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ARE110-48V

(2.5kW) Wind Generator Battery Charging Model

Owners Manual
Mechanical
Installation, Operation, & Maintenance

Version 5.0

Manufactured in the USA by:

ABUNDANT RENEWABLE ENERGY


22700 NE Mountain Top Road Newberg, OR 97132 www.AbundantRE.com (503) 538-8298 (Telephone) (503) 538-8782 (Fax)

2008 Abundant Renewable Energy, LLC

2008 Abundant Renewable Energy, LLC 1

Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Safety Warning Introduction Wind Generator Specifications Equipment Supplied Required Installation Tools Choosing Sites for Wind Generators Towers & Rigging Wire Size Requirements Turbine Assembly Instructions
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. Position the Tower Check the Yaw Head Axle Electrical Connection: Yaw Head to Tower Mount Yaw Head to Tower Mount Alternator to Yaw Head Wire the Yaw Head Terminal Strip Test the Electrical Connections Install Tail Boom to Yaw Head Install Blades & Nose Cone

10. Inspection & Maintenance 11. Component List & Drawing Warranty

3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 13 14 16 19 20 21

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1. SAFETY WARNING!
Electrical shock hazard: The wind generator can produce high voltages sometimes more than 200 volts. These voltage levels can cause serious injury or death. No wires or electrical connections should be touched or handled without ensuring that the wind generator has been braked to a complete stop and the DC power to the Voltage Clamp (turbine controller) is off. After these steps are taken, approximately five (5) minutes is required for system voltage to decay to safe levels. The ARE110 is a powerful machine and can cause injury if not assembled and erected properly (according to the instructions and using appropriate equipment). Do not approach the machine while the blades are spinning they can cause serious injury!

Please Note:

ABUNDANT RENEWABLE ENERGY has made every effort to


ensure that the information presented in this manual is accurate but assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. Users of this information and ARE products assume full responsibility and risk.

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2. Introduction
This manual provides the information needed to assemble, operate, and maintain the ARE110 (2.5 kW) wind generator with a direct grid connection. Please read it thoroughly and keep for future reference. The ARE110 provides a very long life with very little maintenance due to its relatively low rotational speeds (low RPM), its rigorous design utilizing a minimum number of moving parts, and its rugged construction. Its large swept area, high-efficiency blades, purposebuilt alternator, and optimized power electronics ensure maximum energy capture from a wide range of wind speeds. The simple, upwind side furling system (with gravity return) protects the wind turbine by reliably swinging the rotor out of winds higher than 11 m/sec (25 mph).

Figure 1. ARE110 wind generator

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3. Wind Generator Specifications


Configuration Over-Speed Control, Mechanical Over-Speed Control, Electrical Rated Power Rotor Diameter Swept Area of Blades Cut-in Wind Speed Start-up Wind Speed Rated Wind Speed Blade Quantity, Construction Blade Rotational Speed Alternator Type/Construction Alternator Electrical Output Tower-Top Weight Maximum Lateral Thrust
Table 1. ARE110 specifications

Three-blade upwind Side furling with gravity return Pulse-width modulated resistor loading 2.5 kW (2500 watts) 3.6 m (11.8 ft) 10.2 m2 (110 sq. ft.) 2.5 m/s (6 mph) 3 m/s (7 mph) 12 m/s (25 mph) Three (3), molded fiberglass 0340 rpm Neodymium permanent magnet 3-phase, variable voltage (0 - 100 VAC) 143 kg (315 lbs.) 160 Kg (350 lbs.)

ARE110 Wind Generator


Power Curve
3000

2000 Power (watts)


ARE110 gen power curve based on measured data; power data above 25 mph based on a small number of data points

1000

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Wind Speed (mph)

Figure 2. ARE110 power curve

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A R E 1 1 0 W in d G e n e r a to r s
M o n th ly E n e r g y E s tim a te s
800

Energy Production (kWh)

600

400

200

0 8 10 12 A v e r a g e L o c a l W in d S p e e d (m p h ) 14

Figure 3. ARE110 monthly energy estimates graph

4. Equipment Supplied
Qty. Item Description
1 3 1 4 3 6 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 Alternator Bolts (alternator-mount) with star washer M16-2.0 x 30mm Yaw head with slip rings Bolts (tower-mount) with self-locking nut - M16-2.0 x 70mm Blades Studs, hex (blade-mount) with self-locking nut - M12-1.75 Plate (blade-clamping) Nose cone Bolts (nose-cone mount) with washers & lock washers - M6-1.0 x 16mm Tail boom, inner (gusset) with tail hinge pin, tail pin latch, & E-clip retainer Tail boom, outer (sq. tube 1.5" x 92") Bolt (tail boom) - M16-2.0 x 70mm Tail fin (with ARE logo) Bolts (tail fin mount) with (2) washers and self-locking nuts M14-2.0 x 60mm Tail weight (approx. 3 lbs.)

Table 2. Equipment Supplied with ARE110 wind generators

To Be Purchased from Other Suppliers:


Appropriately sized wiring, as described in Section 8 (Wire Size Requirements) Cable support grips for wires (see Section 9, Part C)

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5. Required Installation Tools


Ratchet for sockets 8 extension for ratchet Sockets: 10, 13, 17, 19, 22, & 24mm Wrench, Allen 4 mm Wrench, adjustable 8 Screwdrivers Phillips (#2) & flat-head (3/16 max width blade 6 over all length) Wire Strippers Torque wrench range: 10170 N-m (7120 lb-ft) Locking pliers (Vise-Grips) Thread-locking compound (e.g. Loctite 242 Threadlocker, Med-Strength/Removable) Hole saw or stepped drill bit for conduit (suggested size)

6. Choosing Sites for Wind Generators


To attain optimal performance from your wind generator, an appropriate site must be chosen for the installation. Buildings, trees, rocky outcrops and other obstructions can disrupt the smooth flow of wind and increase wind shear. This creates significantly lower wind speeds and more turbulence close to the ground. Turbulence is swirling air that causes the turbine to yaw continually; this greatly increases wear and tear on mechanical components, and reduces the useful life of this equipment.

Smooth, laminar airflow

2H H 2H
Sharp edges create turbulence

Turbulent airflow

20 H

Turbulent air flow created by obstructions

Figure 4. Turbulence illustrations (courtesy of P. Gipe)

As a general rule, wind turbines should be mounted at twice the height of any sudden upwind obstructions. Alternatively, turbines may be located at least 10 meters (30 feet) plus the blade length above the tallest trees, buildings, or other such obstructions within 150 meters (500 feet). The power (P) obtainable from the wind is proportional the cube of the wind speed (v3), and wind speed increases with height (H) from the ground. [P v3 and v H]. According to this principle, a 26% increase in wind speed from a higher tower will yield a 100% increase in power from the turbine. A little more money spent on a taller tower harvests the same power as two (2) machines! Preference should be given to the prevailing wind direction, but please note that tall features downwind of the generator can also slow wind flow passing through the turbines blades.
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7. Towers & Rigging


An appropriate wind turbine tower should be chosen and prepared very carefully; this can be the most difficult and most crucial aspect of a wind energy equipment installation. Guyed, tilt-up pipe tower kits manufactured by ARE are specifically designed for the ARE110 and are recommended. ARE assumes no responsible for assuring the suitability of towers provided by other suppliers. ARE tilt-up towers can be easily lowered for servicing and do not require climbing. Consult with ARE for assistance with alternative tower selection and qualification.

8. Wire Size Requirements


The following table lists the required wire gauge, based on the one-way wire run distance from the tower top to the building entrance (where it connects to system electronics). These requirements result in a voltage loss to less than 2% at rated power. Ensure that the wire insulation is rated for outdoor use and for at least 300 volts. Please contact the factory if you have wire runs longer than those listed in the table below. It is important to use the proper wire size for the number of feet of wire run. The turbine controls rely on a specific wire size for a given distance. Do not use a larger or smaller wire than specified in the table. One-Way Distance between turbine and Voltage Clamp 8 AWG
140-220 feet

6 AWG
220-350 feet

4 AWG
350-550 feet

2 AWG
550-870 feet

1 AWG
870-1100 feet

1/0 AWG
1100-1390 feet

2/0 AWG
1390-1770 feet

Table 3. Wire size recommendations

NOTE: The Voltage Clamps terminal block does not accept wire sizes larger than 6 AWG. If a larger wire size is used, the wire size must be stepped down prior to insertion into this terminal block.

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9. Turbine Assembly Instructions


If using an ARE tilt-up tower kit, the tower should first be assembled, raised, and all rigging adjusted so that the tower stands vertically and can be raised and lowered properly. See the tower installation manual for details. Assemble the wind turbine onto the lowered tilt-up tower. Although one person can assemble the machine with mechanical aids, it is advisable to have an assistant, as many parts are heavy and cumbersome to maneuver into position. Keep the alternator covered as long as possible to prevent dirt or metal objects from entering the alternator and becoming lodged between the magnets and rotor.

Assembly Procedure:
A. Position the Tower
If using an ARE tilt-up tower kit, the top of the lowered tower should be supported at approximately 1 meter (3 feet) above the ground.

B. Check the Yaw Head Axle


Ensure that the yaw head axle rotates freely within the outer housing (see Figure 9 below).
Yaw head axle

NOTE: DO NOT TIGHTEN THIS NUT. It is intended to be loose in order to allow yaw head rotation.

Figure 9. Yaw head axle

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C. Electrical Connection: Yaw Head to Tower


Splice the three power wires and the ground wire with suitable splices. Ensure they are insulated for 300 volts. Use wire support devices such as cable support grips (see Figure 10 below) to bear the wire weight and remove tension from wire splices. On ARE tilt-up towers, the bolt which holds the tower top flange may be used to carry wire support devices (see Figure 11). Four (4) wire connections are made at the yaw head three (3) for the power from the generator leads (white) and one (1) for the ground (green).

NOTE: Each wire should be supported individually.

Figure 10. Cable support grip (a.k.a. Kellems grip)

D. Mount Yaw Head to Tower


Attach the yaw head to the tower top flange using M16-2.0 x 70mm bolts and self-locking nuts (provided). Fasteners should be tightened to 163 N-m (120 lb-ft) torque. Ensure that the wires are not pinched between the top flange and the yaw head mounting flange (see Figure 11 below).
Install M14 bolts so that bolt heads face the generator (i.e. bolt heads face upward on the erect tower). This bolt may be used to bear the weight of cable support grips.

Ensure wires are not pinched during assembly.

Figure 11. Mating the tower top to the yaw head flange
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E. Mount Alternator to Yaw Head


Line up the alternator mount holes with the yaw mount. CAUTION: The alternator weighs approximately 84 kg (185 lbs.) and is very awkward to hold, so plan this step carefully. The tail gate of a pick up truck works well; alternatively, a wheelbarrow or large storage drum could be used. The tower may need to be raise or lowered slightly to facilitate aligning the yaw head and alternator holes. Line up the bolt holes and pass the alternator lead wires through the hole provided, taking care not to pinch the lead wires between mating surfaces. Apply thread-locking compound and tighten the three (3) M16-2.0 x 30mm bolts (with star washers) to a 163 N-m (120 lb-ft) torque (see Figure 12 below).

Three (3) M16 bolts attach the alternator to the yaw head. It may be necessary to remove the yaw head access door in order to fasten all bolts.

Figure 12. Bolting the yaw head to the alternator

F.

Wire the Yaw Head Terminal Strip


Connect the alternator lead wires to the terminal strip mounted on the yaw head access door. Match the label of each wire to labels on the terminal strip (see Figure 13 below). Alternator power output leads are labeled A, B, and C; lead Z is used with AREs optional Lightning Protection System and must also be attached to the terminal strip. The ground stud is used for the Lightning Protection System. Do not attach any of the generator wires to the ground stud.

Attach alternator lead wires to the terminal block on the yaw head access door and secure wire with screw and clamping plate.

Figure 13. Yaw head terminal block wire connections


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Ground Stud Do NOT attach generator wires here

Figure 14. Yaw head ground stud location

Examine all the slip ring brushes to verify firm contact with the slip rings (see Figure 15 below). Check to see that brushes can be pulled back from the rings and return freely. If a brush sticks: Loosen the top nut in quarter-turn increments until the brush springs back. CAUTION: Do not loosen the top nut excessively, as this may result in improperly seated brushes.
Adjustment Nut

Slip Ring

Slip Ring Brush

Bottom slip ring to be used only for ground connection

Spacer

Figure 15. Close-up view of yaw head slip rings


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Reattach and close the yaw head access door (if removed in prior step). While closing the access door, make certain that wires are not pinched and do not interfere with the slip ring mechanisms. Use the M6 bolt to hold the door in place (as shown in Figure 16 below).

Use this bolt to hold the door in the closed position. Tighten bolt fully to ensure that it does not back out.

Yaw head access door.

Figure 16. Access door lock

G. Test the Electrical Connections


Manually rotate the turbine rotor at a steady rate while another person (at the tower base junction box) uses a voltmeter to verify consistent AC voltage readings across the three wires lead wires. This verification will require three voltage readings: A-B, B-C, A-C). During this step, the lead wires should not be connected to electronic equipment (i.e. Voltage ClampTM). If the measured voltages between lead wires are approximately equivalent, the turbines lead wires can be connected to the lines that run to the Voltage ClampTM and subsequent electronic equipment. If the measured voltages are not approximately equivalent, check all connections in the yaw head and tower to ensure there are no short-circuits or open connections. Verify that the slip ring brushes are making positive, firm contact with their respective slip rings. Also check to ensure that the wires that are attached to the brushes are clamped to the correct terminals.

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H. Install Tail onto Yaw Head

Pin latch plate on inner tail boom section

Figure 17. Tail pin latch plate

Remove the pin latch plate from the inner tail boom section (see Figure 17 above). Align the two (2) hinge eyes of the inner tail boom section with the two (2) bronze bushings (inserted in holders on the rear of the yaw head). Install the tail pivot pin to join the tail to the yaw head (see Figure 18 below).

Notch

Tail Pin

Groove

Figure 18. Tail pin installation onto yaw head


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Align the notch in the hinge pin with the pin latch plate and secure in place. Apply thread-locking compound and tighten the two M6-1.0 x 16mm bolts to 10 N-m (7 lb-ft) torque. Install the E-clip retainer into the groove at the bottom of the hinge pin. Vise grips are a useful tool for the E-clip retainer installation (see Figure 19 below).

Latch plate: Install in notch

E-clip: Install in groove.

Figure 19. Close-up views of tail pin latch plate & E-clip retainer installation

Note Figure 20 below for the correct holes to use when mounting the tail fin to the tail boom. Mount the tail fin to the outer tail boom section (square tube) with the two (2) inner bolt holes. Use M14-2.0 x 60mm bolts with washers and self-locking nuts.

Install these two bolts first

The bolt in this hole acts as a stop for the tail weight [Bolt & tail fin omitted for clarity]

Use these holes


to mount tail fin to tail boom [All round holes no slots] Install tail weight into tail boom

Figure 20. Mounting the tail fin

Figure 21. Inserting the tail weight

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Install the tail weight in the end of the outer tail boom, as shown in Figure 21 (above). Install the last (outermost) bolt to secure the tail fin. The tail weight will be captured between the two (2) outer bolts (see Figure 21 above). Tighten the M14 fasteners to 60 N-m (45 lb-ft) torque. Install the outer tail boom into the inner tail boom, and secure with an M16-2.0 x 60mm bolt and self-locking nut (see Figure 22 below). Tighten the M16 fastener to 80 N-m (60 lb-ft) torque.
Inner tail boom

M16-2.0 x 60mm bolt with self-locking nut

Outer tail boom

Figure 22. Assembling the outer & inner tail booms

I.

Install Blades & Nose Cone


Apply thread-locking compound and screw the six (6) blade stud bolts into the threaded holes on the front of the alternator drum. IMPORTANT: The shorter threaded section of the stud must screw into the alternator drum (see Figure 23 below). Tighten the blade studs to 80 N-m (60 lb-ft) torque.

Blade stud for mounting blades

Figure 23. Mounting blades to alternator

Install the three blades onto the blade studs. The studs are equally spaced, so you may start with any two studs. Orient the blades so that the blue leading edges will rotate clockwise (CW see Figure 24 below).
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Leading edge of blade

Trailing edge of blade

Figure 24. Blade edges & rotation direction

After placing the three (3) blades, install the blade clamping plate over the six (6) blade studs with the nose cone mounting brackets between the blades and pointing toward the alternator (see Figure 25 below). Secure the plate with M12-1.75 self-locking nuts, tightened to 20 N-m (15 lb-ft) of torque.

Nose cone mounting brackets: locate between blades and orient pointing toward the alternator.

Figure 25. Close-up view of nose cone mounting bracket

Install the nose cone and secure with three (3) M6-1.0 x 16mm bolts, washers and lock washers (see Figure 26 below).

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M6-1.0 x 16mm bolts, washers, and lock washers

Figure 26. Nose cone installation

Rotate the blades slightly about the alternators axis to verify that the rotor can turn freely. Double check all fasteners and electrical connections are secure. Ensure that the turbine will not encounter any physical interference prior to beginning the tower-raising. You may install the wind turbine before the electronic equipment. If this option is chosen the three (3) turbine power wires at the base of the tower should be connected together, thus shorting the alternator preventing the system from running unloaded. A shorting switch at a tower base junction box is the best way to a ccomplish this task. Use a switch that is rated for 30 Amps or more. Contact the ARE factory if you need assistance with a shorting switch.

Warning: The turbine must never be installed with out a load or being shorted.

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10. Inspection & Maintenance


Frequency
Continually

Category
Turbine

Task
Listen for unusual alternator or blade noise, and look for excessive vibration. Verify that tower guy cables, saddle clamps, and shackles are tight. Check all cables for excess fraying or rust Inspect the blades for leading edge wear. Check the upper guy joints for wear and/or rust Verify (with torque wrench) that all cable clamps continue to firmly grip guy cables

Comments
If detected, such warning signs should prompt a detailed inspection. These tasks apply only to ARE guyed tilt-up towers. For other towers, please reference manufacturer's documentation for maintenance schedules This should be done by close visual inspection: by lowering the tower (if tilt-up) or by climbing it (if freestanding). These tasks apply only to ARE guyed tilt-up towers. For other towers, please reference manufacturer's documentation for maintenance schedules

Every 6 months

Tower Tower

Turbine Every 12 months

Tower

Tower

Table 5. Inspection & Maintenance Schedule

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11. Component List & Drawing


NOTE: Exploded drawing and component list to be added in an addendum.

Item

Description

Qty

Item

Description

Qty

Item

Description

Qty

Table 7. Component list


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Five-Year Warranty for ABUNDANT RENEWABLE ENERGY Wind Generators


WARRANTY AGREEMENT
In order to validate this Warranty Agreement, the Customer must detach, complete, and return the ARE Mail-in Warranty Form (page 2 of this Agreement) within one (1) month of installation or seven (7) months of receipt of warranted ARE products, whichever occurs first. Abundant Renewable Energy (ARE) warrants that the wind turbines it manufactures will be in good working order, in accordance with ARE standard specifications, upon delivery to its customers and for a period of 66 months from the date of delivery or 60 months from the date of installation, whichever occurs first. During the warranty period ARE will, at its sole discretion, repair, replace, or refund the purchase price of defective components and assemblies. Repair parts or replacement product may be new, remanufactured, or refurbished, at the sole discretion of ARE. ARE is not responsible for any costs associated with the installation, removal, reinstallation, or transportation to ARE (or to an ARE dealer) of defective ARE products. Return freight to the customer will be provided by ARE. Product or components returned to ARE, which are not defective or which sustained damage not covered under this warranty, will be tested and/or repaired at AREs standard labor rates. Only warranty claims submitted to ARE in writing within 15 days of problem origin will be honored.

GOVERNING LAW AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION


This Agreement will be interpreted and enforced according to Oregon state laws or U.S. federal laws, whichever has jurisdiction. Oregon law, without reference to conflicts of laws principles, shall control the interpretation and enforcement of this Agreement. In the event that any dispute, controversy, or claim between the Parties arising out of or relating to this Agreement cannot be settled by negotiation or mediation, the parties agree to have the dispute, controversy, or claim settled by Arbitration Service of Portland, Inc. Any arbitration is to be conducted in Portland, Oregon. The Parties agree that any determination by the arbitrator(s) shall be final and binding and that judgment upon the award may be entered in any court having competent jurisdiction. The arbitrators shall have no authority to award punitive damages.

EXCLUSIONS
This warranty does not cover the following: Towers, equipment, materials, or supplies not manufactured or supplied by ARE (Towers manufactured or sold by ARE are covered by their own separate warranty.) ARE equipment which has been improperly installed or modified without approval from ARE Damage or loss from winds in excess of 45 m/s (100 mph) Lightning damage or other acts of God. (The ARE lightning protection package provides its own individual warranty related to lightning damage to wind generators and related controls) Incidental or consequential damages Damage to product incurred during shipping

PRODUCT CHANGES
ARE reserves the right to make design changes, improvements, or additions to its products without obligation to install such changes or improvements in existing products.

Turbine Warranty, Rev. 02/06/06

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ARE Wind Generator


Warranty Agreement Form
Customer / End User Name ________________________________________________ Customer Address _______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Customer Phone ________________________ Email __________________________ ARE Dealer / Installer Name & State (if applicable) ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Product Part Number (e.g. ARE110) _______________________________________ Alternator Serial # _______________________________________________________ Mainframe / Yaw Head Serial # _____________________________________________ Controller / Voltage ClampTM Serial # _______________________________________ Inverter Serial # (grid-tie systems only) _____________________________________ Resistor Load Serial # ___________________________________________________

Date Product Received _________________

Installation Date __________________

Dealer Signature (if applicable) ____________________________________________

End User Signature ______________________________________________________

Send Completed Form to: ABUNDANT RENEWABLE ENERGY


22700 NE Mountain Top Road Newberg, OR 97132 Phone: (503) 538-8298 Fax: (503) 538-8782 Email: Info@AbundantRE.com Website: www.AbundantRE.com

Turbine Warranty, Rev. 02/06/06

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