You are on page 1of 46

Slide 2

ISE 217-Human Computer Interaction

INTRODUCING EVALUATION
Abbas Moallem, Ph.D.
Chapters: 12 + 13 +15 7

Session 12

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________

AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217

1

Slide 3

OVERVIEW
• Explain the key concepts used in evaluation.
• Introduce different evaluation methods.
• Show how different methods are used for different
purposes at different stages of the design process and
in different contexts of use.
• Introduce and explain the DECIDE framework.
• Discuss the conceptual, practical, and ethical issues
involved in evaluation.
• Show how evaluators mix and modify methods.
• Discuss the practical challenges

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________

AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217

2

Slide 9

WHY, WHAT, WHERE AND WHEN TO
EVALUATE
Iterative design & evaluation is a continuous
process that examines:
• Why: to check that users can use the product and
that they like it.
• What: a conceptual model, early prototypes of a new
system and later, more complete prototypes.
• Where: in natural and laboratory settings.
• When: throughout design; finished products can be
evaluated to collect information to inform new
products.

Designers need to check that they understand
users’ requirements.
www.id-book.com

9

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________

AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217

3

Slide 10

KEY POINTS
 Evaluation & design are closely integrated in usercentered design.
 Some of the same techniques are used in evaluation
as for establishing requirements but they are used
differently
(e.g. observation interviews & questionnaires).
 Three types of evaluation: laboratory based with
users, in the field with users, studies that do not
involve users
 The main methods are: observing, asking users,
asking experts, user testing, inspection, and
modeling users’ task performance, analytics.
 Dealing with constraints is an important skill for
evaluators to develop.

www.id-book.com

10

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________

AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217

4

analyze & model aspects of the interface analytics.id-book.com 11 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 5 . predict.Slide 11 TYPES OF EVALUATION • Expert(Inspection base) Evaluations – Cognitive Walkthrough – Heuristic Evaluation – Any settings not involving users. • Exmaple: consultants critique. www. eg field studies to see how the product is used in the real world. eg usability testing & experiments in laboratories and living labs. • User Evaluation – Controlled settings involving users. – Natural settings involving users.

interpret and present the data. analyze.Slide 12 DECIDE: A FRAMEWORK TO GUIDE EVALUATION • • • • • • Determine the goals. Choose the evaluation methods.com 12 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 6 . Identify the practical issues. Evaluate.id-book. Decide how to deal with the ethical issues. www. Explore the questions.

id-book. • Goals vary and could be to:      www.Slide 13 DETERMINE THE GOALS • What are the high-level goals of the evaluation? • Who wants it and why? • The goals influence the methods used for the study.com identify the best metaphor for the design check that user requirements are met check for consistency investigate how technology affects working practices improve the usability of an existing product 13 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 7 .

• The goal of finding out why some customers prefer to purchase paper airline tickets rather than e-tickets can be broken down into sub-questions: – What are customers’ attitudes to e-tickets? – Are they concerned about security? – Is the interface for obtaining them poor? • What questions might you ask about the design of a cell phone? www.Slide 14 EXPLORE THE QUESTIONS • Questions help to guide the evaluation.id-book.com 14 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 8 .

com Involve observation and interviews. analyzed and presented.Slide 15 CHOOSE THE EVALUATION APPROACH & METHODS • The evaluation method influences how data is collected. Do not involve controlled tests Produce qualitative data. • E.g. field studies typically: – – – – www. Involve users in natural settings.id-book. 15 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 9 .

id-book.com 16 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 10 .Slide 16 IDENTIFY PRACTICAL ISSUES For example. how to: – Selecting users – Finding evaluators – Selecting equipment – Staying on budget – Staying on schedule www.

id-book. . .Know the goals of the study.Leave when they wish.Know what will happen to the findings. . .Privacy of personal information. www.Slide 17 DECIDE ABOUT ETHICAL ISSUES • Develop an informed consent form • Participants have a right to: .Be treated politely.com 17 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 11 .

Slide 18 EVALUATE. – The following need to be considered: .Validity: is it measuring what you expected? .Biases: is the process creating biases? . www.id-book. Hawthorn effect.com 18 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 12 .Scope: can the findings be generalized? . INTERPRET & PRESENT DATA • Methods used influence how data is evaluated.Ecological validity: is the environment influencing the findings? i.Reliability: can the study be replicated? .e. interpreted and presented.

involvment or not of users.Slide 19 KEY POINTS  Many issues to consider before conducting an evaluation study. how data will be collected. analyzed & presented. the methods to use.  These include: goals of the study. www.  The DECIDE framework provides a useful checklist for planning an evaluation study.com 19 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 13 . practical & ethical issues.id-book.

•. – Expert critiques (crits) can be formal or informal reports.Slide 20 INSPECTIONS METHODS • Walkthroughs involve stepping through a pre-planned scenario noting potential problems. www.com 20 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 14 .id-book. – Experts use their knowledge of users & technology to review software usability • Heuristic evaluation is a review guided by a set of heuristics.

Slide 21 COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH Cognitive Walkthrough is a method for evaluating user interface by analyzing the mental processes required by users. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 15 .

Slide 22 COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGHS • Focus on ease of learning. • Designer presents an aspect of the design & usage scenarios. context of use. • One or more experts walk through the design prototype with the scenario. task details. • Expert is told the assumptions about user population. • Experts are guided by 3 questions.com 22 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 16 .id-book. www.

id-book. www.com 23 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 17 .Slide 23 THE 3 QUESTIONS • Will the correct action be sufficiently evident to the user? • Will the user notice that the correct action is available? • Will the user associate and interpret the response from the action correctly? • As the experts work through the scenario they note problems.

• Performed by a carefully managed team. • The approach lends itself well to participatory design.com 24 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 18 .id-book.Slide 24 PLURALISTIC WALKTHROUGH • Variation on the cognitive walkthrough theme. • Then there is managed discussion that leads to agreed decisions. www. • The panel of experts begins by working separately.

• Assess whether a hypothetical user would be able to select an appropriate action at each point. • Determine one or more correct sequences of actions for that task. • Examine these sequences in the context provided by the interface. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 19 .Slide 25 PERFORMING A COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH • Choose a specific task from the suite of tasks the interface is intended to support.

• Examines specific user tasks. • Identifies problems by tracing the likely mental processes of a hypothetical user. and if they will be followed by users. • Identifies likely trouble spots in an interface and suggests possible reasons. • Analyzes correct sequence of actions.Slide 26 KEY FEATURES OF THE COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH • Performed by an analyst and reflects the analyst judgments. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 20 .

Slide 27 ADVANTAGES OF THE COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH • Permits early evaluation of designs at the prototyping stage or without a mockup. • Assists designer by providing reasons for trouble areas. which helps build a successful interface that accommodates users. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 21 . • Provides indications of the users’ mental processes. • Helps the designer assess how the features of their design fit together to support users’ work. • Provides useful feedback about action sequences.

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 22 . • Provides a detailed examination of a particular task rather than an overview of the interface.Slide 28 DISADVANTAGES OF COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH • Relies on analysis rather on user testing. • Provides no quantitative data.

Slide 29 MAIN STEPS FOR A COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH • Preparation • Analysis • Follow up _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 23 .

Slide 30 COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH PREPARATION • Define assumed user background – General knowledge – Computer knowledge – Task knowledge • Choose a sample task – Important – Realistic • Specify the correct action sequence(s) for the task • Determine the interface state along the sequence(s) _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 24 .

Slide 31 COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH ANALYSIS For each action answer the following questions: • Will the user be trying to achieve the right effect? • Will the user notice the correct action is available? • Will the user associate the correct action with the desired effect? • If the correct action is performed. will the user see that progress is being made? Based on the “yes” or “no” answer: • Explain why a user would choose that action • Explain why a user would not choose that action _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 25 .

• Report the designer’s view of the interface and eventual difference with the users’ view (if any). • Indicate which the problems may be superficial and where profound changes are needed. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 26 . • Provide specific guidance for each problem.Slide 32 COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH FOLLOW-UP • Suggest where the design is likely to fail and why.

etc. • These heuristics have been revised for current technology. wearables.id-book. • Based on heuristics distilled from an empirical analysis of 249 usability problems. • Heuristics being developed for mobile devices. • Design guidelines form a basis for developing heuristics.Slide 33 HEURISTIC EVALUATION • Developed Jacob Nielsen in the early 1990s.com 33 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 27 . www. virtual worlds.

guidelines. and standards. based on their experience.Slide 34 HEURISTIC EVALUATION A systematic inspection of a user interface design by interface specialists to determine the usability. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 28 .

rather it critiques the attribute of an interface itself _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 29 .Slide 35 ADVANTAGES OF A HEURISTIC EVALUATION • • • • Relatively inexpensive and fast Performed at any phase of product development Identifies many problems Achieves substantially better performance by aggregating the evaluation from several evaluators • Provides an overview of the complete design • Pays direct attention to particular aspects of a design and associated problems • Does not attempt to trace specific user behavior.

Slide 36 DISADVANTAGES OF A HEURISTIC EVALUATION • Relies on analysis rather on user testing • Relies on the judgment of the evaluator and his/her level of expertise _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 30 .

Longer sessions are needed for more complicated systems. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 31 . • An evaluation session generally lasts one or two hours. • Evaluators individually decide how they want to proceed with evaluating the interface. • Each evaluator provides a report or recorded version. A single evaluator will miss most of the usability problems in an interface. • Each evaluator should inspect the interface on their own.Slide 37 PERFORMING A HEURISTIC EVALUATION • Use multiple evaluators for the best results.

Slide 38 HEURISTIC EVALUATION PRINCIPLES • • • • • • • • • Feedback or visibility of system status Use of users' language User control and freedom Consistency and standards Error prevention and error messages Recognition rather than recall Flexibility and efficiency of use Aesthetic and minimalist design Help and documentation _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 32 .

Slide 39 FEEDBACK • The system should always keep users informed about what is going on through appropriate feedback within reasonable time. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 33 . • System feedback should be expressed in the users’ language to guide and provide effective feedback. • Feedback must be provided in case of system failure.

• Use users’ language in selecting icons and nonverbal elements in the interface. • Do not use words contrary to the definition understood by the general population or community of users. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 34 . • View interaction from the users’ perspective.Slide 40 USING THE USERS' LANGUAGE • Use users’ language rather than system-oriented terminology.

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 35 .Slide 41 USER CONTROL AND FREEDOM • Provide users with an emergency exit. • Support redo and undo(s).

Slide 42 CONSISTENCY AND STANDARDS • Create and follow a standard when designing an interface – User Experience Standards Guide • The same information should be presented in the same location on all screens and dialogue boxes • The task and functionality structure must be consistent throughout the product _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 36 .

– An error with serious consequences must be eliminated through design improvement.Slide 43 ERROR PREVENTION AND ERROR MESSAGES • Error prevention – Avoid the error situation in the first place. • Error messages – Written clearly – Precise rather than vague – Helps the user solve the problem – Polite and not intimidating or blaming to the user _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 37 .

Slide 44 RECOGNITION RATHER THAN RECALL • Allow users to choose from items generated by the computer. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 38 . • Use generic commands as much as possible to support the transfer of learning from one application to the next. • Supply information as part of the dialogue. • Display as many objects as needed to the users. • Use a small number of rules that apply throughout the user interface to reduce the learning/remembering load.

expert.Slide 45 FLEXIBILITY AND EFFICIENCY OF USE Novice. and frequent users interact with the system in different ways. You should allow users to: • Customize their frequent actions • Customize their interface preferences • Provide short cuts and frequently used options such as “favorites” _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 39 . occasional.

• Provide only the information that is really important to users in performing their tasks.Slide 46 AESTHETIC AND MINIMALIST DESIGN • Follow the “less is more” rule for information content of screens and the choices of features. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 40 . • Providing a lot of information can confuse the novice users and slow down the expert users.

Slide 47 HELP AND DOCUMENTATION • Create systems that do not need help or documentation in order to operate them. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 41 . corresponding to the tasks users want to perform. • If help or documentation is needed: – Provide a search feature to allow the user to find information. – Write the information in the language of the user. – Provide instruction regarding application of the instructions.

com 48 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 42 .id-book.Slide 48 DISCOUNT EVALUATION • Heuristic evaluation is referred to as discount evaluation when 5 evaluators are used. • Empirical evidence suggests that on average 5 evaluators identify 75-80% of usability problems. www.

Slide 49 NO.com 49 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 43 .id-book. OF EVALUATORS & PROBLEMS www.

www.id-book. – Take a second pass to focus on specific features. – Take one pass to get a feel for the product.com 50 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 44 . • Evaluation period of 1-2 hours in which: – Each expert works separately. • Debriefing session in which experts work together to prioritize problems.Slide 50 3 STAGES FOR DOING HEURISTIC EVALUATION • Briefing session to tell experts what to do.

– Experts have biases. • Can be difficult & expensive to find experts. – Many trivial problems are often identified. • Biggest problems: – Important problems may get missed.Slide 51 ADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS • Few ethical & practical issues to consider because users not involved.com 51 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 45 .id-book. www. • Best experts have knowledge of application domain & users.

id-book. 2007) • • • • Clarity Minimize unnecessary complexity & cognitive load Provide users with context Promote positive & pleasurable user experience www.com 52 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________ AM/Session12/SJSU/ISE217 46 .Slide 52 HEURISTICS FOR WEBSITES FOCUS ON KEY CRITERIA (BUDD.