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SEGI COLLEGE, SUBANG JAYA

in collaboration with
University of Sunderland

COURSEWORK
Laboratory Report (20%)
ELX 214
Electrical Power System
& Machines
SUBMISSION DATE:
NAME: ______________________________________________
ID: ___________________________________________________
GROUP MEMBERS:
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__
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LABORATORY ETHICS
1. Sign in the attendance sheet.
2. A student coming in 20 minutes after laboratory session has started will be
considered ABSENT.
3. Switch off the hand-phone during laboratory sessions.
4. No eating and drinking inside the laboratory
5. Forbid make noisy or interfere other student.
6. Students must obtain PERMISSION from the instructor prior to leaving a
laboratory session.
7. Students must do PRE-LAB assignments and understand the relevant
worksheets, PRIOR to attending the relevant laboratory session.
8. Data acquired must approved by instructor (stamped and signed).
9. Data acquired by other students are not allowed and will be penalized heavily.
10. After complete the experiment, students must tidy the table, chair and
equipments before leave the laboratory.

ELX214 ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS & MACHINES LABORATORY - REPORT EVALUATION

No

Criteria

1.

Report format &


Organization
General format
and structure
Cover page,
title, objective
presentation
and tidiness
Results
Results in the
form of data,
graphs etc.

3.

4.

5.

Discussion
Ability to
present,
inteprete, and
analyse result
Compare with
theoretical
values @ ideal
conditions
Answer
questions or
explain
observations
posed on lab
sheet
Conclusion
Provide
answers to
objectives
stated earlier
Ability to learn
something from
the experiment
Attitudes

Punctuality
to the lab

Cooperatio
n with
group
members.

Excellent
4
Complete
report and fully
complied with
criteria. Nice
presentation.

Good
3
Complete
report and
fully complied
with criteria.

Poor
2
Some criteria
are missing.
Poor
presentation.

Very Poor
1
Major criteria
are missing,
untidy, bad
presentation

Complete and
accurate
results, neatly
presented

Complete
and neatly
presented,
minor
mistakes
Some points
of discussion
on results
obtained
covered and
elaborated.

Incomplete
result, major
mistakes

Major data
are missing

Some points
of discussion
on results
obtained
covered but
not properly
elaborated.

Very few
points of
discussion,
not properly
elaborated

All points of
discussion on
the results
obtained
covered and
elaborated.

Weightage

The closing
paragraph
summarizes
and draws a
well developed
conclusion

Excellent

The closing
paragraph
summarizes
and draws a
sufficient
conclusion

Good

Total Score(max 56 ) = SUM{Score x Weightage}


Total Marks (max 20)= Total Score/2.8

The closing
paragraph
attempts to
summarize
but draws a
weak
conclusion

Fair

Concluding
paragraph is
not apparent
2

Poor

Score

*any part of the report suspected of plagiarism will be given zero mark.

Lecturer : ______________________________________________
Signature :

_______________________________

Date: ________________

EXPERIMENT 1:DC MACHINES LABORATORY


1.1 MEASUREMENT OF THE WINDINGS RESISTANCE
This experiment can be performed on various DC Machine.
1.1.1 OBJECTIVES
Calculate the winding resistance of various DC machines with the Volt-Ampere
method (Ohms Law).
1.1.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW
The windings resistance cause internal voltage drops that reduce the machines
efficiency. Therefore it must be as low as possible. It is calculated by applying
known DC voltages and measuring the resulting current flows.
1.1.3 FORMULAE
PARAMETER
Winding Voltage
Winding Current
Winding Resistance

SYMBOL
V
I
R

UNIT
Volts
Amperes
Ohms

R=V/ I
1.1.4 COMPONENTS
DC Compound Excitation Machine
DC Series Excitation Machine
DC Shunt Excitation Machine
Power Supply
Cables
Cables Support
Voltmeter
Ammeter

Model A4240
Model A4242
Model A4244
Model A0240
Model A4890
Model A4891
With adequate range for this test
With adequate range for this test

1.1.6 EXECUTION

The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must
be grounded.
MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
- Set the D.C. windings voltage PS3 = 0 V.
- Switch on the power supply.
Increase PS3 gradually by operating on the front knob. It must be increased in
2% steps up to 10% max.
Do not exceed 10 % of nominal winding voltage to avoid excessive winding
temperature
- Measure the voltage and current for any step and enter them in the worksheet
tables.
- Repeat the above steps for all windings and calculate their resistance with the
formula given above.

1.2 MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS


This experiment can be performed on shunt excitation DC generators.
1.2.1 OBJECTIVES
Plot the magnetization characteristics of a DC machine.
1.2.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW
This experiment shows the electromotive force Eo against the excitation current
le.
The resulting graph shows that for the same value of excitation current there are
two different values of electromotive force, one for the ascending and one for the
descending curves. Usually the medium value of Eo is considered.
The area enclosed in the magnetization loop represents the power losses for
magnetic hysteresis (residual magnetism) in the armature iron.

1.2.3 MEASUREMENTS
PARAMETER

SYMBOL

UNIT

Armature Voltage

Volts

Excitation Current

le

Amperes

Speed

rpm

1.2.4 COMPONENTS
DC Shunt Excitation Machine

Model A4244

Squirrel Cage Three Phase Drive Motor Model A4220


Power Supply

Model A0240

Cables

Model A4890

Cables Support

Model A4891

Coupling Base
Ammeter

Model A4840
With adequate range for this test

Voltmeter
RPM Meter

With adequate range for this test

1.2.6 EXECUTION
The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must
be grounded. The DC machine is mechanically coupled to the driving motor.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS


- Set the excitation voltage PS4 and drive motor supply voltage PS1 = 0
- Switch on the power supply and adjust PS1 to nominal motor voltage.
- When the motor is up to speed gradually increase the excitation current from
0% to 100% in 10% steps by adjusting PS4.
- At each step enter in the worksheet table the values of voltage and excitation
current
- Repeat the above steps while decreasing the excitation current from 100% to
10%
- Plot the graph

1.3 NO LOAD TEST


This experiment is performed on shunt and compound excitation DC Machines.

4.3.1 OBJECTIVES
The experiment is designed to measure the mechanical plus iron losses.

4.3.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW


The mechanical losses are caused by friction on bearings, brushes and

ventilation. They are not affected by the load and depend only on rotation speed.
Copper losses may be
disregarded due to the low current absorbed in these conditions.
When in rotation, the rotor is subject to the alternating flux generated by the
excitation
winding on the stator and this causes the iron losses due to hysteresis and Eddy
currents.

1.3.3 FORMULAE
PARAMETER

SYMBOL

UNIT

Armature Voltage

Va

Volts

Armature Current

Ia

Amperes

Input Power (no-load)

Watts

Mechanical Losses

Pm

Watts

Magnetic Losses

Pfe

Watts

P=Va * Ia = Pm + PFe
1.3.4 COMPONENTS
DC Compound Excitation Machine

Model A4240

DC Shunt Excitation Machine

Model A4244

Power Supply

Model A0240

Cables

Model A4890

Cables Support

Model A4891

Coupling Base

Model A4840

Ammeter

With adequate range for this test

Voltmeter

With adequate range for this test

RPM Meter

1.3.6 EXECUTION
The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must
be grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS


- Set the excitation voltage PS4 and armature voltage PS3 = 0
- Switch on the power supply and adjust PS4 to nominal voltage.
Start the motor by gradually increasing the armature voltage PS3
- When the motor is at nominal speed measure the current and voltage and enter
the values in the worksheet table
- Decrease step by step the armature voltage and adjust the excitation voltage to
keep the motor at nominal speed
- Choose a suitable stepping value and repeat the above procedure at each step
- The experiment is completed when the armature voltage is so low that the
motor begins to slow down
- Plot the graph

1.4 DETERMINATION OF WORKING CHARACTERISTICS


This experiment can be performed on various DC motors

1.4.1 OBJECTIVES
Find the motors working characteristics by loading it with a brake dynamo.
Measure its torque and mechanical power at various load conditions
Calculate the motor efficiency
Plot the load characteristics for analysis

1.4.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW


The motor drives a loaded brake dynamo whose stator is mounted on bearings
and capable of rotating. Since the torque between its stator and rotor is
proportional to the generated electrical power, a dynamometer installed on its
stator to counteract its rotation gives a reading of the motors torque.
The torques value can be read in two ways:
- by a load cell connected to a torque meter
- by an arm and weights system
The torque can be varied by varying the dynamos electrical load.
The measured torque includes the losses on bearings, ventilation and on
collector brushes. However, they are small and do not affect significantly the
experiments results.

1.4.3 FORMULAE
PARAMETER

SYMBOL

UNIT

Armature Voltage

Va

Volts

Armature Current

Ia

Amperes

Excitation Current

le

Amperes

Arm Length

Weight

Torque

Nm

Speed

mm-i

Excitation Current

le

Input Power

Pi

Watts

Output Power

P0

Watts

Efficiency

T= G*a
Po = 2 n T/60
Pi= Va*(Ia + Ie)

= Po/Pi
1.4.4 COMPONENTS
DC Compound Excitation Machine

Model A4240

DC Series Excitation Machine

Model A4242

DC Shunt Excitation Machine

Model A4244

Braking DC Generator

Model A4430

Coupling Base

Model A4840

Power Supply

Model A0240

Resistive Load

Model A4510

Starting Rheostat

Model A4610

Excitation Rheostat

Model A4630

Cables

Model A4890

Cables Support

Model A4891

Ammeter (Al, A2)

With adequate range for this test

Voltmeter (V)
this test
RPM Meter

With adequate range for

1.4.6 EXECUTION
The components must be connected as shown in the circuit diagrams and must
be grounded. The motor must be coupled to the brake dynamo.
MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
-

Set the armature voltage PS3 and excitation voltage PS4 = 0 and the
starting and excitation rheostats to maximum resistance.

Level the dynamo by putting weights and counterweights on the graduated


arm. Lock the counterweight.

Switch the power supply on. Start the motor and ensure that the rotation
is opposite to that caused by the weight. If necessary, exchange weights.
Reduce the starting rheostat gradually.

Adjust the speed to nominal value by varying the excitation rheostat.

Move the weight to the maximum value indicated in the attached


worksheet table.

Load the dynamo by varying the resistive load and level it by adjusting the
excitation voltage PS4.

Check and if necessary adjust nominal voltage PS3

Enter the read values in the worksheet table

Move the weight to the other measurement values and repeat the above
procedure

Plot the graphs of the load characteristics

NOTE: measurements should be made as quick as possible to avoid


overheating.

DISCUSSION:
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CONCLUSION:
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