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# 1.

## FORCE AND PRESSURE

A force is a push or pulls acting on an object which changes or tends to change the state of the object. In the international system of units (SI System), the unit of force is Newton (N) that is named after Sir Isaac Newton. There are also other units li e dyne, ilogram weight and pound. Action of force and its effects: A force !ontact and non"contact forces #orces which act only when there is physical contact between two interacting objects are nown as !ontact forces. #orces which can act without physical contact between objects, i.e. those that can act from a distance, are called non"contact forces or field forces. Types of forces : 1. Muscu ar force: This is the force we can e\$ert with our bodies by using our muscles, e.g. pull, push, ic etc. These are contact forces. !. Ma"netic force : %agnets e\$ert forces of attraction or repulsion on other magnets. An important feature of magnetic force is that it can act from a distance, and is therefore of a non"contact force. #. E ectrostatic force: The force e\$erted by a charged body on another charged or uncharged body is nown as electrostatic force. &lectrostatic force is used to separate solid pollutant particles from smo e gi'en out from factories. \$. %ra&itationa force : All objects in the uni'erse e\$ert a force on all other objects. This is called gra'itational force. The gra'itational force e\$erted by the &arth on all the bodies on its surface is called gra'ity. '. Frictiona force : The fact that the rolling ball comes to rest after some time shows that there must be a force acting on it which tends to slow it down. This force seems to be more on rough surfaces than on smooth surfaces. The force acting against the relati'e motion of surfaces in contact is called frictional force or friction. (. Tension Force:Strings, ropes and chains can only pull on things( The force of pull supplied by strings, ropes or chains is called the tension force. The tension force is always directed along the length of the thing doing the pulling (string, rope, chain). ). Sprin" Force: is the force e\$erted by a compressed or stretched spring upon any object that is attached to it. *. App ied Force: An applied force is a force that is applied to an object by a person or another object. If a person is pushing a des across the room, then there is an applied force acting upon the object. The applied force is the force e\$erted on the des by the person. Mass and +ei",t ) The mass of an object is the amount of matter that is contained by the object* the weight of an object is the force of gra'ity acting upon that object. The mass of an object (measured in g) by +an ,alance and will be the same no matter where in the uni'erse that object is located. -n the other hand, the weight of an object (measured in Newton) by Spring balance and will 'ary according to where in the uni'erse the object is.

Type of friction: Static friction: The bloc remains at rest because a force of friction, e.ual but opposite to the applied pull, comes into action between the surfaces. Increase the force a little. The bloc des not mo'e. This means that the force of friction has increased to balance the pulling force on the bloc . If the pulling force + is increased further, at a certain stage the bloc begins the mo'e on the table. At this point the friction de'eloped has reached the ma\$imum 'alue # for the two surfaces. This is called static friction. -inetic or s idin" friction : !ontinue pulling the bloc with the spring balance, so that it slides at a steady speed. The reading on the spring balance is also steady and is slightly less than the static friction. This is a measure of the inetic or sliding friction between the two surfaces. /inetic or sliding friction is less than static friction. Ro in" friction : 0epeat the abo'e procedure using an identical wooden bloc pro'ided with wheels on either side. The reading on the spring balance when the bloc mo'es with a steady speed is much less than the sliding friction measured abo'e. 0olling friction is less than sliding friction. Ad&anta"es of friction : #riction plays an important role in our daily life. 1) 2ithout friction we would slip and fall e'ery time we attempt to wal or run. There is 'ery little friction on a wet polished floor. That is why it is easy to slip on such a floor. 3) #riction causes nails and screws to hold on to walls. 4) It would not be possible to light a matchstic without friction between its head and the side of the matchbo\$. 5) !ars and buses are able to run on roads because of friction between the tyres and the road. 6) 2ithout friction writing on paper would be impossible as the tip of the pen will slip on paper. 7) It is because of friction between the bra e 8shoes9 and wheels that bicycles and automobiles stop when bra es are applied. Disad&anta"es of friction : #riction is a nuisance in some circumstances. 1) The heat produced in the mo'ing parts of machinery due to friction results in wear and tear of the parts. 3) #orest fires are caused due to friction between branches of threes rubbing against each other. 4) Tyres of 'ehicles and soles of footwear wear out because of friction. 5) &nergy is wasted in o'ercoming the force of friction.

Mini.i/in" friction : 1) ,y using a suitable lubricant, li e oil (for light machinery) or grease (for hea'y machinery). This helps because fluid friction is less than solid friction 3) ,y using wheels and ball bearings. :se of wheels between surface mo'ing o'er each other reduces friction. ,all bearings ha'e small balls of steel between steel surfaces. ,ecause of the balls the steel surfaces can easily mo'es o'er each other. 4) ,y ma ing the rubbing surfaces smooth by polishing them. 5) #riction due to air (air resistance) or water is reduced by using streamlined shapes in aeroplanes or ships. A streamlined shape is narrow in front and broader at the bac . ,irds and a.uatic animals ha'e streamlined shapes which held them in flying or swimming. 0ncreasin" friction : 1) ,y ma ing the mo'ing surfaces rough, e.g. tyres ha'e designs and patterns with groo'es on the surface to increase resistance with the road. This pre'ents slipping of the tyres on a wet road. 3) Sand and gra'el is strewn on slippery ground during the rainy season to increase friction. It is them easier to wal on the ground. 4) To increase friction, spi es are pro'ided in the soles of shoes used by players and athletes. Pressure : +ressure is defined as the force acting on a unit area. +ressure ; #orce< Area If the force increases the pressure increases. If the area o'er which the force acts decreases, the pressure increases :nit of pressure The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (+a). It is the pressure e\$erted by a force of 1 N acting o'er an area of 1 m 3. Thus 1+a ; 1N<m3 So &ed Pro1 e. 1: A li.uid gi'es force of 1==N o'er an area of 3m3. 2hat is the pressure> Solution) #orce ; 1==N Area ; 3m3 Solution ) # ; + \$ A ; 36 N<m3 E&eryday e2a.p es @ 2hen you cut an apple with a nife, the shaper the nife, the smaller is the area of contact of the nife with the apple. Thus a sharper nife e\$erts a greater pressure ma ing it easier to cut the apple. +ressure ; 1==N < 3m3 ; 6= N<m3 +ressure ; 6= N<m3 ?. A li.uid9s force is acting o'er an area of 5m3. If the pressure is 36 N<m3, what is the force> \$ 5m3 ; 1==N

@ It is easier to pierce a piece of cardboard with a pin if the pin has a sharp point, as the area of contact is then smaller. @ School bags and shopping bags have broad belts or straps as handles. Narrow string-like handles cause severe pain in the hand because the weight of the bag acts on a small area and so the pressure is considerably higher.

? Porters wear turbans when they have to carry heavy loads on their heads, to increase the area of contact. This reduces the pressure on the head. ? orries and trucks carrying heavy loads have ! tyres instead of four, and the tyres are broader. This increases the area of contact with the ground, this reducing the pressure e"erted on the ground. ? #ar tanks move on caterpillar tracks which are broad and chain-like and cover the wheel. This causes large increase in the area of contact with the ground. The pressure on the round reduces so much that tanks can even move on soft wet ground without sinking. Atmospheric Pressure The \$arth is surrounded by air and this covering of air is known as the atmosphere. The atmospheric air e"ists to height of about %&&& km. 'ut beyond %&& km the air is very thin. The force e"erted by the atmosphere on unit area is called atmospheric pressure. Liquid Pressure a( #ater e"erts pressure downwards b( #ater e"erts pressure in the upward direction c( #ater e"erts pressure in all directions on the sides. This is called lateral pressure. d( i)uid pressure increases with depth. Pressure at the bottom of the ocean is very high. *eep sea divers wear steel diving suits to prevent their bodies from begin crushed by the tremendous pressure of water e"erted on all sides. Submarines are built of hard thick sheets of metal to withstand the high pressure under water. +ro the same reason dams are broader at the base than at the top. Measuring liquid pressure the manometer ,n instrument called a monometer is used to measure li)uid pressure. @ , li)uid e"erts pressure in all directions -downward, upward and sideways(. @The pressure is the same in all directions at the same depth. @ Pressure increases with depth. The pressure e"erted by water in the oceans increases with depth. .ery deep down the pressure is enough to crush the human body. That is why deep-sea divers wear special suits, which can withstand such high pressures.