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Developments in Relay Technology

Till 1980 1980 1986 1986 1990 1990

Electromagnetic Relays Static Relays Microprocessor based relays Numerical relays

Solid State Relays

nput !uantities ad"usted to le#els suitable $or electronic circuits% &urrent signals con#erted to #oltage signals% 'ecision ta(en based on recti$ied '& !uantities%

Solid State Relays)

T*ese are semiconductor de#ices composed o$ electronic components li(e resistors+ diodes + transistors etc% No mo#ing parts ,ig*ter and smaller t*an electromagnetic relays

Solid State Relays)

-er$orm t*e same $unction as electromagnetic relays e.cept t*at t*ey need less #oltage to operate S/itc*ing can be per$ormed in #ery s*ort times 0$$ected by transients+ /*ic*+ i$ present in t*e inputs+ may cause t*em to mal$unction

Solid State Relays)

Reliable but electronic components may dri$t due to *ig* ambient temperature and aging Energi1e trip circuits using electronic de#ices suc* as silicon control recti$iers% 2ence no arcing during s/itc*ing S/itc*es in solid state relays *a#e lea(age currents irrespecti#e o$ t*e $act /*et*er t*e s/itc*es are open or closed

Digital Relays

3iltered signals con#erted to S!uare /a#es E#aluation is done based on -*ase 0ngle &omparison Eit*er discrete logics or Microprocessors are used

'igital Relays)
-o/er system protection *as c*anged a lot since t*e

e#olution o$ microprocessors
4ery large integration made it possible to put toget*er

numerous components in a single c*ip


digital tec*ni!ues are implemented to protect all components o$ po/er system used in electromec*anical and solid state relays

5asically+ digital tec*ni!ues use t*e same logic t*at is

'igital Relays *a#e many ad#antages o#er electromec*anical relays )

Economical ) Ma"or reason $or t*e acceptance o$ digital relays is t*at t*ey present many $eatures at reasonable price% 3ast operation ) T*ere are t/o reasons $or t*eir $ast operation% 6ne+ digital relays barely use any mec*anical parts% T/o+ t*e use o$ *ig* speed processors *a#e made t*ese relays #ery $ast%

Sel$7 Monitoring ) Monitor t*emsel#es continuously+ /*ereas electromec*anical relays must be tested by personnel at regular inter#als% Sel$7 Monitoring $eature sa#es time as /ell as money Multiple 3eatures ) Relays+ Meters+ &ontrol S/itc*es+ ndicators and &ommunication de#ices can be integrated into a single microprocessor based protecti#e relay% Substation 8 System sc*ematics and /iring diagrams are easy to generate due to reduced number o$ de#ices and related /iring

Reduced &ommissioning Time ) Microprocessor based relays *a#e metering $eatures and remote capabilities /*ic* ma(e commissioning simple and less time consuming ,ess 6utage Time ) 3ast operation and $ault location capability o$ microprocessor based relays $or transmission line protection reduce t*e po/er outage time considerably% 9*en relays+ /it*out a $ault locator capability+ detect a $ault+ cre/ spends a lot o$ time in $inding t*e location o$ t*e $ault by patrolling t*e line%

3le.ibility ) 'igital relays can be designed and built using general purpose *ard/are % 0 relay can be used to protect di$$erent po/er system components by loading di$$erent so$t/are programs Small Si1e ) 'igital relays are lig*ter in /eig*t and need less space t*an t*e electromec*anical and solid state relays% East to transport% Easy Replacement ) 'ue to economical ad#antage+ digital relays+ i$ $ail it can be replaced in $ull% T*is sa#es time and labor needed $or repairs

Numerical Relays :

Signals are $iltered using an 0nti aliasing $ilter Sampled signals are con#erted to numerical #alues at eac* sampling point &alculations are carried out in real time using one or se#eral microprocessors

Numerical Relay
Structure o !u"er#c$% re%$&'(
0 numerical relay consists o$ t*e $ollo/ing main subsystems)

Microprocessor 0nalog input system 'igital output system -o/er supply

5loc( 'iagram o$ a Typical Numerical Relay

Numerical relays operate on sampled signals and adopt digital computations% Sampling is t*e process o$ con#erting analog input signals+ suc* as current and #oltage+ into digital input signals% T*ese analog input signals+ in case o$ electromec*anical and static relays+ are directly $ed into t*e electromagnetic /inding or electronic circuits% n order to protect t*e relay $rom large transients o$ t*e input signals a surge $ilter is used%

0n anti7aliasing $ilter is used to a#oid possible errors in reconstructing input signal carried out a$ter t*e 08' Sample 8 2old section% 0ny signal *a#ing *armonic components o$ order N:1+ ;N :1+ <%%+ . N :1+ /*ere N is t*e number o$ samples per cycle+ can e.*ibit aliasing% -er$ectly+ an anti7aliasing $ilter *as to cut o$$ all signal components abo#e t*e Ny!uist rate o$ N8;% n practical+ *o/e#er+ suc* a $ilter can not cut o$$ all out o$ band $re!uencies+ so t*e anti7 aliasing $ilter cut o$$ $re!uency is set at about N8=%

T*e 08' con#erts t*e sample #alues t*at represent t*e analog input signals into t*e digital input signals% 2o/e#er+ t*e con#ersion is not instantaneous+ and $or t*is reason+ t*e 08' system typically includes a sample7and7*old circuit% T*e sample7and7*old circuit pro#ides ideal sampling and *olds t*e sample #alues $or !uanti1ation by t*e 08' con#erter% T*e microprocessor containing t*e relay algorit*m is t*e controller o$ t*e numerical relay% T*e microprocessor most o$ten per$orms all control+ computation+ sel$7test and communication $unction% T*e algorit*m $unctions as a digital $ilter to e.tract t*e $undamental component o$ t*e input signal+ based on /*ic* t*e relay operation is carried out%

T*e signal $rom t*e digital $ilter is compared /it* t*e pre7 set t*res*old in t*e digital output system% T*e relay operation is decided based on t*is comparison%

Re%$& $%)or#t*"
T*e algorit*m is designed to remo#e as muc* as possible all o$ un/anted components $rom t*e input signals suc* as *armonic+ '&+ etc% T/o common algorit*ms+ t*e 'iscrete 3ourier Trans$orm >'3T? and t*e Root Mean S!uare >RMS? algorit*m are generally used%

T*e '3T can e.tract any $re!uency $rom t*e signal% Since t*e '3T is capable o$ re"ecting e#eryt*ing e.cept t*e $re!uency being measured+ it *as a good response to transient o#ers*oot%

Root Me$! S+u$re ,RMST*e Root Mean S!uare is a met*od o$ calculating t*e magnitude o$ a periodically #arying !uantity% t can be calculated $or a series o$ discrete #alues or $or a continuously #arying $unction%

Numerical Technique Advantages

0nalogue Tec*ni!ue

Numerical Tec*ni!ue Simple *ard/are 0bruptly 'ecreasing per$ormance Simple to modi$y 'i$$icult to #eri$y 'ata manipulation simple 'ata storage simple Sel$ Super#ision simple

More comple. *ard/are Slo/ly 'ecreasing accuracy 'i$$icult to modi$y Simple to #eri$y 'ata manipulation di$$icult 'ata storage di$$icult Sel$ Super#ision di$$icult

Numerical Tec*ni!ue 0d#antages

,ess space ,ess /iring ,ess terminations ,ess components ,ess aging problems Sel$ Super#ision &ommunication @reater $le.ibility

5etter $unctionality 0dapti#e $unctions 5etter per$ormance Sa#ings in ci#il /or(s Sa#ings in erection+ cabling and commissioning Sa#ings in maintenance Sa#ings in cost8$unction


Ge!er$% r$t#!)' o tr$!' or"er' u'e/0

1% ;% =% A% C% 6% E%

A008;;0 B4 =1C M40 0uto Trans$ormers ;;081=; B4 100M40 0uto Trans$ormers ;;08== B4 C0 D =1%CM40 Trans$ormers 1=;866 B4 A0 D ;E%CM40 Trans$ormers 1=;8== B4 C0+ =1%C+ ;C+ 16+ 1C M40 Trans$ormers 1=;811 B4 16+ 1C D E%C M40 Trans$ormers ==811 B4 8+ C+ =%1C M40 Trans$ormers

Most o$ t*e -o/er trans$ormers o$ 1=;811B4 and abo#e are o$ Star7Star #ector grouping /it* t*e neutral solidly eart*ed% T*ere are a $e/ trans$ormers /it* delta7star on 24 side?% T*e ==811B4 and 11B48A1C4 Trans$ormers are o$ delta7star >delta on 24 side?%

T*e types o$ $aults t*at t*e trans$ormers are sub"ected to are classi$ied as )7 T*roug* 3aults)7 T*ese are due to o#erload conditions and e.ternal s*ort circuits% Time graded 68& D E83 relays are employed $or e.ternal s*ort circuit conditions% 3uses are pro#ided $or 'istribution trans$ormers% nternal 3aults)7 1? Electrical 3aults ) 7 3aults /*ic* cause immediate serious damage suc* as p*ase to eart* or p*ase to

p*ase $aults+ s*ort circuits bet/een turns o$ 24D,4 /indings+ etc% ;? ncipient 3aults) 7 9*ic* are initially minor $aults+ causing slo/ly de#eloping damage+ suc* as a poor electrical connection o$ conductors or brea(do/n o$ insulation+ etc%



Tr$!' or"er T$!1


T*e $ollo/ing relays are employed to protect t*e trans$ormer against internal $aults% i? 5uc**ol1 relays iii?'i$$erential relays iii? RE3 relays+ i#? 6#er $ relays

#uchhol$ Relays : 9*ene#er a $ault in trans$ormer de#elop slo/ly+ *eat is produced locally+ /*ic* begins to decompose solid or li!uid insulated materials and t*us to produce in$lammable gas and oil $lo/% T*is p*enomenon *as been used in t*e gas protection relay or popularly (no/n as 5uc**ol1 relay% T*is relay is applicable only to t*e so7called conser#ator type trans$ormer in /*ic* t*e trans$ormer tan( is completely $illed /it* oil+ and a pipe connects t*e trans$ormer tan( to an au.iliary tan( or F&onser#atorG /*ic* acts as an e.pansion c*amber%

3igure s*o/n as 5uc*ol1 relay connected into t*e pipe leading to t*e conser#ator tan( and arrange to detect gas produced in t*e trans$ormer tan(% 0s t*e gas accumulates $or a minor $ault t*e oil le#el $alls and+ /it* it a $loat H3I /*ic* operates a mercury s/itc* sounding an alarm% 9*en a more serious $ault occurs /it*in t*e trans$ormer during /*ic* intense *eating ta(es place+ an intense liberation o$ gases results% T*ese gases rus* to/ards t*e conser#ator and create a rise in pressure in t*e trans$ormer tan( due to /*ic* t*e oil is $orced t*roug* t*e connecting pipe to t*e conser#ator% T*e oil $lo/ de#elops a $orce on t*e lo/er $loat s*o/n as J4J in t*e $igure and o#ertrips it causing it contacts to complete t*e trip circuit o$ t*e trans$ormer brea(er% 6peration o$ t*e upper $loat indicates an incipient $ault and t*at o$ t*e lo/er $loat a serious $ault%

5uc**ol1 relay 6peration ) &ertain -recautions) T*e 5uc**ol1 relay may become operati#e not only during $aults /it*in t*e trans$ormer% 3or instance+ /*en oil is added to a trans$ormer+ air may get in toget*er /it* oil+ accumulate under t*e relay co#er and t*us cause a $alse operation o$ t*e gas relay% 3or t*is reason /*en t*e I@asI alarm signal is energi1ed+ t*e operators must ta(e a sample o$ t*e gas $rom t*e relay+ $or /*ic* purpose a special cloc( is pro#ided% @ases due to $aults al/ays *a#e colour and an odour and are in$lammable%

T*e lo/er $loat may also $alsely operate i$ t*e oil #elocity in t*e connection pipe+ t*oug* not due to internal $aults+ is su$$icient to trip o#er t*e $loat% T*is can occur in t*e e#ent o$ an e.ternal s*ort circuit /*en o#er currents $lo/ing t*roug* t*e /indings o#er*eat t*e copper and t*e oil and cause t*e oil to e.pand% $ mal7 operation o$ 5uc**ol1 relay due to o#erloads or e.ternal s*ort circuits is e.perienced+ it may be necessary t*at t*e lo/er $loat is ad"usted $or operation $or still *ig*er #elocities%

n installing t*ese relays t*e $ollo/ing re!uirements s*ould be $ul$illed% a? T*e conductors connecting t*e contacts to t*e terminals on t*e co#er must *a#e paper insulation+ as rubber insulation may be damaged by t*e oil% b? T*e $loats must be tested $or air tig*tness+ $or e.ample+ by submerging t*em in *ot oil to create a surplus pressure in t*em% c? T*e relay co#er and t*e connection pipe s*ould *a#e a slope o$ 1%C to = percent and not *a#e any protruding sur$ace to ensure unrestricted passage o$ t*e gases into t*e conser#ator%

Di%%erential Relays :& 0 'i$$erential relay compares t*e currents on bot* sides o$ t*e trans$ormer% 0s long as t*ere is no $ault /it*in t*e protected e!uipment >Trans$ormer?+ t*e current circulates bet/een t*e t/o &Ts and no current $lo/s t*roug* t*e di$$erential element% 5ut $or internal $aults t*e sum o$ t*e &Ts secondary currents /ill $lo/ t*roug* t*e di$$erential relay ma(ing it to operate% T/o basic re!uirements t*at t*e di$$erential relay connections are to be satis$ied are ) a? t must not operate $or load or e.ternal $aults% b? t must operate $or internal $aults%

0s on7load tap c*ange $acilities are in#ariably pro#ided in t*e grid trans$ormers+ any departure $rom t*e nominal tap position /ill result in spill currents in t*e relay circuits% 3urt*er+ t*e &Ts are o$ten o$ di$$erent types and *a#e dissimilar magneti1ation c*aracteristics+ again result7 ing in spill current during *ea#y t*roug* $ault conditions% To a#oid un/anted relays operation under t*e abo#e t/o conditions+ a J-ercentage 5iasJ di$$erential relay is used%

T*e operating c*aracteristics o$ percentage bias di$$erential relay is s*o/n in t*e $igure% T*e current $lo/ing t*roug* t*e operating coil o$ t*e relay s*ould be nearly 1ero during normal operating conditions and /*en e.ternal s*ort circuit occurs% 9*ile setting t*e di$$erential relay on a trans$ormer+ t*e >mismatc*? current t*roug* di$$erential element at normal tap and positi#e and negati#e e.treme taps are to be computed% 'i$$erential element pic(up setting and8or bias settings is adopted based on ma.imum percentage mismatc* adding some sa$ety margin% 'i$$erential &urrent K L 1 7 ; L | I1-I2 | 5ias Setting K 777777777777 (I1+ I2) / 2

& T Ratios and connections $or di$$erential relay =% 0 simple rule o$ t*umb is t*at t*e &Ts on any 9ye >Star? /inding o$ a -o/er trans$ormer s*ould be connected in delta and t*e &Ts on any delta /inding s*ould be connected in 9ye >Star?% C% a? $ t*e &Ts are to be connected in Star+ t*e &%T Ratio /ill be n 8 l0 /*ere in is trans$ormer $ull load current% b? $ t*e &Ts are to be connected in 'elta+ t*e &%T Ratio /ill be n80%CEEC 0%

D# ere!t#$% Re%$& I"2ro3e"e!t

'i$$erential Relay *as impro#ed a lot /it* t*e introduction o$ numerical relay Numerical relays use tec*ni!ues suc* as *armonic bloc(ing+ /a#e s*ape recognition n case o$ electromagnetic and static relays+ in a typical delta7/ye po/er trans$ormer+ t*e current trans$ormer /ould be connected as /ye7delta%

0not*er $eature in#ol#es correction $or current trans$ormer ratios+ /*ic* may re!uire e.ternal au.iliary current trans$ormer% 6n t*e ot*er *and+ /it* t*e numerical relays+ all current trans$ormers are connected in /ye con$iguration and p*ase compensations are done in t*e relay T*e magnitude compensation in numerical relays is also done in t*e relay

Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REF) : T*is relay is operati#e only $or t*e internal $aults o$ t*e trans$ormer and t*us $ast operating time can be ac*ie#ed%

1% 0n e.ternal $ault on t*e star side /ill result in current $lo/ing in t*e line &T o$ t*e a$$ected p*ase and a balancing current in t*e neutral &T and current in t*e relay is 1ero and *ence relay is stable% 'uring an internal $ault+ t*e line current on t*e line &T gets re#ersed and *ence relay operates%

;% T*e arrangement o$ residually connected &Ts on t*e delta side o$ a trans$ormer is only sensiti#e to eart* $aults on t*e delta side because 1ero se!uence currents are bloc(ed by t*e delta /inding% 3or e.ternal $aults no current $lo/s t*roug* RE3 unless a &T gets saturated% 2ence minimum pic(up current setting is adopted >10M or ;0M n? on RE3 relay% 5ased on t*e t*roug* $ault current+ t*e stabili1ing resistor is set suc* t*at t*e relay /ill not operate $or e.ternal $ault /*en a &T gets saturated% T*is relay operates only $or internal eart* $aults+ instantaneously%

3ault current $or e.ternal $ault $ K ;C00 0 >assume? &%T%Ratio >line and neutral? 7 =0081 0 ;C00 Secondary $ault current K 777777 K 8% == 0 >Sec%? =00 R&T K &%T% Resistance T, K ,ead Resistance K E%A1 6*ms8Bm >;%C s! mm&u? 4oltage de#eloped across &T >Saturated? >4(? K $ >R&T N ;R,? K 8%==>C N =? K 66%6A 4olts Relay burden K l 40 Relay 6perating &urrent K 0%; 0 >Set #alue?

Relay 6perating 4oltage 4R K Relay burden 777777777777777777 Relay 6perating current K 180%; K C 4olt Stabili1ing Resistor SR K 4B 7 4R 77777777777 Set K 66%6A 7 C%0 777777777777777 0%; K =08%; 6*ms K =10 6*ms

Set SR

$ t*e calculated #alue o$ SR e.ceeds t*e e.isting range+ t*e current settings can be raised accordingly and arri#ed at suitable

Over%lu'ing Protection:
=% 6#er$ condition in a trans$ormer can occur during system o#er #oltage and8or under $re!uency conditions >483?% ;% T*e 6#er$ condition does not call $or *ig* speed tripping% T*e tripping can be delayed depending on t*e o#er$lu. /it*stand capability o$ t*e trans$ormer% 11%Relays /it* de$inite time delay >nearly =0Sec%? and in#erse c*aracteristic are being employed%

Other Protective devices employed

-ressure Relie$ 4alue >-R4? 9inding Temperature 6il Temperature 6,T& 5uc**ol1

Transmission (ine Protection

D#'t$!ce Re%$&'( 4

T*e impedance relays also called distance relays are employed to pro#ide protection to transmission lines connected in a net/or( as t*ey are economic and possess se#eral tec*nical ad#antages% T*ey are comparati#ely simple to apply+ operate /it* e.tremely *ig* speed+ and bot* primary and bac(up protection $eatures are in*erent in t*em%

D#'t$!ce Re%$&'( 4 ,co!t5/

Moreo#er+ t*ey can be easily modi$ied to /or( as unit sc*emes by coordinating t*em /it* po/er line carrier $acilities and are suitable $or *ig* speed reclosing% T*e impedance relay is made to respond to t*e impedance bet/een t*e relay location and t*e point /*ere $ault is incident% T*e impedance is proportional to t*e distance to t*e $ault+ >*ence t*e name Idistance relayI? and is t*ere$ore independent o$ t*e $ault current le#els%

'istance Relaying -rinciple)

0 distance relay compares t*e currents and #oltages at t*e relaying point /it* &urrent pro#iding t*e operating tor!ue and t*e #oltage pro#ides t*e restraining tor!ue% n ot*er /ords an impedance relay is a #oltage restrained o#ercurrent relay% T*e e!uation at t*e balance point in a simple impedance relay is B14; K B; ; or 48 K B= /*ere B1+ B; and B= are constants% n ot*er /ords+ t*e relay is on t*e #erge o$ operation at a constant #alue o$ 48 ratio+ /*ic* may be e.pressed as an impedance

Since t*e operating c*aracteristics o$ t*e relay depend

upon t*e ratio o$ #oltage and current and t*e p*ase angle bet/een t*em+ t*eir c*aracteristics can be best represented on an R7O diagram /*ere bot* 48 ratio and t*e p*ase angle can be plotted in terms o$ an impedance RN"O% 3urt*er+ t*e po/er system impedance li(e $ault impedance+ po/er s/ings+ loads etc% can also be plotted on t*e same R7O diagram% T*ere$ore response o$ a particular relay during po/er s/ing+ $aults and ot*er system disturbances can easily be assessed%

Types o$ 'istance Relays)

>1? mpedance relay >;? Reactance relay >=? M*o relay >C? Modi$ied impedance relay mpedance relay) &*aracteristics o$ an impedance relay on R7O diagram is s*o/n in $ig 6peration o$ t*e impedance relay is independent o$ t*e p*ase angle bet/een 4 and % T*e operating c*aracteristic is a circle /it* its center at t*e origin+ and *ence t*e relay is non7directional%

&*aracteristic o$ 'irectional mpedance Relay)

&*aracteristic o$ a directional impedance relay in t*e comple. R7O p*ase is s*o/n in $ig% T*e directional unit o$ t*e relay causes separation o$ t*e regions o$ t*e relay c*aracteristic s*o/n in t*e $igure by a line dra/n perpendicular to t*e line impedance locus% T*e net result is t*at tripping /ill occur only $or points t*at are bot* /it*in t*e circles and abo#e t*e directional unit c*aracteristic%

T*e Reactance7type 'istance Relay)

Reactance relay measures 48 Sin P >i%e% Q sin P K O?% 9*ene#er t*e reactance measured by t*e relay is less t*an t*e set #alue+ t*e relay operates% T*e operating c*aracteristic on R7O diagram is s*o/n in $ig T*e resistance component o$ impedance *as no e$$ect on t*e operation o$ reactance relay+ t*e relay responds solely to reactance component o$ impedance% T*is relay is in*erently non7directional% T*e relay is most suitable to detect eart* $aults /*ere t*e e$$ect o$ arc resistance is appreciable%

M*o relay)

T*is is a directional impedance relay+ also (no/n as admittance relay% ts c*aracteristic on R7O diagram is a circle /*ose circum$erence passes t*roug* t*e origin as illustrated in $igure s*o/ing t*at t*e relay is in*erently directional and it only operates $or $aults in t*e $or/ard direction%

Modi$ied impedance relay)

0lso (no/n as o$$set M*o relay /*ose c*aracteristic encloses t*e

origin on R7O diagram as s*o/n in $ig T*is o$$set m*o relay *as t*ree main applications) 7 i? 5usbar 1one bac(up ii? &arrier starting unit in distance8carrier bloc(ing sc*emes% iii? -o/er S/ing bloc(ing%

Main 3eatures in 'istance Sc*eme 'istance sc*emes consist o$ t*e $ollo/ing ma"or components)7 i? Starters% ii? Measuring units% iii? Timers i#? 0u.iliary relays Starters) 7 T*e starting relay >or starter? initiates t*e distance sc*eme in t*e e#ent o$ a $ault /it*in t*e re!uired reac* >more t*an 1one7=?%

Starters) 7 6t*er $unctions o$ t*e starter are) 7 a? Starting o$ timer relays $or second and t*ird 1ones% b? Starting o$ measuring elements% T*e starters are generally o$ M*o or impedance type% 9it* M*o type starters) 7 Measuring units $or p*ase and eart* $aults can be eit*er directional or non7directional as M*o starter is in*erently directional

9it* impedance type starters) 7

Measuring units *a#e to be directional as impedance starters are non directional% T*e under impedance relay can be used in con"unction /it* t*e directional relay as starter /*ic* /ill t*en $unction similar to t*e M*o starter%

Measuring units) 7 T*ey are generally o$ a m*o or reactance or a combination o$ m*o+ reactance and resistance types%

-*ase 3ault Rnits)7


measuring units are $ed /it* line to line #oltages >suc* as 4ab+ 4bc? and di$$erence bet/een line currents > a7 b?% T*ey measure t*e positi#e se!uence impedance $rom t*e relay location to t*e $ault point% T*ree suc* relays respond correctly to all possible single line to ground $aults line to line $aults+ double line to ground $aults and =7p*ase $aults% T*ey *o/e#er do not respond correctly to eart* $aults%

Eart* 3ault Rnits) 7

T*ese measuring units utili1e line to neutral #oltage >4an+ 4bn 4cn? and p*ase currents > a+ b+ c?% n order to ma(e t*ese units measure t*e positi#e se!uence impedance correctly+ a 1ero se!uence current compensation is to be pro#ided /*ic* is obtained by) BN K >Q07Q1?8 =SQ1 >/*ere Q1 K positi#e se!uence impedance o$ line% Q0 K Qero se!uence impedance o$ line? n t*e current circuit >1NBN? a /ill be $ed $or t*e abo#e measurement%

Timers) 7

Timer relays /*en initiated by starters pro#ide t*e time lag re!uired $or 1ones% T*ey also /ill be used $or 1one e.tension purpose /*ene#er re!uired%

0u.iliary relays) 7

'istance sc*eme comprises o$ se#eral au.iliary relays+ /*ic* per$orm $unctions suc* as $lag indications+ trippings+ signaling+ alarm etc%

A//#t#o!$% Fe$ture' #! /#'t$!ce 'c*e"e'( 4 i? -o/er S/ing bloc(ing relay ii? 4T $use $ailure relay% iii? S/itc* onto $ault relay i#? 3ault locator #? 0uto7reclosing sc*eme% #iii?&arrier communication sc*eme% S.#!) 6%oc1#!)( 4

'istance relay /*ic* respond to balanced =7p*ase c*anges in t*e impedance /ill be a$$ected by po/er s/ings% T*ese s/ings or oscillations occur $ollo/ing a system disturbance suc* as ma"or load c*ange or a dip in #oltage due to delayed $ault clearance% n case o$ $ault+ t*e transition $rom period o$ impedance locations >;C to ==M o$ starter impedance? to $ault impedance >starter impedance? is sudden /*ereas during po/er s/ings% T*e -S5 relays use t*is di$$erence to bloc( t*e tripping during s/ings%

7T u'e $#%ure re%$&( 4

T*e distance relays being #oltage restraint 68& relays+ loss o$ #oltage due to main -T $use $ailure or inad#ertent remo#al o$ $use in one or more p*ases /ill cause t*e relay operation% T*e $use $ailure relay /ill sense suc* condition by t*e presence o$ residual #oltage /it*out residual current and bloc(s t*e relay%

S.#tc* o!to $u%t( 4

9*en t*e line is s/itc*ed on to a close by $ault >say a$ter line clear /it* eart* s/itc* closed?+ t*e #oltage at t*e relaying point /ill be 1ero% 3aults o$ t*is type /ill normally be cleared by bac(up 1ones% T*e #oltage applied to t*e relay is lo/ and t*is condition occurring simultaneously /it* t*e operation o$ starter /ill cause instantaneous trip by S6T3 relay% T*is S6T3 $eature /ill be e$$ecti#e only $or about 17; seconds a$ter t*e line is c*arged% 3aults occurring a$ter t*is time /ill be measured in t*e normal /ay%

F$u%t %oc$tor( 4

t measures t*e distance bet/een t*e relay location and $ault location in terms o$ Q in 6*ms+ or lengt* in BM or percentage o$ line lengt*% T*is relay gets same inputs as t*e distance relay >connected in series /it* one o$ t*e main relays?% T*e measurement is initiated by trip signal $rom distance relays% T*e $ault locator gi#es t*e e.act location o$ t*e $ault+ t*ereby reducing t*e time o$ restoration%

F$ctor' $ ect#!) /#'t$!ce re%$& o2er$t#o!(4

iii? 3ault



n$eed e$$ect%

iii? 5ranc*ing7o$$ e$$ect% i#? ,oad encroac*ment%

F$u%t re'#'t$!ce(4
3ault resistance *as t/o components)7 a? 0rc resistance% b? @round resistance% n a $ault bet/een p*ases+ only arc resistance is in#ol#ed% 3or a $ault at 3+ t*e actual line impedance K R N TO K Q, 'ue to t*e presence o$ $ault resistance+ t*e impedance measured by t*e relay K R N TO N R3 K QR >/*ere QR U Q,?

3ault arc resistance is gi#en by 9arringtonIs $ormula) Rarc K 8EC0 O l 8 1%A /*ere l K lengt* o$ arc in $t K $ault current in 0mps

T*e arc resistance *as little e$$ect on accuracy o$ 1one71 unit as it operates instantaneously be$ore t*e arc can stretc* appreciably e.cept in case o$ s*ort lines% Reactance relays are t*ere$ore used $or s*ort lines /*ere t*e $ault resistance may be comparable /it* t*at o$ t*e protected lines and also $or ground $aults /*ere t*e ground resistance is *ig*% T*e arc resistance /ill *a#e greater impact on accuracy o$ bac(up 1ones >time delayed? as t*e arc stretc*es appreciably%

n$eed e$$ect)7

T*e e$$ect o$ intermediate current source bet/een relay location and $ault point is termed as in$eed e$$ect% &onsider t*e s(etc* indicated in $ig 777 0 $ault at 3 on t*e line 5& is at a distance o$ Q1NQ; $or t*e relay at station 0% 5ut /*en current ; $lo/s $rom bus '+ t*e impedance to t*e $ault as seen by t*e relay at 0 is Q1 N Q; N Q; . > ;8 1?% T*us t*e $ault is seen by t*e relay as $art*er t*an /*at it really is+ i%e% distance relay under reac*es due to t*e in$eed e$$ect% T*e e$$ect o$ in$eed becomes more pronounced /it* more interconnections at station 5%

Br$!c*#!)4o e ect( 4

&onsider t*e s(etc* indicated in $ig 777 0 $ault at 3 is at t*e distance o$ Q1NQ; $or t*e relay at station 0% 5ut /*en current 1 gets distributed as ; D = at station 5+ t*e impedance to $ault seen by t*e relay at station 0 /ill be >Q1 N =8 1 S Q;? /*ic* is less t*an >Q1NQ;?% T*en t*e $ault is seen by t*e relay as nearer t*an /*at it really is i%e% distance relay o#erreac*es due to branc*ing7o$$ e$$ect% T*is o#erreac*ing tendency /ill cause t*e relay to loose its selecti#ity%

Lo$/ e!cro$c*"e!t( 4

9*ile protecting long lines t*e necessary reac* may be so large t*at t*e minimum ser#ice impedance >or load impedance? $alls /it*in t*e region o$ t*e starter% T*is /ould result in tripping /it*out t*ere being any $ault% T*e t/o conditions i%e% operation at *ea#y load and s*ort circuit di$$er by #irtue o$ p*ase angle bet/een #oltage and current% 3or t*e load impedance+ t*e p*ase angle /ill be /it*in N=0 to 7=0 'eg% 9*ile during s*ort circuits+ t*e $ault impedance *as a p*ase angle o$ 60 to 80 deg% >i%e% line angle?%

,oad encroac*ment problem is more pronounced in case o$ under impedance starters and gets lessened in case o$ m*o+ elliptical+ lens etc+ type o$ starters% Relays /it* suitable c*aracteristic on R7O diagram *a#e to be care$ully c*osen to protect long and *ea#ily loaded lines+ and t*is becomes easily possible /it* microprocessor based numerical relays%

No!4'.#tc*e/ 'c*e"e 3' '.#tc*e/ 'c*e"e( 4

n an ideal Non7s/itc*ed sc*eme+ t*ere /ill be 6 starters+ = $or p*ase $aults and = $or ground $aults% T*ere /ill be independent measuring units $or bot* p*ase $aults and eart* $ault $or eac* p*ase+ $or all t*ree 1ones+ totaling to 18 units% T*is sc*eme is $aster and more accurate but is costly%

n t*e s/itc*ed sc*eme+ only one measuring unit /ill be used $or all types o$ $aults% T*is single measuring unit is s/itc*ed to t*e correct $ault loop impedance by s/itc*ing7in t*e respecti#e #oltages and currents by t*e starter% T*e reac* o$ t*e measuring element gets e.tended to 1one7; and 1one7= a$ter t*e elapse o$ corresponding timings t*roug* 1one e.tension process% S/itc*ed sc*eme is relati#ely slo/ in operation and *as t*e ris( o$ total sc*eme $ailure in t*e e#ent o$ $ailure o$ t*e only one measuring unit a#ailable%

8o!e e9te!'#o! 'c*e"e'( 4

0s a #ia media bet/een non7s/itc*ed and s/itc*ed sc*emes+ t*ere are sc*emes /it* 1one e.tension $acility >suc* as EE ma(e MM=4 D MR=4 relays?% T*ese sc*emes consists o$ = measuring units $or p*ase $aults and = measuring units $or eart* $aults >apart $rom = starters?% T*e reac* o$ t*e measuring unit gets e.tended to 1one7; and 1one7= a$ter elapse o$ corresponding timings t*roug* a 1one e.tension process%

Ot*er O2er$t#!) C*$r$cter#'t#c'(

Earlier /*en electromagnetic relays /ere in use+ t*e c*aracteristics in#ol#ing straig*t lines and 8or circles on R7O diagram /ere only possible% 9it* t*e ad#ent o$ static relays+ microprocessor based relays and presently o$ numerical relays+ any desired8re!uired7 operating c*aracteristic is possible gi#ing /ider c*oice $or selection o$ relays% n$act t*ere are relays+ /*ic* can be programmed remotely%

A22%#c$t#o! o /#'t$!ce re%$&'(

Since t*e distance relays are $ed $rom t*e secondaries o$ line &Ts and bus -Ts8line &4Ts+ t*e line parameters are to be con#erted into secondary #alues to set t*e relay as per re!uirements% Qsecy K Qpri8 mpedance ratio >/*ere mpedance ratio K -%T%Ratio8&%T%Ratio? 2ence any c*anges in &%T %ratio *as to be e$$ected along /it* re#ision o$ relay settings only%

3or t*e lines+ t*e impedance in 6*ms per BM is appro.imately as under) 77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 B4 Q1 >K Q; ? ,ine 0ngle 77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 1=; B4 0%A 60 to E0 'eg% ;;0 B4 0%A E0 to 80 'eg% A00 B4 0%= 80 to 8C 'eg% 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 T*e line impedance is to be computed depending on line con$iguration conductor si1e and clearness% T*e #alues in t*e table are only representati#e% 0 distance relay is stepped $or eit*er = 1ones or A 1ones to pro#ide protection%

To ensure proper coordination bet/een distance relays in po/er system+ it is customary to c*oose relay o*mic setting as $ollo/s) 7 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 S%No% Qones Reactance Time 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 1% Qone71 80M o$ Q, nstantaneous
>no intentional time delay?%

;% =% A%

Qone7; Qone7= Qone7A

100M o$ Q, N A07C0M o$ QS, 100M o$ Q, N 1;0M o$ QS,

0%= to 0%A seconds 0%6 to 0%8 seconds

100M o$ Q, N 1;0M 0%9 to 1%C seconds o$ Q,, 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777

/*ere Q, K -ositi#e se!uence impedance o$ line to be protected% QS, K -ositi#e se!uence impedance o$ ad"acent s*ortest line% Q,, K -ositi#e se!uence impedance o$ ad"acent longest line% Note) 9*ere a t*ree 1one relay only is a#ailable+ t*e 1one = /ill be set to co#er t*e ad"acent longest line%

""? T*e 1onal timings /ill be care$ully selected to properly grade /it* t*e relays on all t*e $eeders emanating $rom t*e ad"acent bus%

Nor"' o 2rotect#o! $/o2te/ or tr$!'"#''#o! %#!e' #!

i? 1=; B4 ,ines) 7 0 s/itc*ed type distance sc*eme supplemented by t*ree numbers directional 68, relays and 1 No% directional E8, relay% ii?;;0 B4 ,ines) 7 T/o 'istance Sc*emes) 7 Main7 ) 7 Non7s/itc*ed sc*eme $ed $rom bus -T% Main7 ) 7 0 s/itc*ed sc*eme $ed $rom line &4T%

0 pro#ision is generally made $or t*e c*angeo#er o$ #oltage supply $or t*e distance sc*emes $rom t*e bus -T to line &4T and #ice7#ersa% Eac* distance sc*eme is $ed $rom independent &T secondary cores%

iii? A00 B4 ,ines)7 T/o 'istance Sc*emes)7 Main7 )7 Non7s/itc*ed or Numerical distance sc*emes Main7 )7 Non7s/itc*ed or Numerical distance sc*emes

'etails o$ distance relays)7

1? Ma(e) 7 @E& 0lstom ,td%

i? MM=4 ) 7 t is an electromagnetic type distance relay /it*) =7m*o measuring units $or p*ase to p*ase $aults% =7m*o measuring units $or p*ase to eart* $aults% =7m*o starting units+ eac* starter being associated /it* one p*ase and operating $or all $aults associated /it* t*at p*ase and one o$$set m*o unit $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing%

R7O diagram is indicated

Setting range in o*ms $or Qone71 77777777777777777777777777777777777777 0%8=A to =0 1%==C to A8 1%668 to 60 Q; K 1 to =%C times Q1 Q= K 1 to C times Q1 777777777777777777777777777777777777777 Some o$ t*e sc*emes are pro#ided /it* a Qone7A timer to ma(e t*e sc*eme /or(s as a A 1one relay+ t*e starter itsel$ being t*e At* 1one%

MR:7( 4

t is an electromagnetic relays /it* = m*o units $or p*ase $aults+ = reactance units $or eart* $aults% = m*o starters+ eac* being associated /it* one p*ase $or all types o$ $aults and one o$$set m*o unit $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing% Setting ranges same as in MM=4% R7O diagram $or p*ase $aults is same as t*at $or MM=4 relay and $or eart* $aults it is indicated in $igure

SHPM ,;u$/r$ "*o-( 4

t is a non7s/itc*ed static sc*eme /it* 18 measuring m*o units% T*e 1one7= measuring elements /ill act as starters+ /*ic* *a#e eit*er m*o or a lenticular c*aracteristic% T*e operating c*aracteristic on R7O diagram is indicated in $igure T*e lenticular c*aracteristics allo/s *ealt*y o#erloads and *ence pre#ents tripping on load encroac*ment% Setting range) 7 0%; to ;A0 6*ms% t *as built7in $eature o$ continuous sel$ monitoring >on demand and periodic sel$ testing?% 0ll t*e additional $eatures pro#ided by relay can be enabled or disabled /it* t*e *elp o$ s/itc*es pro#ided $or t*em%


t is a static s/itc*ed sc*eme /it* modular plug7in construction >/it* built in test points?% t *as = under impedance starters and a single m*o measuring unit% 6ne R8 unit $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing% R7O diagram is indicated in $igure Setting range) 0%0C to A0 6*ms+ /it* starter *a#ing range o$ ;0 to E0 6*ms% t *as an uncompensated R8 starter+ /*ic* *as become a problem due to load encroac*ment $or long lines% T*e 47 c*aracteristic o$ t*e starter is indicated in abo#e $igure% 9*en t*e #oltage is less t*an 6CM rated+ t*e starter operates at a current greater t*an 0%;C n% 9it* lo/ #oltages at some o$ t*e stations+ t*is $eature *as caused relay to operate unnecessarily%

PD < =>?( 4

t is a numerical protection relay /it* polygon c*aracteristics% t consists o$ $our impedance 1ones /it* independent R and O #alues $or eac* 1one Qone A can be utili1ed as a special 1one $or cabie protection% R O diagram as indicated in $igure% T*roug* MM + one can enter and edit t*e settings >T*e settings are pass/ord protected? Setting Range ) 0%1 to ;000 6*ms% Timers ) 0 to 10 Secs%

M &6M ' ST0N&E RE,0V >0lstom ma(e?) M &6M -AA0 series is a distance sc*eme /it* 0d#anced numerical tec*nology% M &6M -AA1 and -AA; relays *a#e $i#e 1ones o$ p*ase $ault protection and $i#e 1ones o$ eart* $ault protection% a? P*$'e $u%t 2rotect#o! -*ase $ault !uadrilateral c*aracteristics is s*o/n in t*e $igure% Qones 1+; D = directional $or/ard 1ones+ as used in con#entional t*ree 1one distance sc*emes% Note t*at Qone71 can be e.tended to Qone71O /*en re!uired in Qone71 e.tension sc*eme%

Qone - -rogrammable% Selectable as a directional $or/ard or re#erse 1one% Qone7A 'irectional re#erse 1one% Note t*at Qone7= and Qone7A can be set toget*er to gi#e e$$ecti#ely a $or/ard 1one /it* a re#erse o$$set%

E$rt* F$u%t Protect#o!(

Eart* $ault !uadrilateral c*aracteristics is similar to t*e p*ase $ault !uadrilateral c*aracteristics as s*o/n belo/% Resisti#e reac*es can be set independently $or p*ase and eart* $ault protections% 0ll eart* $ault elements are !uadrilateral s*aped+ and are directionalised similar to t*e p*ase $ault elements% T*e impedance reac*es o$ eart* $ault elements use residual compensation o$ t*e corresponding p*ase $ault reac*es%


t is a numerical relay /it* !uadrilateral impedance units $or p*ase and eart* $aults% Eac* measuring unit *as indi#idual and independent setting o$ t*e reac* in resisti#e and reacti#e directions+ as /ell as $or t*e 1ero se!uence compensation $actor+ BN% Entire Qone7= reac* >in $or/ard direction? is a#ailable in re#erse direction /it* a separate timer T=R% R7O diagram is as indicated

3our groups o$ setting parameters are possible to suit di$$erent system conditions% 6nly one o$ t*e groups /ill be in ser#ice by c*oice% t *as continuous sel$ monitoring and sel$ testing $eature and indicate t*e same by e.tinguis*ing JRelay 0#ailableJ ,E' on t*e relay% T*roug* MM + one can enterW edit t*e settings+ read t*e mean ser#ice #alues o$ line #oltage+ current+ real+ reacti#e po/er and $re!uency% t stores data o$ latest = disturbances occurred% >T*e settings are not pass/ord protected?% Setting rage) 0%1 to 1C0 6*ms% Timers) 0 to 10 Secs% t *as a $eature /*ic* does o#erload super#ision and unsymmetrical load condition+ /*ic* can be used $or alarm or trip%

M$1e( 4 Se#"e!' Lt/0 ASA=?? re%$&(

t is a numerical protection sc*eme /it* 16 bit microprocessor% 9it* t*ree #ersion o$ detectors% i? -*ase selecti#e o#ercurrent $ault detector% ii? 4oltage controlled >under7impedance? $ault detector >/it* independent R D O reac*es? and iii? -olygonally s*aped angle7dependent impedance $ault detector% t *as $i#e 1ones >t/o o$ /*ic* can be used $or communication sc*emes?% R7O diagram is indicated belo/%

0part $rom common $eatures+ it pro#ides Emergency o#ercurrent $unction+ /*ic* comes into picture /*en main distance sc*eme is bloc(ed due to 4T $use $ailure conditions% t pro#ides t/o user de$ined logic $unctions% t *as continuous sel$ monitoring and sel$ testing $eature% t stores data o$ latest t*ree $aults and measures #alues o$ load current+ operating #oltage+ po/er and $re!uency continuously% Setting range)0%1 to ;00 6*ms /it* 0%0 to =; sec >in step o$ 0%01 sec? timers% 3our groups o$ settings are possible to suit di$$erent system conditions% 6nly one o$ t*e groups /ill be in ser#ice by c*oice%

SEL < :>?( 4

t is numerical relay /it* 3our M*o 1ones $or p*ase $aults /it* independent p*ase to p*ase o#ercurrent super#ision% 3our ground $aults $or M*o and Xuadrilateral 1ones /it* independent p*ase and residual o#ercurrent super#ision and 1ero se!uence compensation% T/o Xuadrilateral 1ones $or po/er s/ing bloc(ing% ,oad7encroac*ment c*aracteristics% nstantaneous+ 'e$inite time and 'MT o#ercurrent c*aracteristics% Si. >6? setting groups are a#ailable in t*e sc*eme%

Setting ranges)7

3or M*o 1ones >Secondary? 3or Xuadrilateral Qones Reactance >Secondary? Resistance >Secondary? Timers

) ) ) ) )

0%;C to =;0 6*ms

0%;C to =;0 6*ms 0%;C to ;C0 6*ms 07;000 &ycles


D# ere!t#$% Protect#o! or Bu' 6$r'(

S*ort7circuit on bus bars can *a#e #ery serious conse!uences $or t*e operation o$ t*e po/er system% T*e most /idely used and acceptable type o$ protection $or =C ;00(4 bus bars is *ig*7speed di$$erential protection% t is based on Birc**o$$Ys current la/ t*at re!uires t*e sum o$ all currents entering t*e bus to sum to 1ero% S*ould an internal $ault occur+ *o/e#er+ t*e sum currents measured at current trans$ormer locations /ill not be 1ero and tripping s*ould occur% T*is type o$ bus protection $or one p*ase is s*o/n in t*e $ollo/ing 3igure)

T*e current trans$ormer secondaries are added toget*er to gi#e t*e sum o$ t*e currents in all $our linesW and t*e sum is sent to t*e di$$erential relay% n case a $ault occurs t*at is e.ternal to t*e &T connections+ say at t*e point 1 in t*e 3igure+ t*e total current $lo/ing to t*at $ault /ill be e.actly e!ual to t*e total current entering t*e bus on lines ;+=+A and no current /ill $lo/ to t*e di$$erential relay% 2o/e#er+ i$ a $ault occurs on t*e bus+ bet/een p*ases or $rom p*ase to ground+ t*e sum o$ t*e line currents /ill e!ual t*e total bus $ault current and t*e relay /ill correctly measure t*is !uantity%

5us di$$erential protection

2ig* impedance circulating current sc*eme 5iased di$$erential or lo/ impedance circulating sc*eme%

S0 No0


H#)* #"2e/$!ce c#rcu%$t#!) curre!t re%$&

Lo. #"2e/$!ce 6#$'e/ /# ere!t#$% re%$&



T*e currents entering and lea#ing t*e busbar are compared conti7nuously% t in#ol#es c*oosing o$ impedance *ig* enoug* to stabilise t*e relay $or *ea#y e.ternal $aults% t re!uires all identical &T ratios mposes comparati#ely *ig* burden on &Ts% 0u.iliary &Ts reduce t*e per$ormance o$ sc*eme

t *as di$$erential and bias setting% T*e resultant bias is proportional to arit*metic sum o$ all currents+ /*ereas t*e operating current is #ector sum o$ all circuit currents% t can /or( /it* &Ts o$ une!ual ratios also% mposes less burden on &Ts% 0u.iliary &Ts *a#e no e$$ect on per$ormance o$ sc*eme







H#)* #"2e/$!ce c#rcu%$t#!) curre!t re%$&

Lo. #"2e/$!ce 6#$'e/ /# ere!t#$% re%$&


&T Saturation 6peration o$ sc*eme e#en 6peration o$ sc*eme e#en /*en /*en &Ts get saturated &Ts get saturated during internal during internal $aults $aults%



2ig*ly sensiti#e internal $aults completely stable e.ternal $aults

$or 2ig*ly sensiti#e $or internal and $aults and completely $or $or e.ternal $aults


Relays in 0%System

@E& ma(e &0@=A+ -5'&5

@E& ma(e M5&Q 055 ma(e R0'SS

3or some *ig* impedance sc*emes+ only 4oltage Setting Z4Y /ill be set% >T*e calculations are similar to t*at o$ Restricted Eart* 3ault relay setting $or t*e Trans$ormer protection?%

Lo. I"2e/$!ce Bu'6$r Sc*e"e(4

T*is relay operates on circulating current principle and di$$erential current setting > ;0M n? is adopted on t*e relay% T*e bias setting is generally set by t*e relay manu$acturer based on bus $ault le#els%

Bu'6$r Protect#o! a? &*ec( 3eature) 7 To pre#ent incorrect tripping due to damage to /iring and e!uipment $rom e.traneous sources+ c*ec( relay is pro#ided% T*is c*ec( relay is pro#ided by duplication o$ primary protection using a second set o$ current trans$ormers cores on all circuits ot*er t*an bus section and bus couple units% T*e c*ec( system is arranged in a similar manner o$ t*e primary protection+ but $orms one 1one only co#ering t*e /*ole o$ t*e busbars >in case o$ single sectionali1ed busbar or bot* t*e buses >in case o$ double busbar arrangement?%

b? Super#ision

9*en a &T secondary /inding or connections bet/een &T and t*e relay circuit become open circuited+ t*e relay may maloperate $or load or t*roug* $aults depending on t*e e$$ecti#e primary setting% T*is condition o$ an open circuit can be detected by using super#ision >o#er #oltage? relay+ /*ic* is arranged to gi#e alarm% T*e super#ision must be time delayed to a#oid a $alse alarm during genuine $ault conditions+ typically t*ree seconds is adopted%

Numerical 5usbar -rotection

2ig*ly stable $or e.ternal $aults 2ig*ly sensiti#e $or internal $aults 6perating speed around C0 msec 0daptability to t*e dynamically c*anging topology o$ t*e busbar &entrali1ed or distributed arc*itecture Support easy maintenance+ operation and $uture e.pansion o$ t*e busbar &an operate /it* di$$erent o$ &Ts 3iber optic cable used $or communication bet/een central and perip*eral units Ensure *ig* communication speed

Numerical 5usbar -rotection>contYd?

Management 3unctions)
n addition to t*e protection and control elements+ numerical busbar protection pro#ides a /ide range o$ measurement+ monitoring+ post $ault analysis and sel$7diagnostic $eatures%

&ircuit brea(er control Trip circuit super#ision>using -S,? 6nline measurements -lant status monitoring 3our alternati#e setting groups -rogrammable sc*eme logic >-S,? Se!uence o$ e#ent recording >S6E?

Numerical 5usbar -rotection>contYd?

Management 3unctions)

&ompre*ensi#e disturbance recording >/a#e$orm capture? Rser con$igurable ,E's ,ocal and remote communication ports Time sync*roni1ation 3ully customi1able menu te.ts Multile#el pass/ord protection Test $acilities -o/er7 up diagnostics and continuous sel$7monitoring o$ relay Rser $riendly setting and analysis so$t/are

E.amples o$ numerical busbar protection)


&6M -EA0 >0re#a? RE5 C00 >055?


Main protecti#e sc*emes pro#ided $or line8trans$ormer 8generator are re!uired to operate and clear t*e $ault immediately+ isolating t*e $aulty section o$ t*e system% t is t*en important t*at t*e circuit brea(er operates correctly+ clearing t*e $ault !uic(ly by tripping% 2o/e#er t*ere is a ris( t*at brea(er may not trip >eit*er due to mec*anical sluggis*ness or due to inability to interrupt *ea#y $ault current?% T*en t*e $ault gets cleared by bac(up relays at remote stations%

ncreasing po/er system comple.ity demands s*orter $ault clearing times% t is t*ere$ore necessary to pro#ide brea(er $ailure relay >also called F,ocal brea(er bac(up relayG or FStuc( brea(er protectionG?% T*is sc*eme /ill isolate t*e bus to /*ic* t*e stuc( brea(er is connected+ $aster% t comprises o$ 68, D E8, relays /it* a timer% T*e ,55 relay is energi1ed by trip command o$ main protection sc*emes and t*us initiate master trip relay o$ t*e busbar protection sc*eme a$ter elapsing o$ de$ined time% T*en t*e entire brea(er connected to t*e bus get tripped+ t*us isolating $aulty element%

n 0%- System+ 055 ma(e R0 &0+ @E& ma(e &T @=9 type brea(er $ailure relays are commonly used% T*e general practice is to set t*e current setting K ;0M o$ n and Time setting K ;00 m %Sec% T*e sc*ematic diagrams $or t*e application o$ t*e ,55 relay >type &T @? are indicated in t*e $igure% E#en i$ t*e busbar protection sc*eme is not a#ailable+ t*e ,55 sc*eme can be made use o$ by pro#iding special trip circuits and trip relays similar to t*at o$ bus protection trip circuits $or eac* line% 0 sc*ematic $or suc* application is indicated in $igure