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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND RECENT TRENDS BY J DAKSHINA MURTHY SENIOR CONSULTANT, ESCI & FORMER CHIEF ENGINEER,

AP TRANSCO, HYDERABAD

Developments in Relay Technology

Till 1980 1980 1986 1986 1990 1990

Electromagnetic Relays Static Relays Microprocessor based relays Numerical relays

Solid State Relays

nput !uantities ad"usted to le#els suitable $or electronic circuits% &urrent signals con#erted to #oltage signals% 'ecision ta(en based on recti$ied '& !uantities%

Solid State Relays)

T*ese are semiconductor de#ices composed o$ electronic components li(e resistors+ diodes + transistors etc% No mo#ing parts ,ig*ter and smaller t*an electromagnetic relays

Solid State Relays)

-er$orm t*e same $unction as electromagnetic relays e.cept t*at t*ey need less #oltage to operate S/itc*ing can be per$ormed in #ery s*ort times 0$$ected by transients+ /*ic*+ i$ present in t*e inputs+ may cause t*em to mal$unction

Solid State Relays)

Reliable but electronic components may dri$t due to *ig* ambient temperature and aging Energi1e trip circuits using electronic de#ices suc* as silicon control recti$iers% 2ence no arcing during s/itc*ing S/itc*es in solid state relays *a#e lea(age currents irrespecti#e o$ t*e $act /*et*er t*e s/itc*es are open or closed

Digital Relays

3iltered signals con#erted to S!uare /a#es E#aluation is done based on -*ase 0ngle &omparison Eit*er discrete logics or Microprocessors are used

'igital Relays)
-o/er system protection *as c*anged a lot since t*e

e#olution o$ microprocessors
4ery large integration made it possible to put toget*er

numerous components in a single c*ip


Today+

digital tec*ni!ues are implemented to protect all components o$ po/er system used in electromec*anical and solid state relays

5asically+ digital tec*ni!ues use t*e same logic t*at is

'igital Relays *a#e many ad#antages o#er electromec*anical relays )

Economical ) Ma"or reason $or t*e acceptance o$ digital relays is t*at t*ey present many $eatures at reasonable price% 3ast operation ) T*ere are t/o reasons $or t*eir $ast operation% 6ne+ digital relays barely use any mec*anical parts% T/o+ t*e use o$ *ig* speed processors *a#e made t*ese relays #ery $ast%

Sel$7 Monitoring ) Monitor t*emsel#es continuously+ /*ereas electromec*anical relays must be tested by personnel at regular inter#als% Sel$7 Monitoring $eature sa#es time as /ell as money Multiple 3eatures ) Relays+ Meters+ &ontrol S/itc*es+ ndicators and &ommunication de#ices can be integrated into a single microprocessor based protecti#e relay% Substation 8 System sc*ematics and /iring diagrams are easy to generate due to reduced number o$ de#ices and related /iring

Reduced &ommissioning Time ) Microprocessor based relays *a#e metering $eatures and remote capabilities /*ic* ma(e commissioning simple and less time consuming ,ess 6utage Time ) 3ast operation and $ault location capability o$ microprocessor based relays $or transmission line protection reduce t*e po/er outage time considerably% 9*en relays+ /it*out a $ault locator capability+ detect a $ault+ cre/ spends a lot o$ time in $inding t*e location o$ t*e $ault by patrolling t*e line%

3le.ibility ) 'igital relays can be designed and built using general purpose *ard/are % 0 relay can be used to protect di$$erent po/er system components by loading di$$erent so$t/are programs Small Si1e ) 'igital relays are lig*ter in /eig*t and need less space t*an t*e electromec*anical and solid state relays% East to transport% Easy Replacement ) 'ue to economical ad#antage+ digital relays+ i$ $ail it can be replaced in $ull% T*is sa#es time and labor needed $or repairs

Numerical Relays :

Signals are $iltered using an 0nti aliasing $ilter Sampled signals are con#erted to numerical #alues at eac* sampling point &alculations are carried out in real time using one or se#eral microprocessors

Numerical Relay
Structure o !u"er#c$% re%$&'(
0 numerical relay consists o$ t*e $ollo/ing main subsystems)

Microprocessor 0nalog input system 'igital output system -o/er supply

5loc( 'iagram o$ a Typical Numerical Relay

Numerical relays operate on sampled signals and adopt digital computations% Sampling is t*e process o$ con#erting analog input signals+ suc* as current and #oltage+ into digital input signals% T*ese analog input signals+ in case o$ electromec*anical and static relays+ are directly $ed into t*e electromagnetic /inding or electronic circuits% n order to protect t*e relay $rom large transients o$ t*e input signals a surge $ilter is used%

0n anti7aliasing $ilter is used to a#oid possible errors in reconstructing input signal carried out a$ter t*e 08' Sample 8 2old section% 0ny signal *a#ing *armonic components o$ order N:1+ ;N :1+ <%%+ . N :1+ /*ere N is t*e number o$ samples per cycle+ can e.*ibit aliasing% -er$ectly+ an anti7aliasing $ilter *as to cut o$$ all signal components abo#e t*e Ny!uist rate o$ N8;% n practical+ *o/e#er+ suc* a $ilter can not cut o$$ all out o$ band $re!uencies+ so t*e anti7 aliasing $ilter cut o$$ $re!uency is set at about N8=%

T*e 08' con#erts t*e sample #alues t*at represent t*e analog input signals into t*e digital input signals% 2o/e#er+ t*e con#ersion is not instantaneous+ and $or t*is reason+ t*e 08' system typically includes a sample7and7*old circuit% T*e sample7and7*old circuit pro#ides ideal sampling and *olds t*e sample #alues $or !uanti1ation by t*e 08' con#erter% T*e microprocessor containing t*e relay algorit*m is t*e controller o$ t*e numerical relay% T*e microprocessor most o$ten per$orms all control+ computation+ sel$7test and communication $unction% T*e algorit*m $unctions as a digital $ilter to e.tract t*e $undamental component o$ t*e input signal+ based on /*ic* t*e relay operation is carried out%

T*e signal $rom t*e digital $ilter is compared /it* t*e pre7 set t*res*old in t*e digital output system% T*e relay operation is decided based on t*is comparison%

Re%$& $%)or#t*"
T*e algorit*m is designed to remo#e as muc* as possible all o$ un/anted components $rom t*e input signals suc* as *armonic+ '&+ etc% T/o common algorit*ms+ t*e 'iscrete 3ourier Trans$orm >'3T? and t*e Root Mean S!uare >RMS? algorit*m are generally used%

T*e '3T can e.tract any $re!uency $rom t*e signal% Since t*e '3T is capable o$ re"ecting e#eryt*ing e.cept t*e $re!uency being measured+ it *as a good response to transient o#ers*oot%

Root Me$! S+u$re ,RMST*e Root Mean S!uare is a met*od o$ calculating t*e magnitude o$ a periodically #arying !uantity% t can be calculated $or a series o$ discrete #alues or $or a continuously #arying $unction%

Numerical Technique Advantages


0nalogue Tec*ni!ue

Numerical Tec*ni!ue Simple *ard/are 0bruptly 'ecreasing per$ormance Simple to modi$y 'i$$icult to #eri$y 'ata manipulation simple 'ata storage simple Sel$ Super#ision simple

More comple. *ard/are Slo/ly 'ecreasing accuracy 'i$$icult to modi$y Simple to #eri$y 'ata manipulation di$$icult 'ata storage di$$icult Sel$ Super#ision di$$icult

Numerical Tec*ni!ue 0d#antages


,ess space ,ess /iring ,ess terminations ,ess components ,ess aging problems Sel$ Super#ision &ommunication @reater $le.ibility

5etter $unctionality 0dapti#e $unctions 5etter per$ormance Sa#ings in ci#il /or(s Sa#ings in erection+ cabling and commissioning Sa#ings in maintenance Sa#ings in cost8$unction

POWER TRANSFOR ER PROTE!T"ON

Ge!er$% r$t#!)' o Po.er tr$!' or"er' u'e/0

1% ;% =% A% C% 6% E%

A008;;0 B4 =1C M40 0uto Trans$ormers ;;081=; B4 100M40 0uto Trans$ormers ;;08== B4 C0 D =1%CM40 Trans$ormers 1=;866 B4 A0 D ;E%CM40 Trans$ormers 1=;8== B4 C0+ =1%C+ ;C+ 16+ 1C M40 Trans$ormers 1=;811 B4 16+ 1C D E%C M40 Trans$ormers ==811 B4 8+ C+ =%1C M40 Trans$ormers

Most o$ t*e -o/er trans$ormers o$ 1=;811B4 and abo#e are o$ Star7Star #ector grouping /it* t*e neutral solidly eart*ed% T*ere are a $e/ trans$ormers /it* delta7star on 24 side?% T*e ==811B4 and 11B48A1C4 Trans$ormers are o$ delta7star >delta on 24 side?%

T*e types o$ $aults t*at t*e trans$ormers are sub"ected to are classi$ied as )7 T*roug* 3aults)7 T*ese are due to o#erload conditions and e.ternal s*ort circuits% Time graded 68& D E83 relays are employed $or e.ternal s*ort circuit conditions% 3uses are pro#ided $or 'istribution trans$ormers% nternal 3aults)7 1? Electrical 3aults ) 7 3aults /*ic* cause immediate serious damage suc* as p*ase to eart* or p*ase to

p*ase $aults+ s*ort circuits bet/een turns o$ 24D,4 /indings+ etc% ;? ncipient 3aults) 7 9*ic* are initially minor $aults+ causing slo/ly de#eloping damage+ suc* as a poor electrical connection o$ conductors or brea(do/n o$ insulation+ etc%

&onser#ator

0larm

Tr$!' or"er T$!1

Trip

T*e $ollo/ing relays are employed to protect t*e trans$ormer against internal $aults% i? 5uc**ol1 relays iii?'i$$erential relays iii? RE3 relays+ i#? 6#er $lu.ing relays

#uchhol$ Relays : 9*ene#er a $ault in trans$ormer de#elop slo/ly+ *eat is produced locally+ /*ic* begins to decompose solid or li!uid insulated materials and t*us to produce in$lammable gas and oil $lo/% T*is p*enomenon *as been used in t*e gas protection relay or popularly (no/n as 5uc**ol1 relay% T*is relay is applicable only to t*e so7called conser#ator type trans$ormer in /*ic* t*e trans$ormer tan( is completely $illed /it* oil+ and a pipe connects t*e trans$ormer tan( to an au.iliary tan( or F&onser#atorG /*ic* acts as an e.pansion c*amber%

3igure s*o/n as 5uc*ol1 relay connected into t*e pipe leading to t*e conser#ator tan( and arrange to detect gas produced in t*e trans$ormer tan(% 0s t*e gas accumulates $or a minor $ault t*e oil le#el $alls and+ /it* it a $loat H3I /*ic* operates a mercury s/itc* sounding an alarm% 9*en a more serious $ault occurs /it*in t*e trans$ormer during /*ic* intense *eating ta(es place+ an intense liberation o$ gases results% T*ese gases rus* to/ards t*e conser#ator and create a rise in pressure in t*e trans$ormer tan( due to /*ic* t*e oil is $orced t*roug* t*e connecting pipe to t*e conser#ator% T*e oil $lo/ de#elops a $orce on t*e lo/er $loat s*o/n as J4J in t*e $igure and o#ertrips it causing it contacts to complete t*e trip circuit o$ t*e trans$ormer brea(er% 6peration o$ t*e upper $loat indicates an incipient $ault and t*at o$ t*e lo/er $loat a serious $ault%

5uc**ol1 relay 6peration ) &ertain -recautions) T*e 5uc**ol1 relay may become operati#e not only during $aults /it*in t*e trans$ormer% 3or instance+ /*en oil is added to a trans$ormer+ air may get in toget*er /it* oil+ accumulate under t*e relay co#er and t*us cause a $alse operation o$ t*e gas relay% 3or t*is reason /*en t*e I@asI alarm signal is energi1ed+ t*e operators must ta(e a sample o$ t*e gas $rom t*e relay+ $or /*ic* purpose a special cloc( is pro#ided% @ases due to $aults al/ays *a#e colour and an odour and are in$lammable%

T*e lo/er $loat may also $alsely operate i$ t*e oil #elocity in t*e connection pipe+ t*oug* not due to internal $aults+ is su$$icient to trip o#er t*e $loat% T*is can occur in t*e e#ent o$ an e.ternal s*ort circuit /*en o#er currents $lo/ing t*roug* t*e /indings o#er*eat t*e copper and t*e oil and cause t*e oil to e.pand% $ mal7 operation o$ 5uc**ol1 relay due to o#erloads or e.ternal s*ort circuits is e.perienced+ it may be necessary t*at t*e lo/er $loat is ad"usted $or operation $or still *ig*er #elocities%

n installing t*ese relays t*e $ollo/ing re!uirements s*ould be $ul$illed% a? T*e conductors connecting t*e contacts to t*e terminals on t*e co#er must *a#e paper insulation+ as rubber insulation may be damaged by t*e oil% b? T*e $loats must be tested $or air tig*tness+ $or e.ample+ by submerging t*em in *ot oil to create a surplus pressure in t*em% c? T*e relay co#er and t*e connection pipe s*ould *a#e a slope o$ 1%C to = percent and not *a#e any protruding sur$ace to ensure unrestricted passage o$ t*e gases into t*e conser#ator%

Di%%erential Relays :& 0 'i$$erential relay compares t*e currents on bot* sides o$ t*e trans$ormer% 0s long as t*ere is no $ault /it*in t*e protected e!uipment >Trans$ormer?+ t*e current circulates bet/een t*e t/o &Ts and no current $lo/s t*roug* t*e di$$erential element% 5ut $or internal $aults t*e sum o$ t*e &Ts secondary currents /ill $lo/ t*roug* t*e di$$erential relay ma(ing it to operate% T/o basic re!uirements t*at t*e di$$erential relay connections are to be satis$ied are ) a? t must not operate $or load or e.ternal $aults% b? t must operate $or internal $aults%

0s on7load tap c*ange $acilities are in#ariably pro#ided in t*e grid trans$ormers+ any departure $rom t*e nominal tap position /ill result in spill currents in t*e relay circuits% 3urt*er+ t*e &Ts are o$ten o$ di$$erent types and *a#e dissimilar magneti1ation c*aracteristics+ again result7 ing in spill current during *ea#y t*roug* $ault conditions% To a#oid un/anted relays operation under t*e abo#e t/o conditions+ a J-ercentage 5iasJ di$$erential relay is used%

T*e operating c*aracteristics o$ percentage bias di$$erential relay is s*o/n in t*e $igure% T*e current $lo/ing t*roug* t*e operating coil o$ t*e relay s*ould be nearly 1ero during normal operating conditions and /*en e.ternal s*ort circuit occurs% 9*ile setting t*e di$$erential relay on a trans$ormer+ t*e >mismatc*? current t*roug* di$$erential element at normal tap and positi#e and negati#e e.treme taps are to be computed% 'i$$erential element pic(up setting and8or bias settings is adopted based on ma.imum percentage mismatc* adding some sa$ety margin% 'i$$erential &urrent K L 1 7 ; L | I1-I2 | 5ias Setting K 777777777777 (I1+ I2) / 2

& T Ratios and connections $or di$$erential relay =% 0 simple rule o$ t*umb is t*at t*e &Ts on any 9ye >Star? /inding o$ a -o/er trans$ormer s*ould be connected in delta and t*e &Ts on any delta /inding s*ould be connected in 9ye >Star?% C% a? $ t*e &Ts are to be connected in Star+ t*e &%T Ratio /ill be n 8 l0 /*ere in is trans$ormer $ull load current% b? $ t*e &Ts are to be connected in 'elta+ t*e &%T Ratio /ill be n80%CEEC 0%

D# ere!t#$% Re%$& I"2ro3e"e!t

'i$$erential Relay *as impro#ed a lot /it* t*e introduction o$ numerical relay Numerical relays use tec*ni!ues suc* as *armonic bloc(ing+ /a#e s*ape recognition n case o$ electromagnetic and static relays+ in a typical delta7/ye po/er trans$ormer+ t*e current trans$ormer /ould be connected as /ye7delta%

0not*er $eature in#ol#es correction $or current trans$ormer ratios+ /*ic* may re!uire e.ternal au.iliary current trans$ormer% 6n t*e ot*er *and+ /it* t*e numerical relays+ all current trans$ormers are connected in /ye con$iguration and p*ase compensations are done in t*e relay T*e magnitude compensation in numerical relays is also done in t*e relay

Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REF) : T*is relay is operati#e only $or t*e internal $aults o$ t*e trans$ormer and t*us $ast operating time can be ac*ie#ed%

1% 0n e.ternal $ault on t*e star side /ill result in current $lo/ing in t*e line &T o$ t*e a$$ected p*ase and a balancing current in t*e neutral &T and current in t*e relay is 1ero and *ence relay is stable% 'uring an internal $ault+ t*e line current on t*e line &T gets re#ersed and *ence relay operates%

;% T*e arrangement o$ residually connected &Ts on t*e delta side o$ a trans$ormer is only sensiti#e to eart* $aults on t*e delta side because 1ero se!uence currents are bloc(ed by t*e delta /inding% 3or e.ternal $aults no current $lo/s t*roug* RE3 unless a &T gets saturated% 2ence minimum pic(up current setting is adopted >10M or ;0M n? on RE3 relay% 5ased on t*e t*roug* $ault current+ t*e stabili1ing resistor is set suc* t*at t*e relay /ill not operate $or e.ternal $ault /*en a &T gets saturated% T*is relay operates only $or internal eart* $aults+ instantaneously%

3ault current $or e.ternal $ault $ K ;C00 0 >assume? &%T%Ratio >line and neutral? 7 =0081 0 ;C00 Secondary $ault current K 777777 K 8% == 0 >Sec%? =00 R&T K &%T% Resistance T, K ,ead Resistance K E%A1 6*ms8Bm >;%C s! mm&u? 4oltage de#eloped across &T >Saturated? >4(? K $ >R&T N ;R,? K 8%==>C N =? K 66%6A 4olts Relay burden K l 40 Relay 6perating &urrent K 0%; 0 >Set #alue?

Relay 6perating 4oltage 4R K Relay burden 777777777777777777 Relay 6perating current K 180%; K C 4olt Stabili1ing Resistor SR K 4B 7 4R 77777777777 Set K 66%6A 7 C%0 777777777777777 0%; K =08%; 6*ms K =10 6*ms

Set SR

$ t*e calculated #alue o$ SR e.ceeds t*e e.isting range+ t*e current settings can be raised accordingly and arri#ed at suitable

Over%lu'ing Protection:
=% 6#er$lu.ing condition in a trans$ormer can occur during system o#er #oltage and8or under $re!uency conditions >483?% ;% T*e 6#er$lu.ing condition does not call $or *ig* speed tripping% T*e tripping can be delayed depending on t*e o#er$lu. /it*stand capability o$ t*e trans$ormer% 11%Relays /it* de$inite time delay >nearly =0Sec%? and in#erse c*aracteristic are being employed%

Other Protective devices employed


-ressure Relie$ 4alue >-R4? 9inding Temperature 6il Temperature 6,T& 5uc**ol1

Transmission (ine Protection

D#'t$!ce Re%$&'( 4
ntroduction)

T*e impedance relays also called distance relays are employed to pro#ide protection to transmission lines connected in a net/or( as t*ey are economic and possess se#eral tec*nical ad#antages% T*ey are comparati#ely simple to apply+ operate /it* e.tremely *ig* speed+ and bot* primary and bac(up protection $eatures are in*erent in t*em%

D#'t$!ce Re%$&'( 4 ,co!t5/

Moreo#er+ t*ey can be easily modi$ied to /or( as unit sc*emes by coordinating t*em /it* po/er line carrier $acilities and are suitable $or *ig* speed reclosing% T*e impedance relay is made to respond to t*e impedance bet/een t*e relay location and t*e point /*ere $ault is incident% T*e impedance is proportional to t*e distance to t*e $ault+ >*ence t*e name Idistance relayI? and is t*ere$ore independent o$ t*e $ault current le#els%

'istance Relaying -rinciple)

0 distance relay compares t*e currents and #oltages at t*e relaying point /it* &urrent pro#iding t*e operating tor!ue and t*e #oltage pro#ides t*e restraining tor!ue% n ot*er /ords an impedance relay is a #oltage restrained o#ercurrent relay% T*e e!uation at t*e balance point in a simple impedance relay is B14; K B; ; or 48 K B= /*ere B1+ B; and B= are constants% n ot*er /ords+ t*e relay is on t*e #erge o$ operation at a constant #alue o$ 48 ratio+ /*ic* may be e.pressed as an impedance

Since t*e operating c*aracteristics o$ t*e relay depend

upon t*e ratio o$ #oltage and current and t*e p*ase angle bet/een t*em+ t*eir c*aracteristics can be best represented on an R7O diagram /*ere bot* 48 ratio and t*e p*ase angle can be plotted in terms o$ an impedance RN"O% 3urt*er+ t*e po/er system impedance li(e $ault impedance+ po/er s/ings+ loads etc% can also be plotted on t*e same R7O diagram% T*ere$ore response o$ a particular relay during po/er s/ing+ $aults and ot*er system disturbances can easily be assessed%

Types o$ 'istance Relays)


>1? mpedance relay >;? Reactance relay >=? M*o relay >C? Modi$ied impedance relay mpedance relay) &*aracteristics o$ an impedance relay on R7O diagram is s*o/n in $ig 6peration o$ t*e impedance relay is independent o$ t*e p*ase angle bet/een 4 and % T*e operating c*aracteristic is a circle /it* its center at t*e origin+ and *ence t*e relay is non7directional%

&*aracteristic o$ 'irectional mpedance Relay)

&*aracteristic o$ a directional impedance relay in t*e comple. R7O p*ase is s*o/n in $ig% T*e directional unit o$ t*e relay causes separation o$ t*e regions o$ t*e relay c*aracteristic s*o/n in t*e $igure by a line dra/n perpendicular to t*e line impedance locus% T*e net result is t*at tripping /ill occur only $or points t*at are bot* /it*in t*e circles and abo#e t*e directional unit c*aracteristic%

T*e Reactance7type 'istance Relay)

Reactance relay measures 48 Sin P >i%e% Q sin P K O?% 9*ene#er t*e reactance measured by t*e relay is less t*an t*e set #alue+ t*e relay operates% T*e operating c*aracteristic on R7O diagram is s*o/n in $ig T*e resistance component o$ impedance *as no e$$ect on t*e operation o$ reactance relay+ t*e relay responds solely to reactance component o$ impedance% T*is relay is in*erently non7directional% T*e relay is most suitable to detect eart* $aults /*ere t*e e$$ect o$ arc resistance is appreciable%

M*o relay)

T*is is a directional impedance relay+ also (no/n as admittance relay% ts c*aracteristic on R7O diagram is a circle /*ose circum$erence passes t*roug* t*e origin as illustrated in $igure s*o/ing t*at t*e relay is in*erently directional and it only operates $or $aults in t*e $or/ard direction%

Modi$ied impedance relay)


0lso (no/n as o$$set M*o relay /*ose c*aracteristic encloses t*e

origin on R7O diagram as s*o/n in $ig T*is o$$set m*o relay *as t*ree main applications) 7 i? 5usbar 1one bac(up ii? &arrier starting unit in distance8carrier bloc(ing sc*emes% iii? -o/er S/ing bloc(ing%

Main 3eatures in 'istance Sc*eme 'istance sc*emes consist o$ t*e $ollo/ing ma"or components)7 i? Starters% ii? Measuring units% iii? Timers i#? 0u.iliary relays Starters) 7 T*e starting relay >or starter? initiates t*e distance sc*eme in t*e e#ent o$ a $ault /it*in t*e re!uired reac* >more t*an 1one7=?%

Starters) 7 6t*er $unctions o$ t*e starter are) 7 a? Starting o$ timer relays $or second and t*ird 1ones% b? Starting o$ measuring elements% T*e starters are generally o$ M*o or impedance type% 9it* M*o type starters) 7 Measuring units $or p*ase and eart* $aults can be eit*er directional or non7directional as M*o starter is in*erently directional

9it* impedance type starters) 7


Measuring units *a#e to be directional as impedance starters are non directional% T*e under impedance relay can be used in con"unction /it* t*e directional relay as starter /*ic* /ill t*en $unction similar to t*e M*o starter%

Measuring units) 7 T*ey are generally o$ a m*o or reactance or a combination o$ m*o+ reactance and resistance types%

-*ase 3ault Rnits)7


T*ese

measuring units are $ed /it* line to line #oltages >suc* as 4ab+ 4bc? and di$$erence bet/een line currents > a7 b?% T*ey measure t*e positi#e se!uence impedance $rom t*e relay location to t*e $ault point% T*ree suc* relays respond correctly to all possible single line to ground $aults line to line $aults+ double line to ground $aults and =7p*ase $aults% T*ey *o/e#er do not respond correctly to eart* $aults%

Eart* 3ault Rnits) 7

T*ese measuring units utili1e line to neutral #oltage >4an+ 4bn 4cn? and p*ase currents > a+ b+ c?% n order to ma(e t*ese units measure t*e positi#e se!uence impedance correctly+ a 1ero se!uence current compensation is to be pro#ided /*ic* is obtained by) BN K >Q07Q1?8 =SQ1 >/*ere Q1 K positi#e se!uence impedance o$ line% Q0 K Qero se!uence impedance o$ line? n t*e current circuit >1NBN? a /ill be $ed $or t*e abo#e measurement%

Timers) 7

Timer relays /*en initiated by starters pro#ide t*e time lag re!uired $or 1ones% T*ey also /ill be used $or 1one e.tension purpose /*ene#er re!uired%

0u.iliary relays) 7

'istance sc*eme comprises o$ se#eral au.iliary relays+ /*ic* per$orm $unctions suc* as $lag indications+ trippings+ signaling+ alarm etc%

A//#t#o!$% Fe$ture' #! /#'t$!ce 'c*e"e'( 4 i? -o/er S/ing bloc(ing relay ii? 4T $use $ailure relay% iii? S/itc* onto $ault relay i#? 3ault locator #? 0uto7reclosing sc*eme% #iii?&arrier communication sc*eme%

Po.er S.#!) 6%oc1#!)( 4

'istance relay /*ic* respond to balanced =7p*ase c*anges in t*e impedance /ill be a$$ected by po/er s/ings% T*ese s/ings or oscillations occur $ollo/ing a system disturbance suc* as ma"or load c*ange or a dip in #oltage due to delayed $ault clearance% n case o$ $ault+ t*e transition $rom period o$ impedance locations >;C to ==M o$ starter impedance? to $ault impedance >starter impedance? is sudden /*ereas during po/er s/ings% T*e -S5 relays use t*is di$$erence to bloc( t*e tripping during s/ings%

7T u'e $#%ure re%$&( 4


T*e distance relays being #oltage restraint 68& relays+ loss o$ #oltage due to main -T $use $ailure or inad#ertent remo#al o$ $use in one or more p*ases /ill cause t*e relay operation% T*e $use $ailure relay /ill sense suc* condition by t*e presence o$ residual #oltage /it*out residual current and bloc(s t*e relay%

S.#tc* o!to $u%t( 4

9*en t*e line is s/itc*ed on to a close by $ault >say a$ter line clear /it* eart* s/itc* closed?+ t*e #oltage at t*e relaying point /ill be 1ero% 3aults o$ t*is type /ill normally be cleared by bac(up 1ones% T*e #oltage applied to t*e relay is lo/ and t*is condition occurring simultaneously /it* t*e operation o$ starter /ill cause instantaneous trip by S6T3 relay% T*is S6T3 $eature /ill be e$$ecti#e only $or about 17; seconds a$ter t*e line is c*arged% 3aults occurring a$ter t*is time /ill be measured in t*e normal /ay%

F$u%t %oc$tor( 4

t measures t*e distance bet/een t*e relay location and $ault location in terms o$ Q in 6*ms+ or lengt* in BM or percentage o$ line lengt*% T*is relay gets same inputs as t*e distance relay >connected in series /it* one o$ t*e main relays?% T*e measurement is initiated by trip signal $rom distance relays% T*e $ault locator gi#es t*e e.act location o$ t*e $ault+ t*ereby reducing t*e time o$ restoration%

F$ctor' $ ect#!) /#'t$!ce re%$& o2er$t#o!(4


iii? 3ault

resistance%

#?

n$eed e$$ect%

iii? 5ranc*ing7o$$ e$$ect% i#? ,oad encroac*ment%

F$u%t re'#'t$!ce(4
3ault resistance *as t/o components)7 a? 0rc resistance% b? @round resistance% n a $ault bet/een p*ases+ only arc resistance is in#ol#ed% 3or a $ault at 3+ t*e actual line impedance K R N TO K Q, 'ue to t*e presence o$ $ault resistance+ t*e impedance measured by t*e relay K R N TO N R3 K QR >/*ere QR U Q,?

3ault arc resistance is gi#en by 9arringtonIs $ormula) Rarc K 8EC0 O l 8 1%A /*ere l K lengt* o$ arc in $t K $ault current in 0mps

T*e arc resistance *as little e$$ect on accuracy o$ 1one71 unit as it operates instantaneously be$ore t*e arc can stretc* appreciably e.cept in case o$ s*ort lines% Reactance relays are t*ere$ore used $or s*ort lines /*ere t*e $ault resistance may be comparable /it* t*at o$ t*e protected lines and also $or ground $aults /*ere t*e ground resistance is *ig*% T*e arc resistance /ill *a#e greater impact on accuracy o$ bac(up 1ones >time delayed? as t*e arc stretc*es appreciably%

n$eed e$$ect)7

T*e e$$ect o$ intermediate current source bet/een relay location and $ault point is termed as in$eed e$$ect% &onsider t*e s(etc* indicated in $ig 777 0 $ault at 3 on t*e line 5& is at a distance o$ Q1NQ; $or t*e relay at station 0% 5ut /*en current ; $lo/s $rom bus '+ t*e impedance to t*e $ault as seen by t*e relay at 0 is Q1 N Q; N Q; . > ;8 1?% T*us t*e $ault is seen by t*e relay as $art*er t*an /*at it really is+ i%e% distance relay under reac*es due to t*e in$eed e$$ect% T*e e$$ect o$ in$eed becomes more pronounced /it* more interconnections at station 5%

Br$!c*#!)4o e ect( 4

&onsider t*e s(etc* indicated in $ig 777 0 $ault at 3 is at t*e distance o$ Q1NQ; $or t*e relay at station 0% 5ut /*en current 1 gets distributed as ; D = at station 5+ t*e impedance to $ault seen by t*e relay at station 0 /ill be >Q1 N =8 1 S Q;? /*ic* is less t*an >Q1NQ;?% T*en t*e $ault is seen by t*e relay as nearer t*an /*at it really is i%e% distance relay o#erreac*es due to branc*ing7o$$ e$$ect% T*is o#erreac*ing tendency /ill cause t*e relay to loose its selecti#ity%

Lo$/ e!cro$c*"e!t( 4

9*ile protecting long lines t*e necessary reac* may be so large t*at t*e minimum ser#ice impedance >or load impedance? $alls /it*in t*e region o$ t*e starter% T*is /ould result in tripping /it*out t*ere being any $ault% T*e t/o conditions i%e% operation at *ea#y load and s*ort circuit di$$er by #irtue o$ p*ase angle bet/een #oltage and current% 3or t*e load impedance+ t*e p*ase angle /ill be /it*in N=0 to 7=0 'eg% 9*ile during s*ort circuits+ t*e $ault impedance *as a p*ase angle o$ 60 to 80 deg% >i%e% line angle?%

,oad encroac*ment problem is more pronounced in case o$ under impedance starters and gets lessened in case o$ m*o+ elliptical+ lens etc+ type o$ starters% Relays /it* suitable c*aracteristic on R7O diagram *a#e to be care$ully c*osen to protect long and *ea#ily loaded lines+ and t*is becomes easily possible /it* microprocessor based numerical relays%

No!4'.#tc*e/ 'c*e"e 3' '.#tc*e/ 'c*e"e( 4

n an ideal Non7s/itc*ed sc*eme+ t*ere /ill be 6 starters+ = $or p*ase $aults and = $or ground $aults% T*ere /ill be independent measuring units $or bot* p*ase $aults and eart* $ault $or eac* p*ase+ $or all t*ree 1ones+ totaling to 18 units% T*is sc*eme is $aster and more accurate but is costly%

n t*e s/itc*ed sc*eme+ only one measuring unit /ill be used $or all types o$ $aults% T*is single measuring unit is s/itc*ed to t*e correct $ault loop impedance by s/itc*ing7in t*e respecti#e #oltages and currents by t*e starter% T*e reac* o$ t*e measuring element gets e.tended to 1one7; and 1one7= a$ter t*e elapse o$ corresponding timings t*roug* 1one e.tension process% S/itc*ed sc*eme is relati#ely slo/ in operation and *as t*e ris( o$ total sc*eme $ailure in t*e e#ent o$ $ailure o$ t*e only one measuring unit a#ailable%

8o!e e9te!'#o! 'c*e"e'( 4

0s a #ia media bet/een non7s/itc*ed and s/itc*ed sc*emes+ t*ere are sc*emes /it* 1one e.tension $acility >suc* as EE ma(e MM=4 D MR=4 relays?% T*ese sc*emes consists o$ = measuring units $or p*ase $aults and = measuring units $or eart* $aults >apart $rom = starters?% T*e reac* o$ t*e measuring unit gets e.tended to 1one7; and 1one7= a$ter elapse o$ corresponding timings t*roug* a 1one e.tension process%

Ot*er O2er$t#!) C*$r$cter#'t#c'(

Earlier /*en electromagnetic relays /ere in use+ t*e c*aracteristics in#ol#ing straig*t lines and 8or circles on R7O diagram /ere only possible% 9it* t*e ad#ent o$ static relays+ microprocessor based relays and presently o$ numerical relays+ any desired8re!uired7 operating c*aracteristic is possible gi#ing /ider c*oice $or selection o$ relays% n$act t*ere are relays+ /*ic* can be programmed remotely%

A22%#c$t#o! o /#'t$!ce re%$&'(

Since t*e distance relays are $ed $rom t*e secondaries o$ line &Ts and bus -Ts8line &4Ts+ t*e line parameters are to be con#erted into secondary #alues to set t*e relay as per re!uirements% Qsecy K Qpri8 mpedance ratio >/*ere mpedance ratio K -%T%Ratio8&%T%Ratio? 2ence any c*anges in &%T %ratio *as to be e$$ected along /it* re#ision o$ relay settings only%

3or t*e lines+ t*e impedance in 6*ms per BM is appro.imately as under) 77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 B4 Q1 >K Q; ? ,ine 0ngle 77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 1=; B4 0%A 60 to E0 'eg% ;;0 B4 0%A E0 to 80 'eg% A00 B4 0%= 80 to 8C 'eg% 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 T*e line impedance is to be computed depending on line con$iguration conductor si1e and clearness% T*e #alues in t*e table are only representati#e% 0 distance relay is stepped $or eit*er = 1ones or A 1ones to pro#ide protection%

To ensure proper coordination bet/een distance relays in po/er system+ it is customary to c*oose relay o*mic setting as $ollo/s) 7 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 S%No% Qones Reactance Time 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 1% Qone71 80M o$ Q, nstantaneous
>no intentional time delay?%

;% =% A%

Qone7; Qone7= Qone7A

100M o$ Q, N A07C0M o$ QS, 100M o$ Q, N 1;0M o$ QS,

0%= to 0%A seconds 0%6 to 0%8 seconds

100M o$ Q, N 1;0M 0%9 to 1%C seconds o$ Q,, 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777

/*ere Q, K -ositi#e se!uence impedance o$ line to be protected% QS, K -ositi#e se!uence impedance o$ ad"acent s*ortest line% Q,, K -ositi#e se!uence impedance o$ ad"acent longest line% Note) 9*ere a t*ree 1one relay only is a#ailable+ t*e 1one = /ill be set to co#er t*e ad"acent longest line%

""? T*e 1onal timings /ill be care$ully selected to properly grade /it* t*e relays on all t*e $eeders emanating $rom t*e ad"acent bus%

Nor"' o 2rotect#o! $/o2te/ or tr$!'"#''#o! %#!e' #!

A0P0S&'te"(4
i? 1=; B4 ,ines) 7 0 s/itc*ed type distance sc*eme supplemented by t*ree numbers directional 68, relays and 1 No% directional E8, relay% ii?;;0 B4 ,ines) 7 T/o 'istance Sc*emes) 7 Main7 ) 7 Non7s/itc*ed sc*eme $ed $rom bus -T% Main7 ) 7 0 s/itc*ed sc*eme $ed $rom line &4T%

0 pro#ision is generally made $or t*e c*angeo#er o$ #oltage supply $or t*e distance sc*emes $rom t*e bus -T to line &4T and #ice7#ersa% Eac* distance sc*eme is $ed $rom independent &T secondary cores%

iii? A00 B4 ,ines)7 T/o 'istance Sc*emes)7 Main7 )7 Non7s/itc*ed or Numerical distance sc*emes Main7 )7 Non7s/itc*ed or Numerical distance sc*emes

'etails o$ distance relays)7


1? Ma(e) 7 @E& 0lstom ,td%

i? MM=4 ) 7 t is an electromagnetic type distance relay /it*) =7m*o measuring units $or p*ase to p*ase $aults% =7m*o measuring units $or p*ase to eart* $aults% =7m*o starting units+ eac* starter being associated /it* one p*ase and operating $or all $aults associated /it* t*at p*ase and one o$$set m*o unit $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing%

R7O diagram is indicated


Setting range in o*ms $or Qone71 77777777777777777777777777777777777777 0%8=A to =0 1%==C to A8 1%668 to 60 Q; K 1 to =%C times Q1 Q= K 1 to C times Q1 777777777777777777777777777777777777777 Some o$ t*e sc*emes are pro#ided /it* a Qone7A timer to ma(e t*e sc*eme /or(s as a A 1one relay+ t*e starter itsel$ being t*e At* 1one%

MR:7( 4

t is an electromagnetic relays /it* = m*o units $or p*ase $aults+ = reactance units $or eart* $aults% = m*o starters+ eac* being associated /it* one p*ase $or all types o$ $aults and one o$$set m*o unit $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing% Setting ranges same as in MM=4% R7O diagram $or p*ase $aults is same as t*at $or MM=4 relay and $or eart* $aults it is indicated in $igure

SHPM ,;u$/r$ "*o-( 4

t is a non7s/itc*ed static sc*eme /it* 18 measuring m*o units% T*e 1one7= measuring elements /ill act as starters+ /*ic* *a#e eit*er m*o or a lenticular c*aracteristic% T*e operating c*aracteristic on R7O diagram is indicated in $igure T*e lenticular c*aracteristics allo/s *ealt*y o#erloads and *ence pre#ents tripping on load encroac*ment% Setting range) 7 0%; to ;A0 6*ms% t *as built7in $eature o$ continuous sel$ monitoring >on demand and periodic sel$ testing?% 0ll t*e additional $eatures pro#ided by relay can be enabled or disabled /it* t*e *elp o$ s/itc*es pro#ided $or t*em%

PYTS( 4

t is a static s/itc*ed sc*eme /it* modular plug7in construction >/it* built in test points?% t *as = under impedance starters and a single m*o measuring unit% 6ne R8 unit $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing% R7O diagram is indicated in $igure Setting range) 0%0C to A0 6*ms+ /it* starter *a#ing range o$ ;0 to E0 6*ms% t *as an uncompensated R8 starter+ /*ic* *as become a problem due to load encroac*ment $or long lines% T*e 47 c*aracteristic o$ t*e starter is indicated in abo#e $igure% 9*en t*e #oltage is less t*an 6CM rated+ t*e starter operates at a current greater t*an 0%;C n% 9it* lo/ #oltages at some o$ t*e stations+ t*is $eature *as caused relay to operate unnecessarily%

PD < =>?( 4

t is a numerical protection relay /it* polygon c*aracteristics% t consists o$ $our impedance 1ones /it* independent R and O #alues $or eac* 1one Qone A can be utili1ed as a special 1one $or cabie protection% R O diagram as indicated in $igure% T*roug* MM + one can enter and edit t*e settings >T*e settings are pass/ord protected? Setting Range ) 0%1 to ;000 6*ms% Timers ) 0 to 10 Secs%

M &6M ' ST0N&E RE,0V >0lstom ma(e?) M &6M -AA0 series is a distance sc*eme /it* 0d#anced numerical tec*nology% M &6M -AA1 and -AA; relays *a#e $i#e 1ones o$ p*ase $ault protection and $i#e 1ones o$ eart* $ault protection% a? P*$'e $u%t 2rotect#o! -*ase $ault !uadrilateral c*aracteristics is s*o/n in t*e $igure% Qones 1+; D = directional $or/ard 1ones+ as used in con#entional t*ree 1one distance sc*emes% Note t*at Qone71 can be e.tended to Qone71O /*en re!uired in Qone71 e.tension sc*eme%

Qone - -rogrammable% Selectable as a directional $or/ard or re#erse 1one% Qone7A 'irectional re#erse 1one% Note t*at Qone7= and Qone7A can be set toget*er to gi#e e$$ecti#ely a $or/ard 1one /it* a re#erse o$$set%

E$rt* F$u%t Protect#o!(

Eart* $ault !uadrilateral c*aracteristics is similar to t*e p*ase $ault !uadrilateral c*aracteristics as s*o/n belo/% Resisti#e reac*es can be set independently $or p*ase and eart* $ault protections% 0ll eart* $ault elements are !uadrilateral s*aped+ and are directionalised similar to t*e p*ase $ault elements% T*e impedance reac*es o$ eart* $ault elements use residual compensation o$ t*e corresponding p*ase $ault reac*es%

REL84?@@(

t is a numerical relay /it* !uadrilateral impedance units $or p*ase and eart* $aults% Eac* measuring unit *as indi#idual and independent setting o$ t*e reac* in resisti#e and reacti#e directions+ as /ell as $or t*e 1ero se!uence compensation $actor+ BN% Entire Qone7= reac* >in $or/ard direction? is a#ailable in re#erse direction /it* a separate timer T=R% R7O diagram is as indicated

3our groups o$ setting parameters are possible to suit di$$erent system conditions% 6nly one o$ t*e groups /ill be in ser#ice by c*oice% t *as continuous sel$ monitoring and sel$ testing $eature and indicate t*e same by e.tinguis*ing JRelay 0#ailableJ ,E' on t*e relay% T*roug* MM + one can enterW edit t*e settings+ read t*e mean ser#ice #alues o$ line #oltage+ current+ real+ reacti#e po/er and $re!uency% t stores data o$ latest = disturbances occurred% >T*e settings are not pass/ord protected?% Setting rage) 0%1 to 1C0 6*ms% Timers) 0 to 10 Secs% t *as a $eature /*ic* does o#erload super#ision and unsymmetrical load condition+ /*ic* can be used $or alarm or trip%

M$1e( 4 Se#"e!' Lt/0 ASA=?? re%$&(

t is a numerical protection sc*eme /it* 16 bit microprocessor% 9it* t*ree #ersion o$ detectors% i? -*ase selecti#e o#ercurrent $ault detector% ii? 4oltage controlled >under7impedance? $ault detector >/it* independent R D O reac*es? and iii? -olygonally s*aped angle7dependent impedance $ault detector% t *as $i#e 1ones >t/o o$ /*ic* can be used $or communication sc*emes?% R7O diagram is indicated belo/%

0part $rom common $eatures+ it pro#ides Emergency o#ercurrent $unction+ /*ic* comes into picture /*en main distance sc*eme is bloc(ed due to 4T $use $ailure conditions% t pro#ides t/o user de$ined logic $unctions% t *as continuous sel$ monitoring and sel$ testing $eature% t stores data o$ latest t*ree $aults and measures #alues o$ load current+ operating #oltage+ po/er and $re!uency continuously% Setting range)0%1 to ;00 6*ms /it* 0%0 to =; sec >in step o$ 0%01 sec? timers% 3our groups o$ settings are possible to suit di$$erent system conditions% 6nly one o$ t*e groups /ill be in ser#ice by c*oice%

SEL < :>?( 4

t is numerical relay /it* 3our M*o 1ones $or p*ase $aults /it* independent p*ase to p*ase o#ercurrent super#ision% 3our ground $aults $or M*o and Xuadrilateral 1ones /it* independent p*ase and residual o#ercurrent super#ision and 1ero se!uence compensation% T/o Xuadrilateral 1ones $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing% ,oad7encroac*ment c*aracteristics% nstantaneous+ 'e$inite time and 'MT o#ercurrent c*aracteristics% Si. >6? setting groups are a#ailable in t*e sc*eme%

Setting ranges)7

3or M*o 1ones >Secondary? 3or Xuadrilateral Qones Reactance >Secondary? Resistance >Secondary? Timers

) ) ) ) )

0%;C to =;0 6*ms

0%;C to =;0 6*ms 0%;C to ;C0 6*ms 07;000 &ycles

BUS BAR PROTECTION

D# ere!t#$% Protect#o! or Bu' 6$r'(


S*ort7circuit on bus bars can *a#e #ery serious conse!uences $or t*e operation o$ t*e po/er system% T*e most /idely used and acceptable type o$ protection $or =C ;00(4 bus bars is *ig*7speed di$$erential protection% t is based on Birc**o$$Ys current la/ t*at re!uires t*e sum o$ all currents entering t*e bus to sum to 1ero% S*ould an internal $ault occur+ *o/e#er+ t*e sum currents measured at current trans$ormer locations /ill not be 1ero and tripping s*ould occur% T*is type o$ bus protection $or one p*ase is s*o/n in t*e $ollo/ing 3igure)

T*e current trans$ormer secondaries are added toget*er to gi#e t*e sum o$ t*e currents in all $our linesW and t*e sum is sent to t*e di$$erential relay% n case a $ault occurs t*at is e.ternal to t*e &T connections+ say at t*e point 1 in t*e 3igure+ t*e total current $lo/ing to t*at $ault /ill be e.actly e!ual to t*e total current entering t*e bus on lines ;+=+A and no current /ill $lo/ to t*e di$$erential relay% 2o/e#er+ i$ a $ault occurs on t*e bus+ bet/een p*ases or $rom p*ase to ground+ t*e sum o$ t*e line currents /ill e!ual t*e total bus $ault current and t*e relay /ill correctly measure t*is !uantity%

5us di$$erential protection

2ig* impedance circulating current sc*eme 5iased di$$erential or lo/ impedance circulating sc*eme%

S0 No0

Det$#%'

H#)* #"2e/$!ce c#rcu%$t#!) curre!t re%$&

Lo. #"2e/$!ce 6#$'e/ /# ere!t#$% re%$&

1%

-rinciple

T*e currents entering and lea#ing t*e busbar are compared conti7nuously% t in#ol#es c*oosing o$ impedance *ig* enoug* to stabilise t*e relay $or *ea#y e.ternal $aults% t re!uires all identical &T ratios mposes comparati#ely *ig* burden on &Ts% 0u.iliary &Ts reduce t*e per$ormance o$ sc*eme

t *as di$$erential and bias setting% T*e resultant bias is proportional to arit*metic sum o$ all currents+ /*ereas t*e operating current is #ector sum o$ all circuit currents% t can /or( /it* &Ts o$ une!ual ratios also% mposes less burden on &Ts% 0u.iliary &Ts *a#e no e$$ect on per$ormance o$ sc*eme

;%

&Ts

=%

5urden

S0No0

Det$#%'

H#)* #"2e/$!ce c#rcu%$t#!) curre!t re%$&

Lo. #"2e/$!ce 6#$'e/ /# ere!t#$% re%$&

A%

&T Saturation 6peration o$ sc*eme e#en 6peration o$ sc*eme e#en /*en /*en &Ts get saturated &Ts get saturated during internal during internal $aults $aults%

C%

-er$ormance

2ig*ly sensiti#e internal $aults completely stable e.ternal $aults

$or 2ig*ly sensiti#e $or internal and $aults and completely $or $or e.ternal $aults

6%

Relays in 0%System

@E& ma(e &0@=A+ -5'&5

@E& ma(e M5&Q 055 ma(e R0'SS

3or some *ig* impedance sc*emes+ only 4oltage Setting Z4Y /ill be set% >T*e calculations are similar to t*at o$ Restricted Eart* 3ault relay setting $or t*e Trans$ormer protection?%

Lo. I"2e/$!ce Bu'6$r Sc*e"e(4

T*is relay operates on circulating current principle and di$$erential current setting > ;0M n? is adopted on t*e relay% T*e bias setting is generally set by t*e relay manu$acturer based on bus $ault le#els%

Bu'6$r Protect#o! a? &*ec( 3eature) 7 To pre#ent incorrect tripping due to damage to /iring and e!uipment $rom e.traneous sources+ c*ec( relay is pro#ided% T*is c*ec( relay is pro#ided by duplication o$ primary protection using a second set o$ current trans$ormers cores on all circuits ot*er t*an bus section and bus couple units% T*e c*ec( system is arranged in a similar manner o$ t*e primary protection+ but $orms one 1one only co#ering t*e /*ole o$ t*e busbars >in case o$ single sectionali1ed busbar or bot* t*e buses >in case o$ double busbar arrangement?%

b? Super#ision

9*en a &T secondary /inding or connections bet/een &T and t*e relay circuit become open circuited+ t*e relay may maloperate $or load or t*roug* $aults depending on t*e e$$ecti#e primary setting% T*is condition o$ an open circuit can be detected by using super#ision >o#er #oltage? relay+ /*ic* is arranged to gi#e alarm% T*e super#ision must be time delayed to a#oid a $alse alarm during genuine $ault conditions+ typically t*ree seconds is adopted%

Numerical 5usbar -rotection


2ig*ly stable $or e.ternal $aults 2ig*ly sensiti#e $or internal $aults 6perating speed around C0 msec 0daptability to t*e dynamically c*anging topology o$ t*e busbar &entrali1ed or distributed arc*itecture Support easy maintenance+ operation and $uture e.pansion o$ t*e busbar &an operate /it* di$$erent o$ &Ts 3iber optic cable used $or communication bet/een central and perip*eral units Ensure *ig* communication speed

Numerical 5usbar -rotection>contYd?


Management 3unctions)
n addition to t*e protection and control elements+ numerical busbar protection pro#ides a /ide range o$ measurement+ monitoring+ post $ault analysis and sel$7diagnostic $eatures%

&ircuit brea(er control Trip circuit super#ision>using -S,? 6nline measurements -lant status monitoring 3our alternati#e setting groups -rogrammable sc*eme logic >-S,? Se!uence o$ e#ent recording >S6E?

Numerical 5usbar -rotection>contYd?


Management 3unctions)

&ompre*ensi#e disturbance recording >/a#e$orm capture? Rser con$igurable ,E's ,ocal and remote communication ports Time sync*roni1ation 3ully customi1able menu te.ts Multile#el pass/ord protection Test $acilities -o/er7 up diagnostics and continuous sel$7monitoring o$ relay Rser $riendly setting and analysis so$t/are

E.amples o$ numerical busbar protection)


M

&6M -EA0 >0re#a? RE5 C00 >055?

BREAKER FAILURE RELAY ,LBB PROTECTION-

Main protecti#e sc*emes pro#ided $or line8trans$ormer 8generator are re!uired to operate and clear t*e $ault immediately+ isolating t*e $aulty section o$ t*e system% t is t*en important t*at t*e circuit brea(er operates correctly+ clearing t*e $ault !uic(ly by tripping% 2o/e#er t*ere is a ris( t*at brea(er may not trip >eit*er due to mec*anical sluggis*ness or due to inability to interrupt *ea#y $ault current?% T*en t*e $ault gets cleared by bac(up relays at remote stations%

ncreasing po/er system comple.ity demands s*orter $ault clearing times% t is t*ere$ore necessary to pro#ide brea(er $ailure relay >also called F,ocal brea(er bac(up relayG or FStuc( brea(er protectionG?% T*is sc*eme /ill isolate t*e bus to /*ic* t*e stuc( brea(er is connected+ $aster% t comprises o$ 68, D E8, relays /it* a timer% T*e ,55 relay is energi1ed by trip command o$ main protection sc*emes and t*us initiate master trip relay o$ t*e busbar protection sc*eme a$ter elapsing o$ de$ined time% T*en t*e entire brea(er connected to t*e bus get tripped+ t*us isolating $aulty element%

n 0%- System+ 055 ma(e R0 &0+ @E& ma(e &T @=9 type brea(er $ailure relays are commonly used% T*e general practice is to set t*e current setting K ;0M o$ n and Time setting K ;00 m %Sec% T*e sc*ematic diagrams $or t*e application o$ t*e ,55 relay >type &T @? are indicated in t*e $igure% E#en i$ t*e busbar protection sc*eme is not a#ailable+ t*e ,55 sc*eme can be made use o$ by pro#iding special trip circuits and trip relays similar to t*at o$ bus protection trip circuits $or eac* line% 0 sc*ematic $or suc* application is indicated in $igure

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