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INTRODUCTION
1.1 DEFINITION OF CRYOCOOLER
Cryocooler is a device or ensemble of equipment for producing refrigeration at
temperatures less than 120K.
(i) The quality or worth of a unit of such refrigeration effect depends on the
temperature at which the refrigeration is available
(ii) Theoretical ideal work required to generate a unit of refrigeration as a function of
temperature
Temperature (K) Work(W)
0.5 600
4 74
10 29
1.1.1 Classification of cryogenic cooling systems
Cryogenic cooling systems are classified based on the cooling capacity and refrigeration
temperature
Designation Cooling capacity
1K 4K 20K 80K 120K
Micro miniature <0.25w <1w <1.5w
Miniature <0.5w <2w <8w <12w
Small <1w <10w <100w <0.8kw <1.2kw
Intermediate <25w <100w <1kw <15kw <25kw
Large >25w >100w >1kw >15kw >25kw
The bench mark temperature levels of 1K,4K,20K,80K,and120K are the approximately
liquefaction temperatures at normal pressure of Helium(4K), Hydrogen (20K), Nitrogen
(80K) and Methane (120K)
1
1.1.2 Miniature Stirling Cryocooler
Originally Stirling machines were all driven kinematically, that is, by way of crank shafts
and connecting rods as is used in most positive displacement machinery. The kinematic
configurations have lead to a number of problems peculiar to the Stirling The freepiston
Stirling employs the internal gas pressures and a linear motor to move the reciprocating
components in the proper fashion
Fig.1.1: Miniature
Stirling Cryocooler
1.1.3 Benefits of Free Piston
Stirling Cryocooler
• Simplicity of
construction. The
basic machine has
only two moving
parts and no valves.
• A linear motor for
supplying power to
the piston is easily placed within the pressure vessel making it possible to
hermetically seal the unit which avoids the working gas leakage problem
2
Fig.1.2: Free Piston Stirling Cryocooler
1.2 REGENERATOR
The regenerator acts as a large thermal capacity that exchanges heat with the gas it takes
up heat when the gas moves from the hot to the cold side, and it gives off heat when the
gas moves back from the cold to the hot side
Fig.1.3: Regenerator
1.2.1 Requirements of Regenerators
3
• A maximum ratio of the regenerator heat capacity to the heat capacity of the gas.
• A maximum heat transfer between the gas and the regenerator. This can be
achieved by using a long and finemeshed matrix with a large contact area
• A minimum pressure drop over the regenerator. This can be achieved by using a
short, highly porous matrix
• Minimum heat conduction from the hot to the cold side of the regenerator.
• Complete penetration of the heat in the regenerator material when it is heated or
cooled .This can be achieved by using finely divided regenerator material with a
small characteristic dimension
1.2.2 Types of Regenerators
The applications described in above chapter all use what is commonly referred to as a
static regenerator .in general, regenerators are classified as either dynamic of static
regenerator depending on the whether the matrix material is moving or stationary
(i) Rotary type regenerators
(ii) Static type regenerators
1.2.3 Rotary type regenerators
Again in rotary type regenerator they are two types
• Axial flow rotary regenerators
• Radial flow rotary regenerators
Fig.1.4: Axial flow rotary regenerator Fig.1.5: Radial flow rotary regenerator
In rotary type dynamic regenerators, the fluid flows through the matrix material. At a
constant rate and the matrix rotates slowly through the two fluids .Thus the matrix
material is periodically heated and cooled as it passes through the warm and cold
4
fluids seals between the matrix and housing separate the two fluids entering the
regenerator, and sealing surfaces (partitions) within the matrix keep the flows from
mixing inside the matrix material .leakage past he seal and fluid left in the matrix as it
passes from one stream to other present difficulty is design problems for dynamic
regenerators are found primarily in magnetic refrigeration where the matrix is made
up of a magneto caloric material which is periodically heated and cooled by passing
it through a magnetic field
As the matrix rotates through the magnetic field a fluid also passes through the matrix
to remove heat generated during the magnetization process and transfer the
refrigeration produce during the demagnetization process to the thermal load
1.2.4 Static Type Regenerators
Fig.1.6: Valvetype static regenerator
For the static and rotary regenerators theoretically, the only difference between he two
occurs in the calculation of the matrix heating and cooling durations .for the static
regenerators the flow is periodically switched to the heat and cool the matrix material
,and the duration is defined by the time interval from when the fluid starts to flow
through the regenerator to the time reversal and the flow starts in the opposite direction
for the rotary regenerator ,the flow is continuous in both directions and the heating and
cooling of the matrix occurs by the rotation of the matrix through the flow streams
For the rotary regenerator ,the duration of heating or a cooling period is defined as the
time interval that begins when the matrix enter one flow streams and ends when it leaves
and enter the opposite stream ,specified as some fraction o rotation of speed of the matrix
5
Thus the heating and cooling period of rotary regenerator is given by
,
,
2
h c
h c
w
π
λ ξ
 `
·
. ,
The successful application of rotary regenerators in cryogenic equipment is rare because
of the need for lowtemperature seals to prevent leakage past the matrix and between the
flow streams in above fig the axial seal is required to prevent the leakage past through the
matrix and the annular space between the matrix and housing ,and flow separation seal is
required to prevent the leakage between the in let and exhaust flow streams at either end
of the regenerator .The design and selection of materials for use at low temperatures
always been a particularly difficult task because of thermal contractions and the rigidity
of elastomers in cryogenic temperatures
1.2.5 Classification of wire meshes in Regenerators
The classification of weave style wire meshes are two types
• Twill mesh
• Plain mesh
Fig.1.7: Magnified picture of twill mesh (500X) Fig.1.8: Magnified picture of plain
mesh (500X)
Weave density is #200, #250, #300.so.on
1.2.6 Specification of Regenerators
• Random wire regenerator 1
Wire dia. : 30 µ m, Material: stainless steel
6
Porosity: 80 %, Mass of the matrix: 25 g
Heat transfer area: 0.4237 m
2
Fig.1.9(a): Random wire regenerator 1
• Random wire regenerator 2
Wire dia. : 12 µ m, Material : stainless steel
Porosity: 90 %, Mass of the matrix: 14.5 g
Heat transfer area: 0.5296 m
2
Fig.1.9 (b): Random wire regenerator 2
• Nonmetallic regenerator
Wire dia. : 12 µ m, Material : Aramid
Porosity: 80 %, Mass of the matrix: 4.4 g
Heat transfer area: 1.0592 m
2
Fig.1.10: Nonmetallic regenerator
CHAPTER 2
7
LITERATURE REVIEW
M.D. Atrey, et. al [2] investigated the numerical model that attempts to simulate the
actual conditions existing in the regenerator of Stirling cycle Cryocooler. The model
presented is solved by finite difference techniques and found the performance behaviors
of the regenerators under different operating conditions has studied the present analysis
considers the sinusoidal variation of mass and pressure fluctuations with a phase
difference between them. The analysis shows that the effectiveness of a regenerator is a
function of the porosity of the mesh used and is maximum when the porosity is at a
minimum for a particular mesh number. The effectiveness of the regenerator varies with
mass flow rate and shows a maximum for a particular mass flow rate. Mesh material and
the mean pressure of the system do not affect the effectiveness significantly. For a
particular speed and mass flow rate, an increase in the blow period increases the
effectiveness, which passes through a minimum when the blow period is around 1/4 of
the cycle period.
U. V. Joshi and L. N. Patel et. al [3].Hybrid regenerator with combination of three
differentsized mesh matrix is investigated analytically and attempt is made to minimize
the heat loss. Threemesh hybrid regenerator is analyzed and results are compared with
homogeneous regenerator. Suitably hybridized regenerator can give much better
performance and increased effectiveness.The performance of threemesh hybrid
regenerator is much better as compared to twomesh hybrid regenerator and a simple
homogeneous regenerator due to more uniformly decreasing hydraulic diameter.
Shaowei Zhu, Yoichi Matsubara et. al [5]. A numerical method for regenerators has
introduced in this paper. It is not only suitable for the regenerators in the Cryocooler and
Stirling engines, but also suitable for the pulse tubes in pulse tube refrigerators. The
numerical model is one dimensional periodic unsteady flow model. The numerical
method is based on the control volume concept with the implicitly solve method. The
iteration acceleration method, which considers the onedimensional periodic unsteady
8
problem as the steady twodimensional problem, is used for decreasing the calculation
time. By this method, the regenerator in an inertance tube pulse tube refrigerator was
simulated. The result is useful for understanding how the inefficiency of the regenerator
changes with the inertance effect.
Xiaoqin Yang, J.N. Chung et. al [6]. Investigated the Size effects on the performance of
Stirling cycle Cryocooler by examining each individual loss associated with the
regenerator and combining these effects. For the fixed cycle parameters and given
regenerator length scale, it was found that only for a specific range of the hydrodynamic
diameter the system can produce net refrigeration and there is an optimum hydraulic
diameter at which the maximum net refrigeration is achieved. When the hydraulic
diameter is less than the optimum value, the regenerator performance is controlled by the
pressure drop loss; when the hydraulic diameter is greater than the optimum value, the
system performance is controlled by the thermal losses. It was also found that there exists
an optimum ratio between the hydraulic diameter and the length of the regenerator that
offers the maximum net refrigeration. As the regenerator length is decreased, the
optimum hydraulic diametertolength ratio increases and the system performance is
increased that is controlled by the pressure drop loss and heat conduction loss. Choosing
appropriate regenerator characteristic sizes in smallscale systems are more critical than
in largescale ones
Burns and A. J. Willmott, et. al [8] has found the Instantaneous response by a thermal
regenerator to step changes in operation is prevented by the thermal inertia of the system.
The transient response of periodic flow regenerators to simultaneous step changes in inlet
gas temperature and gas flow rate are examined. It is shown how the transient response to
a single step change in one of these two input parameters can be superimposed upon that
of the other in order to obtain the response of simultaneous step changes.
G.Venkatarathnam and Sunil Sarangi, et.al [9] has examined the necessity of high
effectiveness in a small volume has led to the development of perforated plate matrix heat
exchangers for cryogenic applications. Although the basic principles have remained the
same, the techniques of fabrication and bonding have changed considerably with the
9
introduction of all metal construction these exchangers are finding increasing use in
cryogenic refrigerators.The mechanism of heat transfer in a matrix heat exchanger is
complex convection in three different surfaces and conduction in two different directions
are coupled together in determining the temperature profiles. While early analyses were
based on simple empirical correlations and approximate analytical solutions, they have
given way to accurate numerical models. This paper traces the chronological
development of the MHE and different methods of fabrication, heat transfer and fluid
flow characteristics and design and simulation procedures.
J.P. Harvey, P.V. Desai et.al [12], has reported various models for predicting the flow
and heat transfer in a porous Cryocooler regenerator have been proposed in the literature,
such model utilizes a semiimplicit set of equations after making some simplifying
assumptions, resulting in a momentum equation that is decoupled from the energy and
continuity equations. This work addresses concerns with a semiimplicit model an
important result is that the pressure gradient term in the energy equation, which has been
neglected in the semiimplicit model, is leading order.
CHAPTER 3
OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY
10
3.1 OBJECTIVE
(i) To evaluate the performance of homogeneous regenerator by solving the
continuity, gas energy and matrix energy equations for different mesh sizes
with appropriate length and diameter of the regenerator
(ii) Performance investigation of 3zone Hybrid –Regenerator used in miniature
Cryocooler and compared with homogeneous regenerator
(iii) To finding the optimum combination of regenerator matrix in a 3zone
Hybrid regenerator
3.2 METHODOLOGY
(i) For the analysis of regenerator from the basic gas energy equation, matrix
energy equation and gas continuity equations, the finite difference technique
have adopted. Gas continuity equation and gas energy equations are solved by
explicit method from the data of ‘t’ time level
(ii) Gausseliminations techniques are used in hybridregenerator performance by
varying the length of warm end subregenerator
CHAPTER 4
REGENERATOR HEAT EXCHANGER THEORY
11
Regenerator theory deals with the physical equations defining the thermal and fluid flow
fields that exist in a regenerator. These equations describes the temperature distribution in
the matrix and the fluid as functions of both space and time and lead to a complex set of
differential equations forwhich no closed form of solutions exist .in the following
sections we explore the different types of regenerator designs commonly used in
cryogenic devices and develop both thermal and fluid dynamic equations that defines
their performance
4.1 THE IDEAL REGENERATOR
The regenerator thermal equations are sufficiently complex that has no closed form of
solutions and finite element analysis in combination with high–speed digital computers
are required to obtain the analytical solutions, however, to gain some insight and intuitive
feel for the operation of a regenerator, we will examine several assumptions commonly
employed to reduce the problem to manageable form
Fig.4.1: Static Regenerator Layout
The Regenerator we are considering is a static type in many reciprocating Cryocooler is a
Fine phosphor bronze wire mesh screens in a cylindrical housing .The flow is
periodically reversed with warm fluid entering from the right and heating the matrix for
12
the half of the cycle, referred to as the heating period and cold gas entering to the left and
cooling the matrix for the second half of the cycle, referred to as the cooling period.
The concept of the ideal regenerator is that the warm fluid enters the regenerator at
constant temperature, gives up its heat to the matrix on its way through the regenerator,
and leaves with a lower variable temperature at the cold end .The warm fluid supply is
then turned off, and when, all of the warm fluid is exhausted from the regenerators the
flow is reversed with cold gas entering the cold end at constant temperature .the cold gas
cools the matrix and leaves the regenerator with a variable warmer temperature at the
warmed end .after several reversal of the flow ,a steady state condition is reached where
the matrix temperature distribution will vary periodically with time and the gas and
matrix temperature at any location within the regenerator will repeat them selves from
one cycle to the next .
4.1.1 The assumptions for ideal regenerators
(i) The heat stored in the fluid is small compared with the heat stored in the
matrix material
( )
1.0
( )
p f
p m
C V
C V
ρ δ
ρ δ
<<
(ii) The flow is one dimensional or both the radial ,w
r
, and circumferential w
ө
flows are zero ,and longitudinal flows w
z
are finite
(iii) Thermal conductivity of matrix is zero in the longitudinal direction and
infinite in the radial and circumferential directions
1/ 0
m m
dT dT
r
dr dθ
· ·
(iv) The fluid and matrix properties are constant, with temperature and therefore
they do not vary over the length of the regenerator.
(v) The heat transfer coefficient between fluid and matrix is constant throughout
the regenerator
13
(vi) The fluid pass in counter flow direction
(vii) No mixing of the fluids occurs during the reversal from hot to cold
(viii) Entering fluid temperature are uniform over the flow cross section and
constant with time
(ix) Regular periodic conditions are established for al matrix elements
With these assumptions the continuity equations
0
z
W
z
∂  `
·
∂
. ,
ff z
m A W ρ ·
=constant
4.1.2 The matrix thermal equation
The matrix thermal equation will becomes
( ) ( )
s
A
m
h
f m p m
L
T z
T T z Mc
t L
δ
δ
∂
 `
− ·
∂
. ,
Where,
M
m
is the mass of matrix material in the regenerator,
A
s
is total heat transfer area of matrix material in the regenerator
L is the length of regenerator
4.1.3 The fluid thermal equation
The fluid thermal equation will becomes
( ) ( )
s
A
f
h
f m p f
L
T
T T z mc z
z
δ δ
∂
− ·−
∂
The boundary conditions for the ideal regenerator are as follows
(i) For the interval of warm flow T
f,in
=constant (T
w
) at z=0
(ii) For the interval of cold flow T
f,in
=constant (Tc) at z=L
4.2 REGENERATOR THERMAL DESIGN PARAMETERS
4.2.1 Exchanger heat transfer effectiveness
14
The effectiveness defines how well a real heat exchanger is performing relative to an
ideal exchanger operating across the same temperature differences “Efectiveness”and
“efficiency” are used interchangeability, and are defined as
ideal
Q
Q
ε ·
Where,
Q is the actual heat exchange between the fluids
Q
ideal
is the ideal amount that could be exchanged if no temperature difference
between the inlet and outlet streams
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
p h h in out w p c c out in c
Q mc T T mc T T λ λ · − · −
min , ,
( ) ( )
ideal p w in c in
Q mc T T λ · −
min , , min , ,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
h in out w c out in c
w in c in w in c in
C T T C T T
C T T C T T
ε
− −
· ·
− −
For a balanced flow C
h
/C
c
=1
, ,
, ,
w in c out
w in c in
T T
T T
ε
−
·
−
Regenerator performance is given in terms of inefficiency
( )
, ,
min , ,
1
( )
w in c out w
h
w in c in
Ie
C T T
Ie
C T T
ε · −
−
·
−
4.2.2 Number of Exchanger Heat Transfer Units
15
The number of heat transfer units is a non dimensional expression that is related to a
heat exchangers heat transfer size when the NTU is small the exchanger effectiveness
is low, and when NTU is large the effectiveness approaches a limit physically
imposed by flow and thermodynamic considerations
min
s
UA
NTU
C
·
1 1 1
s s s
c h
UA hA hA
 `  `
· +
. , . ,
4.2.3 Fluid capacity Ratio
The fluid capacity ratio measures the thermal imbalance of the flow streams
Fluid capacity ratio=
min
max
C
C
Where C
min
and C
max
are the smaller and larger of the two magnitudes C
h
and C
c
4.2.4 Matrix capacity ratio
Matrix capacity ratio measures the thermal capacity of the matrix relative to the
minimum flow stream capacity
Matrix capacity =
m
min min
( )
( )
m
Mcp C
C mcp λ
·
The larger the matrix capacity ratio, the smaller is the matrix temperature swing and,
In general, the more efficient the regenerator
4.2.5 Nusselt Number
The Nusselt number is relates the convective heat transfer coefficient to the thermal
conductivity of the fluid and a characteristic flow dimension l;
f
h
K
h Nu
D
·
h
l D ·
The physical interpretation of the Nusselt number is that in convective heat transfer,
between a solid and fluid flowing over the solid occurs in a thin boundary layer
region of the fluid near the surface of the solid when the fluid velocity and turbulence
are small, the transfer of heat between the fluid and wall occurs mostly by conduction
16
and is not aided materially by mixing currents on a microscopic scale. The
temperature difference between the bulk fluid and solid surface occurs across the thin
boundary layer region and the region and heat transfer is given by
Q
h
=hA
s
(T
m
T
f
)
4.2.6 Pressure drop
Two commonly used expressions for calculating the pressure drop in heat exchanger
(i) fanning pressure drop equation
2
2
h f
L G
p f
r ρ
 `
 `
∆ ·
. ,
. ,
(ii) kays and London (1964).this equation express the pressure drop for flow
through porous material that is based on the flow acceleration and core
friction
2
2 1 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 1
2
s
c ff
A G v v v p
f
p g p v A v
σ
]
 `  ` ∆
· + − +
]
] . , . ,
]
(Flow acceleration core friction)
4.3 REGENERATOR FLOW DESIGN PARAMETERS
The flow parameters most commonly used to define heat exchanger performance are
the hydraulic radius and the Reynolds number
4.3.1 Hydraulic Radius
The hydraulic radius defines the critical flow dimension as
r
h
= flow cross sectional area /wetted perimeter =D
h
/4
D
h,
is the hydraulic diameter for a porous
matrix
Wetted perimeter is defined as the heat transfer area (A
s
/L)
ff
h
s
A
r L
A
 `
·
. ,
4.3.2 Reynolds Number
17
In regenerator theory ,the Reynolds number used to characterize nature and similarity
of the flow fields in various porous matrix pickings .Thus ,for a given fluid ,it relates
the mass flow rate to the heat transfer and frictional pressure drop coefficients over a
wide range of operating conditions .We define the Reynolds number in terms of the
average mass flow rate per unit as defined by ,the hydraulic diameter ,and the
dynamic viscosity
Re
h
GD
µ
·
4.4 REGENERATOR MATERIAL SELECTION AND DESIGN
In cryogenic applications ,regenerator design deals with the selection of materials and
geometries that optimize performance over the desired temperature range .the selection of
materials is important because materials that perform well at relatively warm
temperatures are generally inappropriate for temperatures below 50K.also geometries that
provide good performance characteristics, such as low pressure drop. may be suitable for
relatively warm temperatures but most likely will perform poorly at colder temperatures
because they contain too much void volume .thus a through understanding of critical
regenerator properties such as specific heat, fluid viscosity,porosity,and heat transfer area
are all critical to a good design
4.4.1 Regenerator packing Geometries
The regenerator matrix should have the following characteristics:
(i) Maximum heat transfer area
(ii) Minimum axial conduction
(iii) Minimum pressure drop losses
(iv) High heat capacity
(v) Minimum dead volume
4.4.2 Common regenerator matrix geometries
18
Fig.4.2: Annular gap regenerator Fig.4.3: Wire mesh screen regenerator
Fig.4.4 Random packed sphere matrix Fig.4.5: Dimpled ribbon
4.4.3 Annular gap regenerators
The annular gap regenerators uses the cylindrical space between two closely fitted
cylinders to provide the heat transfer surface area .This configuration was first employed
in early stirling cycle engines because of the simplicity of the geometry and low pressure
drop it produces. It also has been used with limited success with cryogenic refrigerators,
where low pressure drop and minimum dead volume are essential to the overall
performance of the refrigerator
Disadvantage: Limited amount of heat transfer area that can be achieved and the
minimum surface capacity (thermal penetration depths) of the wall to store the heat The
19
geometrical parameter used to define the flow passage in an annular gap regenerator is
the hydraulic diameter, D
h
Where, D
h
=4r
h
;
ff
h
s
A
r L
A
 `
·
. ,
Where,
Length of the regenerator matrix, L
free flow area ( )
2 2
4
o i ff
A D D
π
· −
Total heat transfer area, ( )
s i o
A D D L π · +
4.4.4 Wire mesh screens
The woven wire mesh screen regenerators is commonly used regenerators material its
advantages are that it provides a high heat transfer area with minimum pressure drop it is
readily available in useful mesh sizes from 50mesh(50x50 openings /inch) to over 250
mesh , it is available in many different materials ,it is relatively in expensive to use and
the small diameter and high thermal conductivity of the wire used to weave the screens
provides full utilization of the thermal capacity of the material. Woven bronze screen
regenerators are used in the first stage of all commercial regenerative cryogenic
refrigerators to provide cooling down to 30K.Below 30K,t he loss in specific heat of the
commercially available materials, such as bronze and stainless steel ,limits the effective
ness of the screen pickings.
The geometrical parameters used in the description of screen regenerators are the porosity
and area density they are defined as
α = (total volume of connected void spaces /total volume of matrix) = porosity
β= (total surface area of connected voids/total volume of matrix) = area density
20
From the porosity and area density, the important relationship for the hydraulic radius for
a screen packing is given by
h
r
α
β
·
Volume of matrix flow passage =porosity times the volume of regenerator
ff r
A L A L α ·
s
r
A
A L
β ·
Where A
s,
is total heat transfer area
4.4.4.1 Porosity
Experimentally the porosity and area density can be found from the dimensions and
weight of the screens.
1
p
m r
W
V
α
ρ
 `
· −
. ,
Where, W
p
is the weight of packed matrix material,
m
ρ
is the density of packing matrix
V
r
volume of regenerator
4.4.4.2 Area density
Geometry of woven screen
1/2(wire wetted perimeter)(Length of the opening)(4sides)
(volume encompassing the wires)
s
r
A
A L
β
 ` ]
· ·
]
] . ,
2
s s
1/2( d)(1/n)(4) 2 dn
(1/n )t t
π π
β
]  `
· ·
]
] . ,
Total regenerator heat transfer area
r
A V β ·
21
4.4.5 Spherical Packing
Spherical packings such as lead spheres, are used primarily in very lowtemperature
applications where commercially available screen materials lose their specific heat and
become ineffective for thermal storage
The characteristics of spherical particle matrix are:
1. For a perfectly packed matrix of uniform particle size, δd = 0, the porosity is
independent of the particle size and approaches a limit of 30%.
lim
30
0 d
α
δ
 `
·
→
. ,
%
area density is given by
lim (4/ 3)
0 d d
π
β
δ
 `
·
→
. ,
2. The use of spherical packing leads to lower porosities and higher pressure drop
and, therefore, becomes most effective at temperature below 25K. Where the
viscosity of the working fluid in a cryogenic refrigerator is low.
3. The lower porosity of spherical packing results in larger heat transfer surface area
than obtained with screen matrices.
4. The low temperature, higher heat capacity materials such as lead are generally
only available in spherical form. The materials most commonly used below 25K
or lead, lead antimony, and for very low temperature applications below 10K, a
new family of regenerator materials consisting of magnetic intermetallic
compounds, which have been used to achieve refrigeration below 4.2K.
4.4.6 Ribbon Regenerator
In theory, the ribbon generator should be superior to either the woven screen or
spherical particle regenerator because it has a much higher ratio of heat transfer area to
pressure drop. The concept approximates a gap regenerator with multiple flow channels.
22
The channels are formed by either dimpling or embossing the ribbon and then winding it
on a mandrel. A flow header at either end of the regenerator distributes the flow to the
channels to provide a uniform radial flow distribution across the generator.
4.4.7 Regenerator materials
Regenerator materials and geometries generally fall into three groups, based on
the temperature range over which they are most commonly used in the first group are the
woven screen materials such as stainless steel, bronze, and copperwhich are easy to
weave into the screen geometry. These materials are used over the temperature range
from 30 to 300K, where they provide the following advantages:
• Low pressure drop
• High heat transfer area
• Low axial conduction
• High heat capacity
CHAPTER 5
NUMERICAL METHODS FOR EVALUATING
REGENERATOPERFORMANCE
23
In this chapter we will review the techniques used to obtain the solutions in the open
form. The analytical models are based on finite difference techniques, in which the
differential equations are replaced with difference equation and solutions are obtained by
a step wise iteration procedure Open –form models are divided into several levels of
complexity distinguished by the assumptions employed the first order model represents
the independent performance of the regenerator without integration into a cryogenic
refrigerator
5.1 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE MODEL
(i) The mass flow through the regenerator and the fluid pressure are constant and
their magnitude s equal during the both flow periods.
(ii) The fluid inlet temperature is constant during the heating and cooling periods
(iii) The void volume in the regenerator is zero, and thus the fluid stored energy is
zero.
(iv) No longitudinal thermal conduction
5.2 NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE IDEAL REGENERATOR THERMAL
EQUATIONS
Fig.5.1: Regenerator finite element
5.2.1 Matrix thermal equation
24
( ) ( )
m
h A
s f m p m
T
T T c V
t
δ
ρ δ
∂
− ·−
∂
5.2.2 Fluid thermal equation
( ) ( )
f
h A
s f m p f z
T
T T c V w
z
δ
ρ δ
∂
− ·−
∂
First the regenerator is sub divided into series of spatial nodes and as in the i=1,
2,3,4…………N
z
(number of spatial nodes)second the heating and the cooling periods are
sub divided into a series of small time intervals j=1,2,3,4………….N
t
the first order
derivatives are replaced by the finite difference equation
( , ) ( , )
( )
m m
p m
z
T t t z T t z hAs
T
t Mc
∆
]
+ ∆ −
· ∆
]
∆
]
]
( , ) ( , )
2 2
( )
f f
p m
z
z z
T t z T t z
hAs
T
z mc
∆
∆ ∆
+ − −
]
· − ∆
]
∆
]
]
Where the average temperature between the fluid and matrix over the time interval t ∆ is
[ ]
1 1
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
2 2 2 2
f f m m
z z
T T t z T t z T t t z T t z
∆ ∆ ]
∆ · + + − − + ∆ +
]
]
Fluid and the matrix temperatures at the beginning and end of the each interval, the
temperature change can be expressed as
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) ( , ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( , ) ( , )
2 2
m m o m i m m
f f o f i f f
T T T T t t z T t z
z z
T T T T t z T t z
∆ · − · + ∆ −
∆ ∆ ]
] ∆ · − · + − −
] ]
]
(i) The ideal matrix thermal equation
(1)
( )
m
p m
z
hAs
T T
Mc
∆
]
∆ · ∆ ÷÷→
]
]
]
(ii) The ideal fluid thermal equation
25
(2)
( )
f
p f
z
hAs
T T
mc
∆
]
∆ · − ∆ ÷÷→
]
]
]
Substitute the equation (2) into Equation (1) .
( )
(3)
( )
p f
m
p m
z
mc
T t T
Mc
∆
]
∆ · ∆ ∆ ÷÷→
]
]
]
By solving he above equations we willl get the Two algebraic equations, those will define
the outlet temperature for the fluid and matrix in terms of known inlet temperature of
fluid and matrix
Final equations:
1
2
( ) ( ) [( ) ( ) ] (4)
( ) ( ) [( ) ( ) ] (5)
f o f i f i m i
m o m i f i m i
T T k T T
T T k T T
· − − →
· + − →
5.2.3 Regenerator finite element scheme
Fig.5.2: Regenerator finite element Schematic
26
5.2.4 Boundary conditions
(i) Initial matrix temperature profile:
( 1)
(1, ) ( )
m w w c
i
T i initial T T T
Nz
−
]
· − −
]
(ii) Heating period boundary condition:
(1,1)
(2,1)
(3,1)
.
.
.
( ,1)
f
f
f
w
f
T
T
T
T
T Nt
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
·
' '
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
(iii) Cooling period boundary condition
(1,1)
(2,1)
(3,1)
.
.
.
( ,1)
f
f
f
c
f
T
T
T
T
T Nt
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
·
' '
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
5.2.5 Computational procedure
(i) Assume the initial matrix temperature profile between T
w
and T
c
(ii) Calculate the outlet temperatures for each node from known boundary
temperature values
(iii) The computational process is repeated for each node (1, 2, 3,4,5….Nz) by
using the calculated outlet temperatures as the inlet temperature for the next
nodal calculations
(iv) Stepwise procedure is repeated for every spatial node over each of the time
interval until a matrix of (N
z
*N
t
) equations is solved for both the heating and
cooling periods
27
(v) the final matrix temperatures is used as the initial conditions for the start of
the cooling period
(1, ) ( , )
m m h
T i T λ ζ · (Reversal condition)
(vi) This procedure is repeated for each period until steady –state behavior of the
temperature distribution is achieved .steady state temperature occurs when the
matrix temperature distribution becomes cyclic and reversal condition
consisting the similar fluid and matrix temperature distributions
5.2.6 Criteria for Convergence
The main use of convergence criteria is to choose the maximum size of the spatial nodes
from these two convergent criteria’s we found that large number of spatial nodes and
time steps will leads convergent to open form solutions
Fig.5.3: Finite difference convergence criteria
For Heating and cooling period the criteria for convergence are:
(i) (T
m
)
o
> (T
f
)
o
heating mode
(ii) (T
f
)
o
>(T
m
)
o
cooling mode
28
These two conditions define convergence because a crossing of out let temperatures
results in a temperature reversal of inlet temperatures for next node and a switch occurs
in the computation from the heating of the matrix to the cooling of matrix.
5.3 REGENERATOR OPTIMIZATION
Regeneration optimization is the process of choosing the regenerator design parameters
that maximize the system performance. for cryogenic refrigerators, optimization
generally refers to maximizing the available refrigeration by systematically selecting the
regenerator performance that the geometry type matrix design, and matrix material that
achieve this goal .The critical parameters affecting the thermal performance
(effectiveness) of a regenerator are the number of heat transfer units, the fluid heat
capacity ratio, the matrix heat capacity ratio, and thermal losses such as the Longitudinal
conduction
min
max min
, ,
r
C C
NTU
C C
ε
 `
· Φ
. ,
These parameters establish the thermal performance of a regenerator because they
determine the temperature difference between the fluid and the matrix, the temperature
swing of the matrix material ,and any other irreversible heat transfer process that
contribute to a degradation in regenerator performance .
To maximize the regenerator effectiveness both the parameters NTU and matrix capacity
ratio must be made as large as possible. However in designing a regenerator for an actual
cryogenic refrigerator the major obstacle limiting the magnitude of these parameters is
the additional requirement to keep the pressure drop and regenerator void volume small
these conflicting requirements that lead to the regenerator optimization in cryogenic
refrigerator and thorough understanding of the interaction of all key parameters.
5.3.1 Conflicting requirements
The optimization problem for the designer as the task of satisfying the following
29
(i) the temperature swing of the matrix must be minimized ,thus the matrix heat
capacity ratio must be a maximum this can be achieved by a large ,solid
matrix
(ii) The pressure drop across the regenerator must be small it will achieved by the
highly porous matrix
(iii) For the maximum refrigeration the pressure ration must be large or the void
volume small .this can be achieved by a small, dense matrix
5.3.2 Optimization Analysis
To illustrate the conflicting requirements that occur in the optimization of a
regenerator for a cryogenic refrigerator ,we shall consider a procedure for maximizing
the available refrigeration selected to illustrate the problem is a stirling cycle
refrigerator operating between the an ambient temperature of 300K and a
refrigeration temperature of 80 K in this case ,the objective of the optimization is to
maximize the available refrigeration by determining the values of the key regenerator
parameters such as length ,cross sectional area matrix material and porosity required
to maximize performance of the regenerator .
The optimization is performed given the following selected operating conditions:
(i) temperature difference across the regenerator is 300K to 80K
(ii) the frequency of operation of the Cryocooler is fixed
(iii) the mean operating pressure of the refrigerator is fixed
(iv) the piston and displacer motions are sinusoidal
CHAPTER 6
30
MATHEMATICAL MODEL
6.1 MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR HOMOGENEOUS REGENERATOR
The mathematical model presented is solved by finite difference techniques for different
mesh size of the regenerator with appropriate length and diameter. The analysis is further
extended to study the performance behavior of the regenerators under different operating
conditions
6.2 REGENERATOR CONTROL VOLUME
The Regenerator in Fig 6.1 is assumed to be connected to some restricted volume, thus
the mass of gas, temperature of the gas and matrix are vary with both regenerator length
and time. The time is equal to blow period
Fig.6.1 Regenerator domain
6.3 BASIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The governing equations are derived by making energy and mass balances for the gas and
for the matrix in an elemental control volume, dx, at position x within the regenerator
6.3.1 Gas energy equation
31
T
E
T
C
Energy flux entering the control volume.= (energy flux leaving the control volume) +
(rate of change of energy within the control volume)
Substituting h=h
o
+C
p
T
g
, where
For a perfect gas u=hPV and ρ
g =
p/RT
g
the final equation is
6.3.2 Matrix Energy Equation
Energy flux entering the control volume = (energy flux leaving the control volume) +
(rate of change of energy within the control volume
( )
m m m m
m T t g m m m m m
T T T T
k A H A T T k A k A dx M C dx
x x x x t
∂ ∂ ∂ ] ∂ ∂  `
− + − · − + +
]
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
. , ]
The final equation is reduced to
6.3.3 Gas continuity Equation
Mass flow entering the control volume = (mass flow leaving the control volume) + (rate
of storage of mass flow within the control volume)
Variation of mass flow: W= WaSinwt +Wm
6.4 NONDIMENSIONALIZED PARAMETERS
32
2
2
( ) 0
g g
o
p g p g o T t g m
T T
A Cv W P
WC T C k A H A T T
x x x R t
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
+ · + − + ·
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
( ) ( ) ( )
g g g
g o g o g o T t g m g o
T T T
W h k A W h W h d x k A k A d x H A T T d x uA d x
x x x x x t
ρ
∂ ∂ ∂ ]
 `  ` ∂ ∂ ∂
+ − · + − + + − +
]
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
. , . , ]
2
2
( )
m m
m T t g m m m
T T
k A H A T T M C
x t
∂ ∂
+ − ·
∂ ∂
( )
g o
W
W W dx A dx
x t
ρ
∂ ∂
· + +
∂ ∂
o g
W
A
x t
ρ
∂ ∂
· −
∂ ∂
1) W * W/W
a
2) P* P/P
a
3) x* x/L
r
4) t* w
t
5) E k
g
A
o
W
a
C
p
L
r
6) B A
o
P
o
wL
r
/W
a
R (T
mc
T
E
)
7) NTU H
T
A
t
L
r
/w
a
C
p
8) C K
m
A/ M
m
C
m
L
r
2
w
9) D H
T
A
t
/M
m
C
m
w
6.5 COMPUTATIONAL SOLUTION DOMAIN
Fig.6.2: Computational domain
6.6 NONDIMENSIONALIZED EQUATIONS
33
T
C
T
E
*
* 2 *
*
* * *
* *2
*
*
sin( * ) ( ) sin( * ) 0
m
g g
p g m p
E
g
mC E
T
p
T T
t
W B t B E NTU T T B t
x x T
T
T T
φ φ
∂
∂ ∂
∂
− − + − + − + − ·
∂ ∂  `
+
−
. ,
* 2 *
* *
* *2
( )
m m
g m
T T
C D T T
x x
∂ ∂
· + −
∂ ∂
*
*
*
2 *
*
*
*
sin( * )
g
p
E
E
g
g
mC E
mC E
T
p
t
W
t
B
x T
T
T
T
T T
T T
φ
]
∂
]
−
∂ ]
∂
·− −
]
∂  `
 `
] +
+
− ]
− . ,
. , ]
6.7 DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
At x=0,
At x=L
r
,
At t=0,
6.8 NONDIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
At x*=0,
* *
sin /
m a
W t W W · +
At x*=1,
At t*=0,
* * *
m g
T T x · ·
6.9 DESCRITIZED EQUATIONS
6.10 FLOWCHART
Flowchart is used for finding the Mass flow rate, Temperatures of fluid and Matrix
34
sin
g E
m mE
a m
T T
T T
W W wt W
·
·
· +
m mC
T T ·
g mE
T T ·
( )
g E C E
r
x
T T T T
L
· + −
*
*
0
0
m
g
T
T
·
·
*
1
m
T ·
1 1 1
* * * * *
* *
2
* 1
2
sin( * )
( )
*
i i i i i
i
n n n n n
g g g g g n
E
i p g
mC E
n
g
T T T T T
T
W B t E T t
x x T T
T
Bp
φ
+ + −
+
¹ ¹ ] ] − − +  `
¹ ¹
− − − + ∆
] ] ' '
∆ ∆ −
] ] . , ¹ ¹ ] ] ¹ ¹
·
( )
1 1
* * *
* 1 * * *
2
2
( )
i i i
i i i i
n n n
m m m
n n n n
m m g m
T T T
T T C DT T t
x
+ − +
] ] − +
· + + − ∆ ]
]
∆
] ]
]
]
1
* 1 *
* 1 *
2
*
*
sin( * )
*
i i
i i
n n
g g p n n
E
E
g
g
mC E
mC E
T T t
p
W W B x
t T
T
T
T
T T
T T
φ
+
+
+
¹ ¹ ]
¹ ¹ ]
− −
¹ ¹ ]
· +∆ −
' '
]
∆  `
 `
¹ ¹
] +
+
¹ ¹
− ] − . ,
. , ] ¹ ¹
Fig.6.3: Sequential steps in Flowchart
6.11 MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR 3ZONE HYBRID REGENERATOR
Find the Tg*,Tm*
From W* values
(i=2 to N
z1
) nodes
For j=1 (1
st
iteration)
Run with initial
values of W*
Conve
rgence
(y/No)
Find Tg*,Tm* at Nz
(Back ward difference
formula)
stop
Go to next
time iterations
Enter the input of
regenerator
Meshsize, length
diameter, geometric
properties
start
35
The hybrid regenerator is build by combining different size mesh matrix, so that porous
matrix is at warm end and dense matrix at cold end. Hybrid regenerator with combination
of three differentsized mesh matrix is investigated analytically and attempt is made to
minimize the heat loss .Attention is given to mesh matrix size of regenerator. Threemesh
hybrid regenerator is analyzed and results are compared with homogeneous regenerator.
Suitably hybridized regenerator can give much better performance and increased
effectiveness. The performance of threemesh hybrid regenerator is much better as
compared to twomesh hybrid regenerator and a simple homogeneous regenerator due to
more uniformly decreasing hydraulic diameter.
The selection of optimum proportion of each mesh matrix is the key problem in designing
threemesh hybrid regenerator .the optimum combination serves the purpose of minimum
heat loss due to pressure drop and improved effectiveness. It is difficult to guess the
optimum proportion by random selection of matrix proportion in threemesh hybrid
regenerator
Fig.6.4: Simple Homogeneous Regenerator
Fig.6.5: 3zone Hybrid Regenerator
6.12 REGENERATOR CONSTRAINTS
The constraints in the selection of matrix are:
(i) The total length of each subregenerator must be equal to length of regenerator
L
1
+L
2
+L
3
= L
r
(ii) The sum of mass of each sub regenerator must be limited to
the mass of
Homogeneous regenerator
M
1
+M
2
+ M
3
= M
m
36
3 1 2
1 2
1 2 3
1
1 2 3 2
3
(1)
2 2 2
1 1 1
(2)
0 0 0 0
m
w w w
r
m
m m m
L L M
d d d
L L
T T T L M
L
 `  `  `
+ + · →
. , . , . ,
] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
]
· →
' ' ' '
]
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
]
] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
6.13 METHODOLOGY
Solving (1) and (2) through the gausselimination technique for a selected value of warm
end sub regenerator, a computer code has developed to solve the simultaneous equations
and obtained the optimum combination
6.14 ASSUMPTIONS INVOLVED
• Constant temperature of fluid at the inlet of each matrix.
• Linear axial temperature distribution through regenerator matrix each sub
regenerator is analyzed separately and the results for hybrid regenerator is
calculated as
1 2 3 H
Ntu Ntu Ntu Ntu · + +
1
1 1
1
H H
H
I
NTU
ε
 `
· − · −
+
. ,
• Similarly we have to calculated the refrigeration loss due to inefficiency, pressure
drop and axial conduction can be calculated
, , ,
( )
I H p H A H
Qnet Qideal Q Q Q
∆
· − + +
Where,
Q
net
= Net Refrigeration capacity, watts.
Q
ideal
= Ideal Refrigeration capacity calculated from
Thermodynamic analysis for design data [3] = 5.83 watts.
Q
I,H
= Total refrigeration loss due to regenerator ineffectiveness, watts.
Q
ΔP,H
= Total refrigeration loss due to pressure drop due to flow resistance, watts.
Q
A,H
= Total refrigeration loss due to axial heat conduction, watts
37
6.15 FLOWCHART FOR HYBRID REGENERATOR
Const rai nts
(i) Mass of matri x
(ii) Length of Re g
No of punches ,n
Net cooling e ffe ct
Hydrauli c di a.
Massflow , velocit y,
Re,Nu,h
Fixed parameters
Freque ncy
Tc.Te , Bl ow ti me
start
st op
Chose me sh size
Re gle n (Lr)
Chose L
1
Gauss eli mina ti on
Lengt h of sub r eg
L
2
,L
3
Physi cal properties at
me an tempe rature
(i) Worki ng fl ui d
(ii) Mat ri x materi al
Pe rformance paramete rs
Capacit y ratio ,NTU
Effe cti vene ss,
pre ssure drop
Re ge nerat or l osses due to
(i) axi al conduct ion
(ii) flow resist ance
(iii) Ineffe cti vene ss of re g
Fig.6.6:Flowchart for Hybrid Regenerator
6.16 REGENERATOR HEAT LOSS PARAMETERS
(i) loss due to ineffectiveness:
(ii) loss due to axial conduction
(iii) Pressure drop loss
38
(1 )( )
reg p w c
Q mc T T ε · − −
( )
m
c w c
m
A
Q k T T
Lr
· −
‘
CHAPTER 7
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
7.1 REGENERATOR PERFORMANCE RESULTS
The present analysis is applied to miniature Regenerator of fixed length and diameter
.The quantities of various parameters are calculated from the available data for different
mesh sizes this analysis is carried out with Helium as a cryogenic fluid and phosphor
Bronze is the matrix material
(a) 200mesh (b) 250mesh (c) 300 mesh
Fig.7.0 Regenerator Mesh configurations
7.1.1 Input Data
Input
Length of regenerator 52mm
Diameter of regenerator 8.6mm
Temperature of compression
side 320K
Temperature of expansion side 80K
Matrix material Phosphor bronze
Density 8860kg/m
3
Specific heat 376j/kgK
cryogenic fluid Helium
Density 3.86kg/m
3
Specific heat 376j/kgK
Thermal conductivity 0.1052w/mk
Kinematic viscosity 0.000003965m
2
/s
Type of mesh
Mesh wire screen
Porosity
0.668X200,0.665X250,0.609X30
0
wire diameter(mm) 0.05X200,0.04X250,0.03X300
39
2
2
r
h
L fG
p
D ρ
∆ ·
7.1.2 Temperature distribution along the length of Regenerator
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
RegeneratorLength(m)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
o
f
g
a
s
(
K
)
200mesh
250mesh
300mesh
Fig 7.1: Temperature distribution of fluid along the length of Regenerator
7.1.3Temperature of matrix along the length of Regenerator
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Regenerator length(m)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
o
f
m
a
t
r
i
x
(
K
)
200mesh
250mesh
300mesh
Fig. 7.2: Temperature of matrix along the length of Regenerator
40
7.1.4 Ratio of mass flow variations along the length of Regenerator
3.495
3.5
3.505
3.51
3.515
3.52
3.525
3.53
3.535
3.54
3.545
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Regenerator Length(m)
R
a
t
i
o
o
f
m
a
s
s
f
l
o
w
f
l
u
c
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
200mesh
250mesh
300mesh
Fig .7.3: Ratio of mass flow variations along the length of Regenerator
The above three graphs figs 7.1,7.2,7.3,will shows the typical performance of fluid
temperature, matrix temperature and ratio of mass flow variation along the length of a
regenerator
The temperature of fluid along the length is decreasing and the temperature of matrix
along the regenerator is increasing because we have considered the heating blow in this
blow the matrix has been getting heated and the fluid losses the heat, the fine mesh
having less porosity the slope value in the graph is less as compared to the coarse mesh
size because of fine meshes having high free flow area so that they have good heat
transfer
41
7.2 HOMOGENEOUS REGENERATOR (FIXED LENGTH, DIAMETER)
7.2.1 Regenerator effectiveness
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 1 2 3 4 5
Mass flow rate(g/s)
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s
150
200
250
300
Fig.7.4: Effectiveness v/s Mass flow rate
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Blowtime(S)
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
150
200
250
300
Fig .7.5: Effectiveness v/s blow time
42
The variation of effectiveness versus mass flow rates are represented in fig 7.4, for
different mesh sizes, The mesh size influence the effectiveness of the regenerator
significantly, due to a change in the porosity of the regenerator it can be observed from
the graph maximum effectiveness is obtained at the given mesh of 30049, where 300
indicates number of wires per square inch and 49 indicates the standard wire gauge
From the above graph fig 7.4, it is evident that at lower mass flow rates the conduction
effect is more dominant than the loss due to imperfect heat transfer and at higher mass
flow rates the loss due to heat transfer is more than that of conduction
The variation of effectiveness versus Blow time (fraction of cycle period) represented in
fig 7.5 for different mesh. The blow period may be defined as the time taken for the total
quantity of fluid to pass any point in the regenerator. The blow period is varied from 0.01
to 0.1 S this graph shows as the blow period is increase ,the effectiveness is decreasing
for fine mesh and increasing for coarse meshes as the blow period is increasing the Mass
flow fluctuations are increasing so, fine meshes having high effectiveness
43
7.2.2 Heat transfer coefficient
Heat transfer coefficient
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 1 2 3 4 5
Mass flowrate(g/s)
H
e
a
t
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(
k
W
/
m

K
)
150
200
250
300
Fig .7.6: Heat transfer coefficient v/s Mass flow rate
44
Heat transfer coefficient
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Blow time(S)
H
e
a
t
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
c
o

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(
k
W
/
m

k
)
150
200
250
300
Fig .7.7: Heat transfer coefficient v/s Blowtime
7.2.3 Nusselt Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 1 2 3 4 5
Mass flow rate(g/s)
N
u
s
s
e
l
t
n
u
m
b
e
r
150
200
250
300
Fig. 7.8: Nusselt number vs. Mass flow rate
45
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Blowtime(S)
N
u
s
s
e
l
t
n
u
m
b
e
r
150
200
250
300
Fig .7.9: Nusselt Number v/s blow time
7.3 HOMOGENEOUS REGENERATOR FIXED MESH (VARIABLE LENGTH)
7.3 Input data
Regenerator data Matrix data
Diameter =8.6mm mesh 200, porosity 0.668
Number of screens 440, 520, 635, 1060
7.3.1Regenerator Inefficiency
46
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Mass flow rate(g/s)
I
n
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
(
%
)
44.mm
63.5mm
52mm
82mm
106mm
Fig .7.10: Regenerator Inefficiency v/s Mass flow rate
7.3.2 Heat loss in regenerator
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Blowtime(S)
H
e
a
t
l
o
s
s
i
n
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
(
W
)
44.mm
63.5mm
52mm
82mm
106mm
Fig .7.11: Heat loss in the regenerator v/s Blow time
From the Fig7.6 it is conclude that as go on increasing the mass flow rate the value of
heat transfer coefficient increasing, that is more for porous mesh because of high heat
transfer area more number of wire screens, and the Nusselt number is more for denser
mesh (coarse) because the hydraulic diameter for coarse mesh is more as compared to
fine mesh.
47
The Fig 7.7 explains the behavior of the heat transfer coefficient versus the blow time as
go on increasing the blow period the heat transfer coefficient is decreasing because of
the frequency of operation is decreasing i.e number of cycle per sec, so it will leads to
decrease the flow velocity, Reynolds number based on geometric properties 300 mesh
having high heat transfer coefficient
The Fig 7.9, explains the behavior of the Nusselt number versus the blow time as go on
increasing the blow period the Nusselt number is decreasing because of the frequency of
operation is decreasing i.e number of cycle per sec, so it will leads to decrease the flow
velocity, Reynolds number the value of Nusselt number values are more for coarse mesh
because of the hydraulic diameter is more as compared to the fine mesh
The Fig 7.10, explains the behavior of the percentage of in efficiency versus the mass
flow for different length of regenerators, the inefficiency is less for long regenerator
because of as the length of matrix increases the average leaving outlet fluid temperature
approaches the cold end temperature of regenerator so the percentage of in efficiency is
decreasing
The Fig 7.11explains the behavior of heat loss in the regenerator versus the blow time as
increasssing the blow time the mass flow increases, inefficiency is decreasing means
regenerator losses due to inefficiency are decreasing (heat losses in the regenerator)
As incressing the matrix length with fixed mesh.
7.4 RESULTS FOR 3ZONE HYBRID REGENERATOR
48
Fig 4.12: Simple homogeneous Regenerator
Fig.7.13: Threemesh hybrid Regenerator
Different combinations of threemesh hybrid regenerator are developed by assuming the
length of warmend subregenerator. Results for the selected combinations are obtained
using the computer programme and compared with 200mesh matrix that represents the
homogeneous regenerator.
The results are plotted for different selected values of warmend regenerator, the fig
shows the effect of matrix size and mesh fraction on the performance of regenerator with
different combinations
7.4.1 Input data for Hybrid regenerator
(i) Temperature of compression space, Tc = 320 K.
Temperature of expansion space, Te=80 K.
49
Regenerator Length, L = 52 mm.
Mesh Punch diameter, D = 8.6 mm
Working fluid = Helium.
Blow time, t = 0.01 sec.
Mesh material = Phosphorbronze
(ii) Regenerator / Displacer
Regenerator tube material = Stainless steel
Tube size = 52 mm length,
Inner diameter =8.6mm
7.4.2 Mesh matrix characteristics
Mesh
Size
No.
Wire
Size
No.
Pitch,
P(mm)
Mesh
Distance(mm)
Opening area
ratio
porosity
150 46 0.061 0.108 0.408 0.699
200 47 0.050 0.077 0.368 0.668
250 48 0.040 0.061 0.365 0.665
300 49 0.030 0.054 0.409 0.609
7.4.3 Regenerator Effectiveness
50
regenerator effectiveness
0.984
0.986
0.988
0.99
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
LengthL
1
(m)
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s
200250300
150200300
150250300
200
Fig.7.14: Effect of matrix size and mesh fraction on effectiveness of threemesh
hybrid regenerator
7.4.4 Pressure drop
pressure drop
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
LengthL 1(m)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
d
r
o
p
(
m
p
a
)
150200300
150250300
200
Fig.7.15: Effect of matrix size and mesh fraction on Pressure drop of threemesh
hybrid regenerator
7.4.5 NTU
51
NTU
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
LengthL
1
(m)
N
T
U
200250300
150200300
150250300
200
Fig.7.16: Effect of matrix size and mesh fraction on Number of Transfer units of
threemesh hybrid regenerator
Fig.7.17: Effectiveness versus NTU for threemesh hybrid regenerator
52
0.984
0.986
0.988
0.99
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
0 50 100 150 200 250
NTU
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s
200250300 150200300 150250300
The above two graphs Fig 7.14, 7.15, explains the behavior of the effectiveness and
pressure drop for a hybrid regenerator with different selected values of length of warm
end sub regenerator, with (150250300) combination, for the same effectiveness as that
of homogeneous regenerator, much improved performance can be obtained wit reduction
in pressure drop
(200250300) combination has largest density thus it’s having high effectiveness, and
net refrigeration capacity also more. because of uniform decreasing in the hydraulic
diameter
The above graphs Fig 7.16,7.17 explain the behavior of NTU, effectiveness for different
selected values of length of warmend sub regenerator the length of warm –end sub
regenerator should be small and that should be a porous mesh then we will get the high
NTU values, Because of (200250300) mesh having the high density and uniform
decreasing the hydraulic diameter
For 220250300 mesh corresponding NTU the value of effectiveness is more, it means
The regenerator thermal losses are minimizing which leads the net refrigeration capacity
is more.
7.5 Optimized parameters for threemesh hybrid regenerators
53
For a fixed length and diameter of regenerator, the optimized length and mesh in three
zones are calculated in such a way that to get the maximum effectiveness the tabular
column should fulfils the requirements for design of regenerator
Fig.7.18: 3mesh hybrid regenerator
Fig.7.19: physical dimensions of regenerator
L
r
=52mm
d
r
=86mm
Housing diameter=0.1mm,Housing material stainless steel
Matrix material=phosphor Bronze (wire screen meshes)
Cryogenic fluid =Helium gas
Warm end side temperature T
w
=320K
Cold end side Temperature=80K
Zone Length of sub
regenerator
(mm)
Mesh size Number
of screens
Type of
matrix
Type of
mesh
porosity
1st zone 5 200X200
dw=0.05mm
50 Phosphor
bronze
Wire
screen
0.668
2nd zone 19.423
250X250
dw=0.04mm
242 Phosphor
bronze
Wire
screen
0.665
54
3rd zone 27.57
300x300
dw=0.03mm
460 Phosphor
bronze
Wire
screen
0.609
7.20: Optimized length, mesh size for a fixed diameter, length of regenerator
7.6 Comparision of ideal regenerator with Ackermann Model
150X150 Screen mesh
Diameter of
Regenerator 19.05mm
length 7.62mm
screens 610
7.6.1. Percentage of Inefficiency of Regenerator
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
blow period(S)
%
o
f
I
n
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
(
%
)
ideal regenerator
model
ackermann results
Fig.7.21: Percentage of Inefficiency v/s Blow time
7.6.2 Percentage of Inefficiency of Regenerator
55
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 5 10 15
Mass flowrate (x10^3cc/s)
%
o
f
I
n
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
(
%
)
ideal regenerator model
ackermann results
Fig.7.22: Percentage of Inefficiency v/s mass flow rate
CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSION
Regenerator is the heart of miniature Stirling Cryocooler that strongly influences the
performance of Stirling machines. The present analysis considers the sinusoidal variation
of mass flow.
• The analysis shows that the effectiveness of a regenerator is a function of porosity
of mesh used and is maximum when the porosity is at a minimum for a particular
mesh number
The hybrid regenerator is build by combining different size mesh matrix, so that porous
matrix is at warm end and dense matrix at cold end. Hybrid regenerator with combination
of three differentsized mesh matrix is investigated analytically and attempt is made to
minimize the heat loss
• The hybrid regenerator analysis shows that for particular length ,mass of matrix
the performance of 3mesh hybrid regenerator much better as compared to
56
homogeneous regenerator, due to hybrid regenerator having the greater density of
mesh
• Under the same operating conditions The Hybrid regenerator is more effective
than than simple Homogeneous regenerators the Concept of hybrid regenerator
combinations will have implemented in a miniature Cryocooler Refrigeration
systems, to compare this results with experimental results same work is to be
tested experimentally
REFERENCES
[1] A. Ackermann, 1997, Cryogenic Regenerative Heat Exchangers, Plenum Press, New
York.
[2] M.D. Atrey, S.L. Bapat and K.G. Narayankhedkar “Theoretical analysis and
performance investigation of Stirling cycle regenerators” journal of cryogenics –
vol.31(1991)December
[3] U. V. Joshi and L. N. Patel, “Performance Investigation of TwoMesh Hybrid
regenerator for Miniature Stirling Cryocooler,” Proc. of National Conference on
Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering, pp. 297, Sept. 1012,2004.
[4] U. V. Joshi and L. N. Patel, Analysis, “Design and Performance Investigation of
ThreeMesh Hybrid Regenerator for Miniature Stirling Cryocooler”,
[5] Shaowei Zhu, Yoichi Matsubara, “A numerical method of regenerator” journal of
cryogenics  vol.44 (2004), pp.131140
[6] Xiaoqin Yang, J.N. Chung., “Size effects on miniature Stirling cycle cryocoolers”
Journal of cryogenics  vol.45 (2005), pp.537545
[7] W. M. Kays, A. L. London, Compact Heat Exchanger, McGrawHill Company
(1976).
57
[8] A. Burns and A. J. Willmott, “Transient performance of Periodic flow Regenerators
“International journal of heat and mass transfervol.23, pp623627
[9] G. Venkatarathnam and Sunil Sarangi, “Matrix heat exchangers and their application
in cryogenic systems”, journal of cryogenicsvol.30 (1990), pp.907918
[10] Walker.G, cryocoolers, part1, fundamentals and part 2; applications, plenum press,
New York
[11] S. Sarangi and H.S. Baral“Effects of axial conduction in the fluid on cryogenic
regenerator performance” journal of cryogenicsvol.27 (1987), pp 505509
[12] J.P. Harvey, P.V. Desai, and C.S. Kirkconnel, “A Comparative Evaluation of
Numerical Models for Cryocooler Regenerators”, Cryocoolers12, Kluwer Academic
Plenum Publishers, 2003
58
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