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Oakland Schools Biology Resource Unit 1

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Colleen Cain Avondale High School Avondale School District

Unit Table of Contents
Standards, Statements and Expectations Instructional Background Information Terms and concepts Knowledge and Skills Instructional Resources Activity !" #$o Took %errel&s i'od( Activity #2: Analyzing Food a!els Activity #": #ineapple Enzymes and #rotein a! Activity #$: Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis %irt&al Sim&lation

Standards) Statements and *+pectations
Standard '2: (rganization and Development o) iving Systems St&dents descri!e the general str&ct&re and )&nction o) cells* +hey can explain that all living systems are composed o) cells and that organisms may !e &nicell&lar or m&lticell&lar* +hey &nderstand that cells are composed o) !iological macromolec&les and that the complex processes o) the cell allo, it to maintain a sta!le internal environment necessary to maintain li)e* +hey ma-e predictions !ased on these &nderstandings* '2*2 (rganic .olec&les +here are )o&r ma/or categories o) organic molec&les that ma-e &p living systems: car!ohydrates, )ats, proteins, and n&cleic acids* '2*2x #roteins #rotein molec&les are long, &s&ally )olded chains composed mostly o) amino acids and are made o) C, H, (, and 0* #rotein molec&les assem!le )ats and car!ohydrates1 they )&nction as enzymes, str&ct&ral components, and hormones* +he )&nction o) each protein molec&le depends on its speci)ic se2&ence o) amino acids and the shape o) the molec&le* Content Expectations: 3priority expectations are in '( D4 '2*2A: Explain ho, car!on can /oin to other car!on atoms in chains and rings to )orm large and complex molec&les* '2*2': 5ecognize the six most common elements in organic molec&les 3C, H, 0, (, #, S4* B2.2C: Describe the composition of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). B2.2D: E plain the general structure and primary functions of the major comple organic molecules that compose li!ing organisms. '2*2E: Descri!e ho, dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molec&les* '2*2): Explain the role o) enzymes and other proteins in !iochemical )&nctions 3e*g*, the protein hemoglo!in carries oxygen in some organisms, digestive enzymes, and hormones4* '2*$ Cell Specialization 6n m&lticell&lar organisms, specialized cells per)orm specialized )&nctions* (rgans and organ systems are composed o) cells and )&nction to serve the needs o) cells )or )ood, air, and ,aste removal* +he ,ay in ,hich cells )&nction is similar in all living organisms*

and n&cleic acids* Car!ohydrates and lipids contain many car!on8hydrogen !onds that also store energy* Ho.ever."f: #ecogni$e and describe that both li!ing and nonli!ing things are composed of compounds. proteins. proteins. '2*7 iving (rganism Composition All living or once8living organisms are composed o) car!ohydrates. lipids.B2. lipids. that energy m&st !e trans)erred to A+# 3adenosine triphosphate4 to !e &sa!le !y the cell* '2*7A: 5ecognize and explain that macromolec&les s&ch as lipids contain high energy !onds* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . and n&cleic acids* Car!ohydrates and lipids contain many car!on8hydrogen !onds that also store energy '2*7x Energy +rans)er All living or once living organisms are composed o) car!ohydrates. such as those in '(). %hich are themsel!es made up of elements joined by energy&containing bonds.

!onds and )orm smaller molec&les* (here are four major classes of macromolecules: Carbohydrates. H.ater )olysaccharides are long chains o) s&gar monomers* #olysaccharides are polymers o) h&ndreds or tho&sands o) monosaccharides lin-ed together !y dehydration synthesis* a* #lants store polysaccharides as starch in their roots* !* Animals store polysaccharides as glycogen in their liver and m&scle cells* c* #lants &se a polysaccharide called cell&lose to !&ild plant cell . lipids.ater molec&les .hen yo& ma-e a !ond< >o& store energy .alls* +ipids ipids incl&de )ats.onosaccharides are monomers* Disaccharides and polysaccharides are polymers* Cells lin* single sugars to form disaccharides Disaccharides are do&!le s&gars* Do&!le s&gars are made !y the process o) dehydration synthesis* d Examples incl&de maltose and s&crose: a* gl&cose ? gl&cose @ maltose ? .ater to !rea. 0.Instructional Background Information" .hat is an organic compo&nd< All organic compo&nds contain car!on* +he six most common elements in organic compo&nds are C.ater monomer ? monomer @ polymer ? .ater !* gl&cose ? )r&ctose @ s&crose ? .hich ma-e lipids hydropho!ic* AFatsB a*-*a* triglycerides are " )atty acids attached to the " car!ons o) a glycerol* Clycerol @ "8car!on chain Fatty acids @ long chains o) a!o&t :7 car!ons .hich are mostly energy8storage molec&les* ipids consist mainly o) car!on and hydrogen lin-ed !y non8polar covalent !onds* ipids are not attracted to polar .ater molec&le* Hydrolysis is the reverse o) dehydration synthesis* Hydrolysis 3pict&re !elo. and nucleic acids. # and S* i)e=s molec&lar diversity is !ased on the properties o) car!on .hen yo& !rea.onomers are the !&ilding !loc-s o) polymers* Dehydration synthesis 3pict&re a!ove4 )orms polymers !y removing a . Carbohydrates .acromolec&les have tho&sands o) covalently connected atoms* +he atoms are connected !y high energy !onds* . . (.hat happens . proteins.a !ond< >o& release energy .4 &ses .hat happens .ater monomer ? monomer @ polymer ? .

axes. etc* 2* Contractile proteins D the type involved in m&scle movement "* Storage proteins D oval!&min 3egg .hites4 )or developing em!ryos $* De)ensive proteins D anti!odies to )ight in)ection 7* +ransport proteins D hemoglo!in that transports oxygen in !lood stream F* Signal proteins D hormones that serve as messengers )rom one cell to another G* Enzyme proteins 8 serve as chemical catalysts in reg&lating almost all chemical activity 3reactions4 in the !ody -ore information about en$ymes • Enzymes are large proteins that act as catalysts* .er the amo&nt o) energy needed to t&rn reactants into prod&cts* • 5emem!er: 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . red&cing !lood )lo. they are not &sed &p in the reaction* • Catalysts lo. .* (rans fats are unsaturated fats con!erted to saturated by adding hydrogens.hat is a catalyst/ Catalysts either jump start or speed up the rate of a chemical reaction. • Catalysts are recycled.5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents +ipids are made by the process of dehydration synthesis Di))erent -inds o) )ats: • Single !onds D sat&rated )ats 3&s&ally solids )rom animals s&ch as !&tter4 • Do&!le or triple !onds D &nsat&rated )ats 3&s&ally li2&ids )rom plants s&ch as corn and vegeta!le oils4 Atherosclerosis is a condition ca&sed !y too m&ch sat&rated )at in yo&r diet ca&sing lipid deposits 3pla2&e4 to acc&m&late in yo&r !lood vessels.ith a variety o) )&nctions #hospholipids 8 str&ct&rally similar to )ats !&t contain phosphor&s ? 2 )atty acids 3not "4 are &sed mainly in mem!ranes o) the cell* . Example: &s&ally a so)tened solid s&ch as margarine* +rans )ats &sed to !e called hydrogenated )ats* #hospholipids. )i!ers o) ligamentsEtendons.axes .axy coats to prevent dehydration4* Steroids D car!ons )orm rings s&ch as in the case o) cholesterol 3also )o&nd in cell mem!ranes4* )roteins #roteins are essential to the str&ct&res and activities o) li)e* #roteins are !iological polymers constr&cted )rom amino acid monomers* +here are seven ma/or classes o) proteins: :* Str&ct&ral proteins 8 incl&de hair. sil. one )atty acid lin-ed to an alcohol 3coating )or )r&its E insects have .o) spiders. and steroids are lipids .

5eactants 0o% does an en$yme %or*/ #rod&cts A speci)ic enzyme catalyzes each cell&lar chemical reaction li-e each loc. All amino acids have the same !asic str&ct&re* +he 5 gro&p is .o types o) n&cleic acids: D0A D deoxyri!on&cleic acid 50A D ri!on&cleic acid Cenetic material consists o) D0A.s hydrolysis 3adding a . 2ucleic 'cids 0&cleic acids are in)ormation8rich polymers o) n&cleotides 0&cleic acids are the !l&eprints )or proteins +here are t.)its only one -ey* • Each enzyme has a part called the active site .ists to )orm a do&!le helix.onomers that ma-e &p n&cleic acids are called n&cleotides* 50A is a single polyn&cleotide strand and D0A is a do&!le polyn&cleotide strand that t. and .here the speci)ic s&!strate !inds* • +he reactant is called the s&!strate* o 6n the hydrolysis o) s&crose.hat are proteins made of/ )roteins are made from just 21 *inds of amino acids. 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .ater molec&le4 to happen* o +he molec&le o) s&crose is then !ro-en apart into a molec&le o) gl&cose and a molec&le o) )r&ctose* o +he enzyme s&crase goes on to )ind other s&crose molec&les and repeat the process* • At the end o) the reaction. s&crose is the s&!strate 3reactant4* o S&crase is the name o) the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction* o +he enzyme allo.hat varies in the 21 di))erent -inds o) amino acids* 0o% are proteins made/ )roteins are made by the process of dehydration synthesis. the s&!strate changes into the prod&ct and the enzyme is released* .ithin the D0A are gene* Cenes are speci)ic stretches o) the molec&le that program the amino acid se2&ence o) proteins* .

0eil* 32HHH4 Biology: Concepts and Connections* San Francisco. 6nc* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .esley ongman.)ictures in 3nstructional Bac*ground 3nformation: Camp!ell. Addison .

Terms and Concepts A+# Car!ohydrate Catalyst Chemical !ond Covalent !onds D0A Dehydration synthesis Element Enzyme Hemoglo!in High energy !onds Hormone Hydrolysis ipid 0&cleic acid #rotein #olymers 50A S&!strate .

car!ohydrates 3)atty acids. proteins.Knowledge and Skills St&dent sho&ld !e a!le to: 6denti)y representations o) large !iological molec&les as polymers o) simple s&!&nits* 6denti)y str&ct&ral )orm&la o) amino acids* 6denti)y the str&ct&ral relationships )orm&las o) monomers o) )ats.een enzymes and s&!strates* 6denti)y the role o) dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in the !&ilding and !rea-ing do.n o) macromolec&les* . simple s&gars4* 6denti)y the !et. amino acids.

*explorelearning*comE 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents ..e!site has great interactive sim&lations* http:EE.Instructional Resources" +his .r*ed&EsciIed&E.e!site has lin-s to !iology la!s and lect&res* .*explore!iology*com +his ..aldron +his .e!site has many hands on !iology activities* http:EEserendip*!rynma...

hat are the di))erent types o) organic compo&nds< Ho. in the pharmacy o)ten times in ta!let )orm. s&ch as plastic spoons 8. (. proteins. &s&ally )olded chains composed mostly o) amino acids and are made o) C. and 0* #rotein molec&les assem!le )ats and car!ohydrates1 they )&nction as enzymes.ill !e &se)&l )or disc&ssing any discrepancies !et. H. and n&cleic acids* '2*2x #roteins #rotein molec&les are long. can !e )o&nd online.n paper !ag )or lipid testing 3: per st&dent la! gro&p1 hal) )or each day4 8Cloves 3: or 2 per st&dent )or each day4 8Samples )or testing Day :: 3approximately :*7 ml o) each per st&dent la! gro&p4 %egeta!le oil Corn starch #o. and hormones* +he )&nction o) each protein molec&le depends on its speci)ic se2&ence o) amino acids and the shape o) the molec&le* '2*2C: Descri!e the composition o) the )o&r ma/or categories o) organic molec&les 3car!ohydrates. etc* 8Stirrers. proteins.dered egg .olec&les +here are )o&r ma/or categories o) organic molec&les that ma-e &p living systems: car!ohydrates.ant to ma-e s&re this tests positive )or gl&cose1 .ith n&trition in)ormation )rom all the )ood pac-ages* +hese .!erry /elly and .8)at vanilla or plain yog&rt 'eans 3canned !eans that have !een mashed into a paste1 e*g* canned .eetened .e have had s&ccess .as-ing tape )or la!eling testing containers 8'i&ret reagent )or protein testing 3approximately $ ml per st&dent la! gro&p4 86odine8#otassi&m 6odide Sol&tion )or starch testing 3approximately : ml per st&dent la! gro&p4 8Cl&cose test strips 37 per st&dent la! gro&p )or the )irst day and : per st&dent la! gro&p )or the second day4 D an alternative to the strips is 'enedict=s sol&tion 8'ro.hites 3can !e )o&nd in the !a-ing needs aisle4 Cl&cose 3may also !e sold as Dextrose. or sometimes.ith stra. specimen /ars. are these types o) compo&nds tested )or< Biology 05CE6s addressed: '2*2 (rganic .Chemistry and Biochemistry Activity !" #$o took %erell&s i'od( 4uestions to be in!estigated: .e !elieve that any /elly s.een predictions and o!served res&lts* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . lipids. str&ct&ral components. in a ca-e decorating s&pply store 3e*g* Joann=s44 Day 2: 3approximately " ml o) each per class4 #retzels '&tter Jelly 3>o& may .hite !eans4 KSave the la!els .ill test positive )or gl&cose*4 Fat8Free or lo. )ats.ith high )r&ctose corn syr&p . and n&cleic acids4* -aterials: 8Containers )or testing )ood s&ch as test t&!es.

and in the second class period each st&dent gro&p .and have st&dents come to pic.or*er in brea* room Jose Ashley 'r&ce Liara +unch75nac* 'ean !&rrito .ill get di))erent res&lts* .hile per)orming tests )or car!ohydrate and proteins1 goggles are also recommended* >o& may also .9niversity o) #ennsylvania.hich o) his co. i#od* +here .ho too. proteins and lipids* Help)&l teacher notes can !e )o&nd online at http:EEserendip*!rynma.or-ers ta-ing a !rea.o types o) )ood or a sample o) evidence to )ig&re o&t . 'ethel High School .ho &p .and )o&nd only his !iology !oo.or-ers le)t the cr&m!s on his text!oo.orld Connections: St&dents relate st&dy o) macromolec&les to the n&trients in the )ood they eat* (eacher 2otes: +his activity rein)orces st&dent &nderstanding o) di))erent types o) organic compo&nds and several aspects o) scienti)ic method* 'e)ore yo& !egin this activity.JerellMs i#od* >o& may .ant to assign each type o) )ood or evidence to t. Adapted )rom A6dentity o) (rganic Compo&ndsB )rom 'iology a!oratory .ith cheese Fat8)ree yog&rt +oast .hile on !rea-. Jerell . yo&r st&dents sho&ld !e )amiliar .ledge o) organic compo&nds to )ig&re o&t . serendip*com.hen they need it* #eal&.n .e s&ggest that yo& ma-e )o&r di))erent pairs o) dry and li2&id evidence samples so di))erent st&dent gro&ps .hen he realized he had )orgotten goneO* .ater4 )rocedure7Description of +esson: 6n the )irst class period.cDonald=s on the .ill need to ma-e evidence samples )or Day 2* .and some )ood cr&m!s* His i#od .ear gloves .an&al A )rom #rentice8Hall1 Also inspired !y ACrime Scene ActivityB !y Lathy #aris.ith the !asic chemical str&ct&res and general properties o) car!ohydrates. to &se chemical indicators to test )or di))erent types o) organic compo&nds.5afety Concerns: St&dents sho&ld at least .his i#od* : 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .r*ed& the same time.aldron and Dr* ori st&dying )or his !iology test and listening to his ne. he h&rried !ac.ith !&tter and /elly #retzels 5olid E!idence A ' C D 8lucose 8 ? ? 8 5tarch )rotein ? 8 ? ? ? ? 8 8 +i9uid E!idence A ' A ' +ipid ? 3oil4 8 3.hen he realized he co&ld &se his -no.ater4 ? 3oil4 8* . and he r&shed o&t to see her and )orgot his i#od and !iology !oo.ant to -eep the 'i&ret reagent and iodine sol&tion at yo&r des.ere )o&r other .ill test one or t.aldronEorganic >o& . Jerell )rea-ed o&t. Dr* 6ngrid . !&t he calmed do. Department o) 'iology. each having something di))erent )or l&nch* Jerell=s girl)riend stopped !y near the end o) his !rea-.o st&dent gro&ps in order to assess relia!ility o) res&lts* 5ource: Dr* Jenni)er Doherty.and .or-s at . st&dents learn ho. copyright 2HHN:.ho .in the !rea.ho too* :erell6s i)od/ && An organic compo&nd mystery Jerell is a :Hth grade st&dent at City High School .

dered egg .hich are molec&les made !y living organisms s&ch as plants or animals* +he ta!le !elo. to &se several indicators to test )or the presence o) car!ohydrates and proteins* >o& .ill learn ho.ater and organic compo&nds. e*g* . r&! a small amo&nt o) the s&!stance onto the !ro.n paper.hat are organic compounds/ Almost all o) the )ood . lipid. . .ill leave a spot that lets light thro&gh* +o test )or lipids.hether it is greasy.n paper* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .e eat comes )rom plants and animals* #lants and animals contain mainly .hat type* DA+A +A' E 2: 5ubstance Do you thin* this substance is a carbohydrate.aterB* 2* 6n each section.ill &se these tests to analyze several types o) )ood and the evidence le)t at the scene o) the crime to )ind o&t .rganic E amples of <ood (hat 0as Characteristic of <ood (hat Compound +ots of (his (ype of .ill also &se a di))erent type o) test )or lipids* +omorro.n paper !ag into 7 sections* a!el the sections Pvegeta!le oilP. and A. Pegg . protein. lists the most common types o) organic compo&nds )o&nd in living organisms* For each type o) organic compo&nd. . divide a piece o) a !ro..ill !e testing the s&!stances listed in the )ollo. Pgl&coseP.rganic 0as +ots of (his (ype of Compound .hitesP. . give one or t.hether each s&!stance is an organic compo&nd and i) so.rganic Compound Car!ohydrates ipids 0&cleic acids #roteins +oday yo& .hites . or none of these/ %egeta!le oil Cl&cose Starch )rom corn or potatoes #o.o examples and descri!e one characteristic. PstarchP.ater .hat are indicators/ An indicator is a s&!stance that changes color in the presence o) a partic&lar type o) molec&le* +oday yo& .ing ta!le* #redict .hether it contains genetic material. it . yo& .ho le)t the cr&m!s on Jerell=s text!oo-* (esting for lipids :* 6) a )ood that contains lipids is p&t on !ro.hether there is lots o) this type o) organic compo&nd in meat or lots in pretzels and potatoes* DA+A +A' E :: (ype of ..

add a small amo&nt o) the s&!stance indicated on the mas-ing8tape la!el* 0o. Pegg .dered egg .ater* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .ater to each container* Stir the contents o) each container to mix the sample and .el. hold it &p to a !right light or .ater (esting for Carbohydrates :* >o& m&st %ear glo!es to protect yourself* 2* >o& .ill &se indicators to test )or t. add a!o&t 2 ml o) .ith the rest o) the tests* A)ter all the sections o) the !ro.* >o& .hich tested negative* DA+A +A' E ": Carbohydrate (ests 5ample +est strip color Cl&cose present 6odine test color Starch present )rotein (est 'i&ret test color #rotein present +ipid (est ipid present %egeta!le oil Cl&cose Starch )rom corn or potatoes the paper* Set the paper aside &ntil the spots appear dryQa!o&t :H to :7 min&tes* "* .ith a paper to.hites .n paper are dry.o common types o) car!ohydrates: gl&cose 3a speci)ic type o) s&gar4 and starch* (!tain 7 containers and &se mas-ing tape to ma-e la!els )or each container* a!el the containers Pvegeta!le oilP. and A.hich section do yo& expect to test positive )or lipids< $* .n paper* +he spot indicates the presence o) lipids* F* Complete the last col&mn o) data ta!le "* #&t a pl&s )or any samples . Pgl&coseP. r&! o)) any excess that may stic.aterB* "* For each container..ill notice that at least one sample has le)t a spot that lets light thro&gh on the !ro.hitesP. PstarchP.hich tested positive )or lipids and a min&s )or the samples .hich sections do yo& expect to test negative )or lipids< 7* Contin&e on .

hich s&!stances do yo& expect to test negative )or gl&cose< F* A)ter " min&tes.ith yo&r test res&lts in data ta!le "* . and . record the color )or each gl&cose test strip in the data ta!le "* #&t a pl&s next to those samples testing positive )or gl&cose and a min&s )or those testing negative* G* +o test )or starch yo& .ater to each container* Stir the contents o) each container to mix the )ood and . iodine .ere there any di))erences !et. wash it off immediately with water.hat type o) organic compo&nd each test s&!stance is< Return to Unit ! Table of Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . a strong base. p&t it in the appropriate spot on yo&r la!eled paper.2: Be careful when handling iodine. it can stain hands and clothing.2: Biuret reagent contains sodium hydroxide. "* 5ecord the color o) each 'i&ret sol&tion in data ta!le "* #&t a pl&s next to those samples testing positive )or protein and a min&s )or those testing negative* $* 5inse all ten containers thoro&ghly* 4uestions :* Compare yo&r predictions )rom data ta!le 2 .8!ro.hich s&!stance do yo& expect to test positive )or gl&cose< 7* .ith the name o) each s&!stance and a place to p&t the gl&cose test strip &sed to test that s&!stance* Dip one test strip into each sample )or :82 seconds* 5emove the strip.ill change color )rom yello.ill &se iodine as an indicator* 6n the presence o) starch. PstarchP. Be very careful not to splash or spill any. Pgl&coseP.een yo&r test res&lts and yo&r predictions )or . Call your teacher for assistance.aterB* Add a small amo&nt o) the s&!stance indicated on the la!el to each container* Add a!o&t 2 ml o) . Pegg . record the color o) the iodine sol&tions* #&t a pl&s next to those samples testing positive )or starch and a min&s )or those testing negative* (esting for )roteins :* a!el )ive clean containers Pvegeta!le oilP.ait " min&tes* $* .n to !l&e8!lac-* Add 7 drops o) iodine sol&tion to each container* Stir the contents o) each container* C'=(3. and A.ill &se a test strip .ith an indicator pad that changes color in the presence o) gl&cose* #repare a piece o) paper .hitesP.+o test )or gl&cose yo& . If you splash any reagent on yourself.ill &se 'i&ret reagent as an indicator* 'i&ret reagent t&rns )rom !l&e to p&rple in the presence o) protein* Add 2H drops o) !i&ret reagent to each container* Stir the contents o) each container* C'=(3.ater* 2* +o test )or protein yo& . R* 6n data ta!le ".

yo&r text!oo. .hich types o) compo&nds yo& expect to )ind in each type o) )ood yo& .or other relia!le so&rce i) yo& do not already -no. !&t it does not react .ill per)orm all )o&r organic compo&nd tests on one or t.ith gl&cose dissolved in . the chemical str&ct&re o) starch*4 +his res&lt sho.o o) the types o) )ood listed !elo. yo&r text!oo-.6) yo& )o&nd any di))erences !et.ill !e testing* DA+A +A' E $ <ood Do you e pect this food to contain 8lucose/ 5tarch/ )rotein/ +ipid/ #retzel '&tter Jelly Fat8)ree yog&rt 'eans 5ecord yo&r positive and negative test res&lts &sing pl&s and min&s signs in the data ta!le !elo. or on the evidence that Jerell )o&nd at the crime scene 3yo&r teacher .o separate !ottles* A)ter yo& per)orm the tests. &sing data )rom yo&r classmates* DA+A +A' E 7 +ipid Carbohydrate (ests )rotein (est (est <ood +est strip Cl&cose 6odine Starch 'i&ret #rotein ipid color present test color present test color present present #retzel 3cr&m!le into the container4 '&tter Jelly Fat8)ree yog&rt 'eans 3mash into a paste4 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .. .ater yo& )o&nd a positive test )or one o) the organic compo&nds* Ho.ith the rest o) the class* Complete the ta!le !elo. yo&r teacher .o&ld yo& interpret this res&lt< (esting Different (ypes of <ood and (esting the E!idence +oday yo& .is the reason )or these di))erences< >o& may .een yo&r predictions and yo&r res&lts.ill collect yo&r data to share . or the n&trition in)ormation in the la!el on each )ood pac-age to help yo& interpret yo&r res&lts* Did yo&r test )or gl&cose indicate there .ith yo&r teacher.ater.ith gl&cose molec&les that are com!ined into a large organic compo&nd li-e starch* .hat do yo& thin..ill assign yo& samples to test4* 'egin !y predicting .Suppose t$at for t$e container containing .s that the gl&cose indicator is 2&ite speci)ic* 6t reacts .* +he evidence that Jerell )o&nd has !een separated into a li2&id and a solid in t.ant to gl&cose in the starch sample< Does that mean that there is no gl&cose in starch< 3Hint: Chec.

ith !&tter and /elly Liara #retzel +hie) Com!ined li2&id ? dry evidence Complete the )ollo.hat -inds o) organic compo&nds are )o&nd in each type o) )ood and .ith cheese Ashley Fat8Free >og&rt 'r&ce +oast . complete the chart !elo. to indicate .ere )o&nd in the com!ined li2&id ? dry evidence* .ere eating .or*er in brea* +unch75nac* 8lucose 5tarch )rotein +ipid room Jose 'ean !&rrito .hat -inds o) organic compo&nds .ing ta!le to s&mmarize the evidence and yo&r interpretation o) the evidence* Did he7she .hile Jerell .ith the type o) l&nch they .as st&dying* As preparation )or interpreting the are listed !elo. room ipod/ Jose Ashley 'r&ce Liara 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . .ho too* :erell6s i)od/ +he .or*er ta*e 0o% do you *no%/ in brea* :erell6s Describe the e!idence that supports your conclusion.or-ers in the !rea.Dry part o) Jerell=s evidence i2&id part o) Jerell=s evidence . sentences !y )illing in each !lan.rite the name o) the !&ilding !loc.hich test is used to (ype of 2ame of Diagram of 5tructure of . protein.Jerell=s i#od< Do yo& have any do&!ts a!o&t yo&r concl&sion< Explain* 2* (&r !odies are made &p o) the same types o) organic compo&nds as all other living organisms* Complete the )ollo.e digest to IIIIIIIIIIIII.Analysis S&estions: :* .in the starch.n in each diagram and complete the )irst three col&mns o) the ta!le* $* . and n&cleic acid )ig&res.that is &sed to ma-e starch* D0A is a n&cleic acid that is )o&nd in every cell* D0A carries the IIIIIIIIIIII in)ormation* "* +o sho.ho too.rganic building Compound or type of Compound bloc* compound/ 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .hich . yo&r &nderstanding o) organic compo&nds.any large organic compo&nds are made o) m&ltiple repeats o) smaller !&ilding !loc. !&t .in the )o&rth col&mn* .rganic <unctions detect this compound . and .compo&nds* Starch. identi)y the type o) organic compo&nd sho. the !&ilding ! indicate the )&nction o) each type o) molec&le in di))erent parts o) o&r !ody* (&r m&scles contain lots o) protein* +his protein ena!les the m&scles to IIIIIIIIIIIII* Cl&cose is carried !y o&r !lood to all the cells in o&r !ody* (&r cells &se the gl&cose )or IIIIIIIIIIIIIII* ipids are )o&nd in )at cells in o&r !odies* +he )at cells store )at molec&les to !e &sed )or IIIIIIIIIIIIII i) a person cannot get eno&gh )ood* (&r !odies do not ma-e starch.hich contain starch .e o)ten eat plant )oods . and n&cleic acids are examples o) this type o) organic compo&nd* Circle a !&ilding !loc.

0ot tested )or 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .

ith and .ill then research the di))erent s.orld Connections: St&dents relate st&dy o) macromolec&les to the n&trients in the )ood they eat !y st&dying s&gar and HFCS* (eacher 2otes:* St&dents collect )ood la!els )rom home sho.ill )ind )ood la!els at home that have di))erent the type and amo&nt o) the s&gar is identi)ied* 0igh <ructose Corn 5yrup (0<C5) label including the ingredients: Staple label here and highlight or underline high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)! 8lucose (also *no%n as de trose) label including the ingredients: 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . and n&cleic acids4* -aterials: Food a!els 5afety Concerns: 0EA #eal&.orse )or yo& than s&gar< Biology 05CE6s addressed: '2*2C: Descri!e the composition o) the )o&r ma/or categories o) organic molec&les 3car!ohydrates." Analy.itho&t h)cs* >o& can introd&ce this activity !y sho. proteins.hich )oods contain high )r&ctose corn syr&p. lipids. or no high )r&ctose corn syr&p* 2* Staple or tape each la!el in the appropriate space !elo.points o) high )r&ctose corn syr&p and cond&ct a de!ate in class* )rocedure7Description of +esson: St&dents . read the la!els to )ind o&t .eeteners* +hey .eeteners and have a de!ate* 3nstructions: :* oo-ing in yo&r pantry or c&p!oards at home.hat types o) organic compo&nds are in the )ood .Chemistry and Biochemistry Activity . gl&cose 3also -no.* >o& m&st highlight or &nderline the la!el .ing one o) the commercials disc&ssing high )r&ctose corn syr&p* St&dent &nderstanding can !e assessed thro&gh !y having st&dents cond&ct research on the opposing vie.e eat< 6s high )r&ctose corn syr&p .ing /ood 0abels 4uestions to be in!estigated: .ing prod&cts !oth .n as dextrose4.

riting strategy .here each st&dent m&st pic.ith their o.hat are the concerns a!o&t high8)r&ctose corn syr&p<B .a side* +he )irst st&dent .ore .5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents Staple label here and highlight or underline glucose/dextrose! ' label %ith lin-s: . 0igh <ructose Corn 5yrup (0<C5): Staple label here that has ! high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)! 'ssessment 3deas: St&dent &nderstanding can !e assessed thro&gh class disc&ssion at the concl&sion o) the activity as .ayoclinic*com #rinceton 9niversity* PHigh8Fr&ctose Corn Syr&p #rompts Considera!ly . 2HHR Verats-y. Latherine* AHigh8)r&ctose corn syr&p seems to !e a common ingredient in many )oods* .n a statement to s&pport their position. isa* A6s High8Fr&ctose Corn Syr&p 5eally Cood )or >o&<B +ime*com* Septem!er :G. &p this activity !y having st&dents cond&ct research on the prosEcons o) high )r&ctose corn syr&p and cond&ct a de!ate in class* +he de!ate co&ld !e done as a Tsilent de!ate*= +his is a .ho de!ates that statement .eight Cain.*sciencedaily*com EreleasesE2H:HEH"E:HH"22:2:::7*htm 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .points can !e )o&nd at the )ollo.rites do.ell as completion o) the assignment and article extension* Also.c a&ghlin. yo& can )ollo.n arg&ment* +his contin&es )or a set amo&nt o) time 3UG min&tes4* (pposing vie.. 5esearchers Find*P ScienceDaily 22 . passes the paper to the second st&dent .arch 2H:H* 27 J&ne 2H:H Whttp:EE..

this enzyme is denat&red in canned pineapple* 6n this la!. yo& may have noticed the . trapping the . /ello is the s&!strate and the processing o) pineapple denat&res the enzyme !romeain* )rocedure7Description of +esson: St&dents .hat res&lts in the /iggly text&re o) Jell8(* 'romelain3)o&nd in )resh pineapple4 !rea-s do.ell as )or desserts4 is made o&t o) discarded animal parts Q the to&gh parts: !one and s-in* And all these to&gh parts are made o) proteins* 6n )act.hat is really happening .hy< 6n this la!.n collagen. explore!iology*com Bac*ground information: 6) yo& have ever made Jell8( !y coo-ing the po. yo& .s are most common* 6) yo&r .it< 3. .e=ll come !ac.ondered .orld Connections: St&dents relate st&dy o) macromolec&les to the n&trients in the )ood they eat !y st&dying s&gar and HFCS* (eacher 2otes: St&dents . eno&gh organic chemistry no.hen yo& coo.2f: Explain the role o) enzymes and other proteins in !iochemical )&nctions 3e*g*.der that comes in a !ox.* Do yo& -no. yo& need a little !ac-gro&nd a!o&t gelatinY and it may !e more than yo& ever .to that later*4 Celatin can !e extracted )rom any -ind o) animal.ill need to !e )amiliar . the protein hemoglo!in carries oxygen in some organisms. stirring rods Jell8( Lni)e )or chopping pineapple 'ea-ers 5afety Concerns: Coggles are recommended* #eal&.anted to -no.ater Canned pineapple +est t&!es X racFrozen pineapple Spoons. pineapple contains the enzyme !romelain.hen the dissolved gelatin cools.ater. digestive enzymes. and hormones4* -aterials: Fresh pineapple 'oiling X ice .ater extracts the gelatin )rom the carcass 3!ones X cartilage4.eet color)&l treat is act&ally made o&t o) hides.hen yo& add pineapple to gelatin* >o& -no. collagen ma-es a or Dad have ever made a !atch o) chic-en so&p )rom scratch. then allo.hat Jell8( is really made o&t o)< Are yo& ready< +hat s. to )ig&re this o&t* First.ill create a la! to st&dy the a))ect o) pineapple on gelatin* 5ource: adapted )rom a la! !y Lim Foglia. it gets sti)) and Jell8( li-e a)ter it sits in the )ridgeY thatMs !eca&se !oiling the chic-en in . /&st li-e a miniat&re version o) the commercial gelatin )actoriesO Commercial gelatin ma-ing starts !y grinding &p !ones* +he cr&shed !ones are then soa-ed in a strong !ase 3high pH4 to so)ten them.ater* +his is . as . pH4 sol&tions. and inedi!le connecting tiss&e )rom animals !&tchered )or meat* 0o< >&pO All gelatin 3incl&ding those made )or photographic and la!oratory &se.ed to cool* . .C$emistry and Bioc$emistry 'cti!ity >?: )ineapple En$ymes and )rotein +ab 4uestions to be in!estigated: Ho.ill !e designing an experiment to test .gelatin gets thic.hy do yo& thin.arning on the instr&ctions that tell yo& not to add )resh or )rozen pineapple to the gelatin* Have yo& ever . &ntil the end res&lt isnMt recogniza!le as !ones at 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .ith the scienti)ic method and have an &nderstanding o) macromolec&les* Celatin is made )rom the protein collagen 3)rom the /oints o) animals4* +o ma-e Jell8(.or-< Biology 05CE6s addressed: B2.and /elly8li-e . do enzymes and s&!strates . !&t co. yo&Mve pro!a!ly seen ho. and then passed thro&gh progressively stronger acid 3lo. !ones. gelatin is dissolved in hot . the extracted gelatin is a protein* So.

that !elongs to the !romeliad )amily* 6t is tho&ght to have originated in 'razil* 6n the :N7Hs.der* .hole mess is !oiled )or ho&rs to extract the gelatinY and this part really ma-es a stin-O Finally.ith them in the middle o) a l&scio&s spoon)&l o) dessertO 'y the .ing: A hypothesis A detailed experimental design .eat +enderizer* #apaya. -no.hy can=t yo& p&t )resh pineapple in it< et=s learn a !it a!o&t pineapple* +he pineapple plant 3"nanas co#osus4 is a monocot.hat a))ects the )&nction o) enzymes* Design a controlled experiment that sho.ill !e a!le to per)orm yo&r experiment once yo& receive approval o) yo&r experimental design )rom yo&r teacher* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . also contains an enzyme. . that digests protein* 6t can !e )o&nd in Accent . times have changed and no.ill incl&de: +he e))ect o) )resh pineapple on gelatin* +he e))ect o) )rozen pineapple on gelatin* +he e))ect o) canned pineapple on gelatin* +he e))ect o) )reshly coo-ed pineapple on gelatin* A data ta!le >o& . or digests. #earl '* . another tropical )r&it.ay.hich .hat Jell8(Ms made )rom.n experiment to test the e))ect o) pineapple on gelatin* +he goal is to &nderstand .hich his .ho Cooper 9nion 3in 0>C4 is named a)ter* Sometime later 3:RN74.ell as &nderstanding .ait.s the e))ect o) ra. !o&ght the patent )rom #eter Cooper and adapted CooperMs gelatin dessert into an entirely prepac-aged )orm. itMs ready to !ecome a /iggly dessertO And no. protein* +his protease 3protein8digesting4 enzyme in pineapple is called bromelain. )lavorings.ith some other tropical )r&its. the gelatin layer is s-immed o)) the !oiling pot.hy donMt yo& p&t some on the ta!le tonight< >o&r g&ests .eat +enderizer* )rocedure: 6n this la!.ith added s&gar. all canned pineapple comes )rom overseas.hat is act&ally going on in the pineapple8gelatin mix at a chemical level as . this .aii led the . largely )rom the #hilippines* As .ever.ade )rom !oneY made )rom proteinY so it m&st !e to&gh st&))O So . yo& . and arti)icial color.ill !e given an array o) materials and yo& . and dried into a po. named PJell8(*P +he rest is history*** .orld in !oth 2&antity and 2&ality o) pineapples* Ho. that yo& -no. . .hole process o) extracting gelatin )rom !one .ait.ay David .hen yo& share yo&r originally developed in :R$7 !y an engineer.a-e s&re yo&r experiment description incl&des the )ollo. pineapple on gelatin* . called papain. or grass8li-e plant.ill !e delighted . .n. the pineapple )r&it contains an enzyme that !rea-s do. pineapple !ecame the 9nited State=s second most important )r&it and Ha. #eter Cooper Q the man .i)e.allO +hen the .hich is extracted and sold in s&ch prod&cts as SchillingMs .ill !e as-ed to design yo&r o.ledge . .. a co&gh syr&p man&)act&rer.

hat type o) organic molec&le is !romelain< R* .hich test t&!es did the gelatin /ell.eas&rement o) Dependent %aria!le: Control: (ther Controlled Factors 3At east 74: 4uestions: :* Clearly descri!e the res&lts o) yo&r experiment* 6n .ith the gelatin* N* 6s the reaction o) !romelain and gelatin dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis< Explain* :H* .hat type o) organic molec&le is gelatin< G* .hen pineapple is mixed . design an experiment to test at .hat speci)ic temperature the pineapple enzyme denat&res* +itle: Hypothesis: 6ndependent %aria!le: .E perimental Design 8uide +eacher ApprovalIIIIIIIII +itle: Hypothesis: 6ndependent %aria!le: .hy did others not* 'e speci)icO "* .eas&rement o) 6ndependent %aria!le: 0&m!er o) +rials: Dependent %aria!le: .hich did not* 2* Clearly explain the res&lts o) yo&r experiment* .hat is 3are4 the prod&ct3s4 in yo&r experiment< F* .hy did some test t&!es o) gelatin /ell. .ord e2&ationB to descri!e the chemical reaction that occ&rs .eas&rement o) 6ndependent %aria!le: 0&m!er o) +rials: Dependent %aria!le: . ra.ere the res&lts o) the )reshly coo-ed pineapple di))erent than the res&lts o) the )resh. .hat is meat tenderizer and .hat does it do< 'ssessment 3deas: (n the accompanying sheet o) paper.hy .hat is the enzyme in yo&r experiment< $* .hat is the s&!strate in yo&r experiment< 7* . pineapple< 'e speci)icO ::* .eas&rement o) Dependent %aria!le: Control: (ther Controlled Factors 3At east 74: 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .rite a A.

dehydration means< 2* Astrona&ts and !ac-pac-ers o)ten !ring dehydrated )ood* .arm&up .at the chemical formula )or gl&cose* Ho. yo& need to . hydrogen 3H4.orld Connections: St&dents .hat do yo& thin. do the processes o) dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis .ill learn a!o&t the str&ct&re o) a gl&cose molec&le and ho.dehydrated )ood is< 8i$mo . sim&lation o) dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis* 5ource: Explore earning CizmosZ Dehydration 5ynthesis )rior @no%ledge 4uestions 3Do these 'EF(5E &sing the Cizmo*4 :* 6) yo& exercise on a hot day.hat do rice. and s&gar have in common< +hey are all )oods rich in carbohydrates* Car!ohydrates are an important energy so&rce )or yo&r !ody* +he !asic !&ilding !loc.orry a!o&t dehydration* 6n this !&ild and !rea. select the C5EA+E C 9C(SE ta!* :* oo. or oxygen atom* +he lines connecting the spheres represent chemical !onds* molec&les/ Biology 05CE6s addressed: '2*2E: Descri!e ho.e!site. gl&cose molec&les can !e /oined together to ma-e larger car!ohydrate molec&les* +o !egin.o&ld )it !est a)ter st&dents have o!tained a solid &nderstanding o) macromolec&le str&ct&re and dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis* +he sim&lation is )o&nd on the site Texplorelearning*com*= +he name o) the Tgizmo= is Tdehydration synthesis*= 6) yo&r school does not have access to this . yo& can sign &p )or a )ree "H day trial* )rocedure7Description of +esson: St&dents !&ild on prior -no. potatoes. hydrogen. many !lac.o) most car!ohydrate compo&nds is the molec&le glucose* 9sing the $ehydration Synthesis CizmoZ. yo& .ith internet access 5afety Concerns: 0EA #eal&. . many car!on 3C4.spheres are in the diagram< IIIIIII 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . and oxygen 3(4 atoms are )o&nd in a molec&le o) gl&cose< C:IIIIIII H:IIIIIII (:IIIIIII 2* +&rn on 5ho% chemical structure* Each !lac.ledge and vie.hat do yo& thin.ill &se a virt&al sim&lation to vis&alize dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis* (eacher 2otes: +his lesson .sphere represents a car!on.or. dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molec&les* -aterials: Comp&ters .Chemistry and Biochemistry Activity 1" 2e$ydration Synt$esis and 3ydrolysis 4irtual Simulation 4uestions to be in!estigated: Ho.

contin&e to modi)y yo&r molec&le &ntil it is correct* "* .yo& have correctly constr&cted the gl&cose molec&le. did the valence o) each element help yo& determine the str&ct&re o) the gl&cose molec&le< 7* .hat is the valence o) hydrogen< 2* '&ild a model: 9se the car!on. a car!on atom has a valence o) )o&r* 8oal: Construct a molecule of glucose.a-e connections: Car!on )orms the !ac-!one o) every ma/or type o) !iological molec&le. incl&ding car!ohydrates. and oxygen atoms in the chemical )orm&la )or gl&cose< IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 'cti!ity ': Cet the Cizmo ready: Build a glucose • 'e s&re the C5EA+E C 9C(SE ta! is still selected* molecule 3ntroduction: Each element tends to )orm a certain n&m!er o) chemical !onds* +his val&e is the !alence o) the element* For example. oxygen. clic.hich each dash representing a chemical !ond* Co&nt the n&m!er o) !onds the oxygen and hydrogen atoms )orm in a .a-e a diagram: Congrat&lations. and hydrogen atoms )rom the 'toms bo to !&ild a gl&cose molec&le on the empty hexagon in the !&ilding region* 9se the chemical str&ct&re in the lo.ater molec&le* A* . )ats.ritten as H8(8H. proteins. hydrogen.hat is the valence o) oxygen< IIIIIII IIIIIII '* . does this relate to the n&m!er o) car!on. does car!on=s high valence relate to its a!ility to )orm these large and complex !iomolec&les< Cet the Cizmo ready: • Select the DEH>D5A+6(0 ta!* 'cti!ity B: Dehydration synthesis 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents . .er right as a g&ide.ater molec&le 3H2(4 can !e .Chec** 6) necessary. yo& have completed a molec&le o) gl&coseO Clicthe C(#> SC5EE0 !&tton to ta-e a snapshot o) yo&r completed molec&le* #aste the image into a !lan.5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents A* Ho.doc&ment and la!el the image ACl&cose*B $* Explain: Ho. and n&cleic acids* Ho. :* 6denti)y: +he str&ct&re o) a . and pay attention to the valence o) each atom as yo& !&ild* (nce yo& thin.

hen they !onded to )orm maltose< $* 6n)er: 'ased on .hat occurs %hen t%o glucose molecules bond/ :* 6n)er: Cl&cose is an example o) a monosaccharide.Continue and .hat occ&rs d&ring a dehydration synthesis reaction* G*Apply: A trisaccharide is a car!ohydrate made o) three monosaccharides* .ill have to determine the )orm&la o) maltose yo&rsel)* 7*+&rn on 5ho% current formula7e9uation to chec.atch the animation* A*.ill happen to the atoms in this region .the pre)ixes #ono% and di% mean< &ono%: IIIIIIIIII $i%: IIIIIIIIII 2* #redict: +&rn on 5ho% description* Drag !oth gl&cose molec&les into the !&ilding region* (!serve the highlighted region* .as removed )rom the gl&cose molec&les .n as polysaccharides* 6n a reaction -no.hat yo& have o!served to explain . many monosaccharides can )orm i) this polysaccharide !rea-s &p< 'cti!ity C: 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .hen the gl&cose molec&les !ond< "* 5&n Cizmo: Clic. yo&r !ody !rea-s do.hat .o&ld !e the chemical )orm&la o) a trisaccharide made o) three !onded gl&cose molec&les< Cet the Cizmo ready: • Select the Hydrolysis ta!* • +&rn on 5ho% description and 5ho% current 0ydrolysis formula7e9uation* 3ntroduction: Car!ohydrates made &p o) three or more !onded monosaccharides are -no..hat do yo& thin.n as hydrolysis.hat do yo& thin. the simplest type o) car!ohydrate* A disaccharide is made )rom !onding t.hat yo& have seen..n polysaccharides into individ&al monosaccharides that can !e &sed !y yo&r cells )or energy* :* #redict: Examine the polysaccharide in the !&ilding region and its chemical )orm&la* A* Ho.hat happened< '*.5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 4uestion: .o monosaccharides together* A* .hat do yo& thin. create a !alanced e2&ation )or the dehydration synthesis reaction* 35ecall that the )orm&la )or gl&cose is CFH:2(F*4 >o& .yo&r* F*S&mmarize: 9se .

Continue* .Continue* . .this process might !e a))ected i) a person=s salivary glands .o&ld !e needed to !rea.ill yo& need )or three gl&cose molec&les< 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents C* .ere &na!le to prod&ce saliva. the polysaccharide !ro-e &p into three separate gl&cose molec&les*4 +&rn on 5ho% current formula7e9uation to chec.hat happened< "* 6n)er: Create a !alanced e2&ation )or the hydrolysis reaction that /&st occ&rred* +&rn on 5ho% current formula7e9uation to chec. many car!on. and hydrogen atoms .er* F* Compare: the chemical )orm&la )or amylose< C* Ho.ords.ater molec&les are prod&ced .a-e s&re all st&dents &se the same color o) g&m drops to represent each type o) atom* .yo&r ans.hat m&st !e added to the polysaccharide in the Cizmo to get three gl&cose molec&les< 2* (!serve: +&rn o)) 5ho% current formula7e9uation* Drag a .hen amylose )orms< '* .ater< 'ssessment 3deas: 8um Drop Chemistry Have st&dents &se their diagrams o) a gl&cose molec&le )rom activity A o) the St&dent Exploration sheet to !&ild a model o) gl&cose &sing toothpic-s and g&m drops 3or mini marshmallo.hich is mostly composed o) . do yo& thin.ater molec&le into the !&ilding region* Clic.amylose do.rite the color -ey on the !oard as a reminder )or st&dents* A)ter each st&dent !&ilds their g&m drop* $* 7* (!serve: +&rn o)) 5ho% current formula7e9uation* Drag the second .yo&r ans.* Ho.ater molec&les .hat do yo& thin.o gl&cose molec&les can !ond to )orm a molec&le o) maltose and a 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .hat happened< S&mmarize: 0o.s the entire hydrolysis reaction* 36n other .ater molec&le into the !&ilding region* Clic.'* 5ecall the )orm&la o) gl&cose is CFH:2(F* Ho. do hydrolysis reactions compare to dehydration synthesis reactions< G* Apply: Amylose is a polysaccharide made )rom the synthesis o) )o&r gl&cose molec&les* A* Ho. many . t. oxygen.s4* . have st&dents )orm pairs* +he st&dents sho&ld model ho. ho. many .n into )o&r gl&cose molec&les< R* Extend yo&r thin-ing: Hydrolysis o) the car!ohydrates yo& eat !egins in yo&r mo&th as yo& che. the e2&ation sho&ld sho. create a !alanced e2&ation that sho.

have st&dents model hydrolysis !y reversing the reaction* +his can also !e done .ith molec&lar -its* 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents 5et&rn to 9nit : +a!le o) Contents .ater* 0ext.molec&le o) .