force Eo against the excitation current le.2. one for the ascending and one for the descending curves.2. 1. The resulting graph shows that for the same value of excitation current there are two different values of electromotive force.2. The area enclosed in the magnetization loop represents the power losses for magnetic hysteresis (residual magnetism) in the armature iron.4 COMPONENTS DC Shunt Excitation Machine Model A4244 Squirrel Cage Three Phase Drive Motor Model A4220 Power Supply Model A0240 Cables Model A4890 Cables Support Model A4891 Coupling Base Ammeter Model A4840 With adequate range for this test . 1.

Voltmeter RPM Meter With adequate range for this test .

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Set the excitation voltage PS4 and drive motor supply voltage PS1 = 0 .Repeat the above steps while decreasing the excitation current from 100% to 10% .Plot the graph . The DC machine is mechanically coupled to the driving motor.Switch on the power supply and adjust PS1 to nominal motor voltage.6 EXECUTION The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must be grounded. . MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS .1.2. .When the motor is up to speed gradually increase the excitation current from 0% to 100% in 10% steps by adjusting PS4.At each step enter in the worksheet table the values of voltage and excitation current .

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4.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW The mechanical losses are caused by friction on bearings.1.3. brushes and .3 NO LOAD TEST This experiment is performed on shunt and compound excitation DC Machines.3.1 OBJECTIVES The experiment is designed to measure the mechanical plus iron losses. 4.

3 FORMULAE PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT Armature Voltage Va Volts Armature Current Ia Amperes Input Power (no-load) P Watts Mechanical Losses Pm Watts Magnetic Losses Pfe Watts P=Va * Ia = Pm + PFe 1. 1.3. Copper losses may be disregarded due to the low current absorbed in these conditions. When in rotation.ventilation.3. the rotor is subject to the alternating flux generated by the excitation winding on the stator and this causes the iron losses due to hysteresis and Eddy currents. They are not affected by the load and depend only on rotation speed.4 COMPONENTS DC Compound Excitation Machine Model A4240 DC Shunt Excitation Machine Model A4244 Power Supply Model A0240 Cables Model A4890 Cables Support Model A4891 Coupling Base Model A4840 Ammeter With adequate range for this test Voltmeter With adequate range for this test RPM Meter .

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Choose a suitable stepping value and repeat the above procedure at each step .Plot the graph .3.When the motor is at nominal speed measure the current and voltage and enter the values in the worksheet table .Set the excitation voltage PS4 and armature voltage PS3 = 0 .Switch on the power supply and adjust PS4 to nominal voltage. Start the motor by gradually increasing the armature voltage PS3 . MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS .Decrease step by step the armature voltage and adjust the excitation voltage to keep the motor at nominal speed .6 EXECUTION The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must be grounded.The experiment is completed when the armature voltage is so low that the motor begins to slow down .1.

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Since the torque between its stator and rotor is proportional to the generated electrical power. ventilation and on collector brushes.by a load cell connected to a torque meter . a dynamometer installed on its stator to counteract its rotation gives a reading of the motor’s torque. The measured torque includes the losses on bearings. However.4.4 DETERMINATION OF WORKING CHARACTERISTICS This experiment can be performed on various DC motors 1. they are small and do not affect significantly the experiments results.4.3 FORMULAE PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT Armature Voltage Va Volts Armature Current Ia Amperes Excitation Current le Amperes . 1.1.1 OBJECTIVES Find the motor’s working characteristics by loading it with a brake dynamo.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW The motor drives a loaded brake dynamo whose stator is mounted on bearings and capable of rotating. Measure its torque and mechanical power at various load conditions Calculate the motor efficiency Plot the load characteristics for analysis 1.by an arm and weights system The torque can be varied by varying the dynamo’s electrical load. The torque’s value can be read in two ways: .4.

A2) With adequate range for this test Voltmeter (V) this test RPM Meter With adequate range for .4 COMPONENTS DC Compound Excitation Machine Model A4240 DC Series Excitation Machine Model A4242 DC Shunt Excitation Machine Model A4244 Braking DC Generator Model A4430 Coupling Base Model A4840 Power Supply Model A0240 Resistive Load Model A4510 Starting Rheostat Model A4610 Excitation Rheostat Model A4630 Cables Model A4890 Cables Support Model A4891 Ammeter (Al.Arm Length a m Weight G N Torque T Nm Speed n mm-i Excitation Current le A Input Power Pi Watts Output Power P0 Watts η Efficiency T= G*a Po = 2 π n T/60 Pi= Va*(Ia + Ie) η= Po/Pi 1.4.

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- Check and if necessary adjust nominal voltage PS3 - Enter the read values in the worksheet table - Move the weight to the other measurement values and repeat the above procedure - Plot the graphs of the load characteristics . - Level the dynamo by putting weights and counterweights on the graduated arm.1.6 EXECUTION The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must be grounded. Reduce the starting rheostat gradually. MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS - Set the armature voltage PS3 and excitation voltage PS4 = 0 and the starting and excitation rheostats to maximum resistance. Start the motor and ensure that the rotation is opposite to that caused by the weight. - Load the dynamo by varying the resistive load and level it by adjusting the excitation voltage PS4. If necessary. exchange weights. The motor must be coupled to the brake dynamo.4. - Adjust the speed to nominal value by varying the excitation rheostat. Lock the counterweight. - Switch the power supply on. - Move the weight to the maximum value indicated in the attached worksheet table.

- NOTE: measurements should be made as quick as possible to avoid overheating. .

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DISCUSSION: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ .

_______________________________________________________________________ _______ CONCLUSION: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ______________ .