Roadwork

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Roadwork

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ROADWORK

4.1

ROADWORKS

4.2

Introduction Road network is essential because it will link us to any place that we plan to travel.

Ensuring the road network functions efficiently and safely is a priority for our company; MEGA BINA.A road should be designed based on the standard code of practice to ensure the uniformity and safety of all road users such as the community, cyclists, pedestrians, and etc. Our new roads is located in a develop area where road need to be prepared and designed within the area to ensure the traffic movement is not affected. For the main intersection, there will be a signalized system between the existing main road and access road of proposed development due to the increasing traffic volume in that area. The material that will be used in this project is asphaltic concrete including the road and parking area for cars and motorcycles. For pedestrians walkway, we will use interlocking pavement or concrete segmental pavement due to the safety and environmental aspects.

4.3

Objectives

The objectives of this project of road design are: 1. To design a road network to facilitate resident. 2. To build and design an economical, efficient, safe, and user-friendly road system.

4.4

Scope of Works

The scope of work involves are: 1. Estimation and design of average daily traffic (ADT) 2. Proposed road levels, Internal traffic circulation 3. Calculation and design of structural pavement and cross section of road 4. Calculation and design of horizontal and vertical alignment 5. Calculation and design of intersections/junctions

4.4.1

In order to design road, we must take into account local average daily traffic condition so that the traffic flow in the resident area can be manage to a good condition. A new traffic system needs to apply at that area to improve the existing intersection. Data on a traffic volume are very valuable in the analysis of traffic system at any roads. In this study, there are two ways of method that has been conducted to get the traffic volume at main intersection which are by doing a traffic count manually at main intersection or by using Road Traffic Volume Malaysia 2010 (RTVM 2010) to get the Average Daily Traffic (ADT).The censuses are carried out in the months of March/April and September/October from 1993 to 2010 by the respective District Public Works Department (JKR) staff, coordinated by the Highway Planning Unit (HPU).

a) b)

Detailed ground survey of road corridor and Traffic volume from the Highway Planning Unit report. Traffic count was carried out by the JKR District at the Johor Bahru Gelang Patah (JR201).

Table 1.1: Location Description District Johor Bahru Station No. JR201 Route No. Km J4 19.3 Description of Location Johor Bahru Gelang Patah

Table 1.2: Average Traffic Volume 16 Hours Cars and taxis (%) Vans and utilities (%) Medium Lorries (%) Heavy Lorries (%) Buses (%) Motorcycles (%) Peak Hours 42,254 63.2 4.3 3.3 1.3 1.2 26.6 3,840

[Type here]

As Preliminary Process, the activity involves are gathering and reviewing background information such as traffic and accident data, preliminary hydraulics information, aerial photos and as-built plans; conducting a field review of the project with the appropriate people in attendance (e.g. personnel from various engineering disciplines, environmental, maintenance and district construction); and writing and distributing a report summarizing the project scope, feasible alternatives, engineering decisions, level of environmental involvement, public involvement process and other issues.

Project Identification

Designate Road Group According to Nature of Area Road Traverse Select road category base on function Select road category based on function

Estimate ADT at end of design life Determine design standard Route location

Road design process requires a comprehensive evaluation of future conditions in the geograhic region which may be impacted by the construction. For example, construction of new highway may change the land accessibility and land use pattern in its area of influence. Such change should be considered very carefully.

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indication Average Daily Traffic Chainage Circular to Spiral Curve Point Maximum Super elevation Equivalent Standard Axle Passenger Car Unit Volume Road Traffic Volume of Malaysia Spiral to Circular Curve Point Peak Hour Volume Spiral Curve to Tangent Point Tangent to Circular Point Tangent to Spiral

4.4.5 Calculation

Estimation of ADT for 20 years According to Guide on Geometric Design of Road ATJ 8/86, ADT is defined as the total traffic for the year divided by 365 or the average traffic volume per day. ADT is important for many purposes such as determining annual usage as justification for proposed expenditures, or for design structural elements of road. The projected ADT is also used to designate standard of road.

By referring to the Road Traffic Volume Malaysia 2006 (RTVM 2006), we can obtain some important data to estimate ADT for designed period 20 years. For the road in Skudai area from Johor Bahru Gelang Patah (JR 201), ADT obtained for year 2006 is 56,108 vehicles. The normal growth rate obtained is 3.24% based on the annual growth rate and 16 hrs traffic volume from year 1993 to 2010 stated in RTVM 2010.

For the calculation of ADT at the end of design period (Vx), we can use the formula as follows: = V0 (1 + r )x

Vx Where: Vx V0 x

= Volume of daily traffic after x years in one directed = Initial daily traffic in one direction = Design period

Reference

Remarks

RTVM 2010

Avg flow in 16 hr/day in year 2010, V2010 = 42,254 veh/day Normal growth rate, r = 3.25%

For major road, ATJ 8/86 Cl. 3.2.1 For ADT 2010 : V2010 = = = 42254 veh / 16 hr 2640.9 veh/hr / 2 lane 1321 veh/hr/lane

We assume that the construction of this project will only begin by year 2015. For ADT 2015 : V2015 = = = V2010 (1 + r)x 1321 veh/hr .(1 + 0.0325)5 1550veh/hr/lane @ 24800veh/day/lane

Assume daily capacity in proposed zone area, Zone A is 10% of the daily capacity of the main road (Johor Bahru, Gelang Patah) V2015 = = 1502 x 10% 150 veh/hr/lane @ 2400 veh/day/lane

Assume that in this proposed site, each house will have two cars. There are 866 units of cluster house, 201 unit of semidetached house, and 116 unit of Bungalows house. Total number of house is 1183 unit. Estimation for 20 years : V2034 = = = V2014 (1 + r)x 24021 veh/day. (1+0.0325)20 2847veh/hr/lane

grfdscsc

1183 houses x 2 cars = 2366 veh/day/lane V2015= 24800 + 2366 = 27166 veh/day/lane Inside the proposed zone area, the daily capacity of main road is V2015 = 2400 + 2366 = 4766 veh/day/lane Estimation for 20 years : V2035 = = = V2015 (1 + r)x 27166 veh/day. (1+0.0325)20 51503 veh/day/lane

4.5

The location of a road and its design are considerably influenced by the topography, physical features, and land use of the area traversed. Geometric design elements such as alignment, gradients, sight distance and cross-section are directly affected by topography and must be selected so that the road designed will reasonably fit into those natural and manmade features and economize on construction and maintenance. The topography through which the road passes can generally be divided into three groups. They are:

a)

Flat Terrain Topography condition where highway sight distances, as governed by both horizontal and vertical restrictions, are generally long or could be made to be so without construction difficulty or expertise. (G% = < 3%)

b)

Rolling Terrain Topography condition where the natural slope consistently rise above and fall below the road or street grade and where occasional steep slope offer some restrictions to normal horizontal and vertical roadway alignment. (G% =3% - 25%)

c)

Mountainous Terrain Topography condition where longitudinal and transverse changes in the elevation of the ground with respect to the road or street are abrupt and where benching and side hill excavation are frequently required to obtain acceptable horizontal and vertical alignment. (G% = > 25%)

Height of contour, DeltaY m

G 0 0

Reference

Calculation For major road, the proposed level is differ from 14.8m-30.0m .Hence, G% = (30-14.80) /322.769 x 100% = 4.7% (3%-25%) Topography condition is rolling terrain. For main proposed roads inside the proposed zone area, there are two segments of roads which will given different G%. Segment 1 G% = 30.0m 25.0m x 100% 325m = 0.26% < 3% Topography condition is flat terrain. Segment 2 G% = 30.0m 20.0m x 100% 290m = 6.89% < 3% Topography condition is rolling terrain.

Remarks

Based on the calculation above, it shows that the topography condition for this area is a Flat Terrain.

4.6

4.6.1 DESIGN STANDARDS FOR BOTH MAJOR ROAD AND PROPOSED ROAD IN THE ZONE

In order to achieve the road design standard, the geometric design of all roads needs to be standardized for the following reasons:

a) b) c)

To provide uniformity of the roads according to their performance requirements To provide consistence, safe and reliable road facilities for movement of traffic To provide a guide for less subjective decision on road design

Road can be divided into two groups, urban area and rural area, urban area is defined as a roads within a gazette Municipality limits or township having a population of at least 1,000 where the buildings and houses are gathered and business activity is prevalent. However, any roads outside the Municipality limits are considered rural area. In urban areas, roads are divided into four categories, namely Expressway, Arterial, Collector and Local Street. In rural areas, roads are divided into five categories such as Expressway, Highway, Primary Road, Secondary Road and Minor Road. The summary of road classification is shown in the figure 1 below.

ROADS

Urban Area

Rural Area

Figure 2: Summary of Road Classification The design standard can be classified into six groups for rural area (R) and also six groups for urban area (U). Each of these standards is listed below with descending order of hierarchy. a) a) b) c) d) e) Standard R6/U6 Standard R5/U5 Standard R4/U4 Standard R3/U3 Standard R2/U2 Standard R1/U1

Normally, roads which function to provide a long distance travel or heavier traffic will require a higher order of design standard for road design. Table 2.1 below show that the design standard for all the road categorized in rural and urban area.

Projected Area ADT Road Category Expressway Highway Rural Primary Road Secondary Road Minor Road Expressway Urban Arterials Collector Local Street

10000 to 3000

1000 150

R6 R5 U6 -

R5 U5 U5 -

R4 R4 U4 U4 U4

R3 U3 U3

R2 U2

R1 U1

By referring to the estimation of average daily traffic (ADT) for a period of time, the required design standard can be obtained based on classification of area (rural/urban). Since the ADT for 2010 that had been calculated for major road is 27166veh/day/lane, which is greater than 10,000 veh/day/lane and is classified as urban area, so the suitable design standard for that road is U5. U5 classify the road as Arterials and it able to penetrate and serve identifiable neighborhood. An arterial road, or is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways or expressways, and between urban centers at the highest level of service possible. The proposed zone is within Iskandar Development Region Authority (IDRA) and considering the proposed zone is just next to Educity Iskandar, It is fast developing region where in future, it is expected to facilitate more than 100,000 residents. This proposed site will be treated as Urban Area. On the other hand, the road inside the

proposed zone is being classified as R4 based on its estimated maximum flow which is 4766 veh/day/lane. R4 is known as Secondary Road and it provides medium geometric standard for the road. Secondary road constitute the major roads forming the basic network of the road transportation system within a district or regional development areas. They serve intermediate trip lengths with partial access control. They usually link up the major towns within the district or regional development areas.

4.6.2 ESTIMATION NUMBER OF LANES FOR BOTH MAJOR ROAD AND PROPOSED ROAD IN THE ZONE

For this project, the ROW was required to be design is 24m, 12m, and 9m width as shown in site plan. The 24m width with two lane dual carriageway 3.5m width

each lane, 2.0m median, future road reserve on both side and a min of 3.5 m utility corridor on both sides of the main artery. Design speed limit for the main artery road is assumed as 90 km/hr. For all internal roads the width stated in the drawing is inclusive of the width of utility corridor / pedestrian walkway on both sides of the road. We also would like to proposed signalize road intersection that will link the existing road with double lane road(24m) that will be the access road from the existing road to the residential area and from 24m width dual carriageway to the housing region.For the purpose of the calculation, the formula that will be used in order to obtain a relevant number of lanes corresponding to each of the roads is as follow:

N V C Sf Cj fp fw

Where: N Sf v/c Cj fp = Number of lanes = Service flow (veh/hr) = Volume / Capacity ratio = Capacity under idea condition (pcu/hr) = Driver population factor =1.0 fw = Road width factor = 1.0

Level of Service is a qualitative measure of the effect of a number of factors, which include speed and travel time, traffic interruption, freedom to manoeuver, safety, driving comfort and convenience and operating costs. For the information, Level of Service is always been used in the capacity analysis and design of roads.

The selection of the design level of service are based on the road category. This level of service concept can be simplified into volume to capacity ratio (v/c). In this project, the roads are considered as Collector and also Secondary Road. Normally, Collector and Secondary type of road will correspond in the Level of service type D.

Table 2.2: Levels of Service Level of Service A Remarks Free flow with low volumes, densities and high speeds. Drivers can maintain their desired speeds with little or no delay. (v/c = 0.15) B Stable flow. Operating speeds beginning to be restricted somewhat by traffic conditions. Some slight delay. (v/c = 0.27) Stable flow. Speeds and maneuverability are more closely controlled by higher volumes. Acceptable delay. (v/c = 0.43) Approaching unstable flow. Tolerable operating speeds which D are considerably affected by operating conditions. Tolerable delay. (v/c = 0.64) Unstable flow. Yet lower operating speeds and perhaps stoppages of E momentary duration. Volumes are at or near congestion and intolerable delay. (v/c = 1.0) Forced flow. Speed and volume can drop to zero. Stoppages can F occur for long periods. Queues of vehicles backing up from a restriction downstream.

Reference

Calculation For major road (Johor Bahru Gelang Patah), N = Sf / [(v/c) x Cj x fp x fw]

Remarks

RTVM 2006 ATJ 11/87 Chapter 2 2.2 ATJ 8/86 Cl. 3.5.1

Where: Sf = = = = Qpeak x PHF 3840 veh/hr x 0.85 3264 veh/hr/lane 3264 / [0.64 x 2000 x 1.0 x 1.0]

= 2.55 lanes Hence, we design major road for 2 lanes. For roads inside the proposed zone, Sf = = = = Qpeak x PHF 155veh/hr x 1.0 155 veh/hr/lane 155 / [0.64 x 2000 x 1.0 x 1.0]

= 0.2 lanes Hence, we design the roads inside the proposed zone as 2 lanes.

ATJ 8/86 Table 5-3 Table 5-4 Table 5-5 Fig 5-10A Fig 5-10B

Estimation for the width of the roads: For major road, Width of each lane = 3.5 m Median = 2.0 m Landscape corridor (each direction) = 4.6 m Drain reserve (each direction) = 3.05 m Hence, the total width = 3.5(2) + 4.6(2) + 2 +3.05(2) = 24 m

For proposed road 12 m wide, Width of each lane = 3.5m Drain reserve (each direction) = 1.0 m Service reserve (each direction) =1.5 m Hence, the total width = 3.5(2) + 1.0(2) + 1.5(2) = 12 m

For proposed road 9 m wide, Width of lane = 3.0 m Drain reserve = 1.5 m

4.6.3

ELEMENTS OF A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

A flexible pavement is a structure composed of several layers of material placed on a subgrade each of which receives the loads from the above layer, spreads and distribute them out, then pass them on to the layer below. The further down in the pavement structure a particular layer is, the less load it will carry. The aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses are sufficiently reduced and do not exceed the capacity of the underlying subgrade.

Material layers are usually arranged within a pavement structure in order of descending load bearing capacity with the highest load bearing capacity material on the top and the lowest load bearing capacity material on the bottom. A typical flexible pavement structure consists of: a) Surface course: This top structural layer usually consists of two layers which are Wearing Course at the top and Binder Course at the bottom. Wearing course is the layer in contact with the traffic loads. It provides a uniform running surface with characteristics such as skid resistance, smoothness and deformation resistance. This wearing course is usually impervious to prevent entrance of surface water into the pavement. The binder course provides a smooth platform onto which the wearing course is constructed. It not only contributes to the riding quality of the pavement but also to the structural strength of the pavement.

b)

Road base: The main structural layer lies immediately beneath the surface course. Its purpose is to distribute traffic loads so that the stresses transmitted onto are within the capacity of the lower layers. Road base are usually the thickest layer in the pavement and constructed out of crushed aggregate, cement stabilized or HMA Premix.

c)

Sub-base: This is the layer between the road base and subgrade. It functions as a load distributing layer, minimizing the intrusion of fines from the subgrade into the pavement structure and improve drainage. The materials are usually crushed aggregate of a lower quality than the road base but better than subgrade soils. The overall thickness of the pavement and the individual layers depends on the

traffic load to be carried, climate, mechanical properties of the material in the layers and the subgrade strength.

Base Course

Sub-base Course

Sub Grade

Table 3.1: Typical Pavement Surface Type Design Standard R6/U6 R5/U5 R4/U4 Description Asphaltic Concrete / Concrete Asphaltic Concrete / Concrete Dense Bituminous Macadam / Asphaltic Concrete / Concrete R3/U3 R2/U2 R1/U1 Bituminous Macadam / Concrete Surface Treatment / Semigrout Gravel / Semigrout

For this project, by referred to the Table 3.1, the design standard of the major road is U5, so the road type is either Asphaltic Concrete or Concrete. Hence, we decided to use Asphaltic Concrete road as our design. On the other hand, the pavement for the roads inside the proposed zone is being designed according guidelines given by MPJBT.

Reference Data available : ADT2010 Pc Design life, n CBR Class of road Annual growth rate Equivalence factor,e

Calculation

Remarks

= = = = = = =

Initial annual commercial traffic for one way Vo = ADT x 0.5 x 365 x Pc 100 = 24800 x0.5x 365 x 10.1 100 = 457126veh/day/lane/direction Cumulative commercial traffic for design period Vc = Vo [(1 + r)n 1] r = 457126 [(1 + 0.0325)20 1] 0.0325 6 = 12.6x 10 Total equivalent standard axles ESA = Vc x e = 12.6 x 106 x 2.0 = 2.52 x 107 Estimated daily traffic per direction per lane after 20 years Vx = Vo (1 + r)n = (24800/2) (1 + 0.0325)20

= 23508 veh/day/lane Maximum one way hourly flow I = 2000 per lane R = 2.0 m T= = = 0.83

c =IxRxT = 4000 x 1.0 x 0.83 =3320 veh/hr/lane Maximum daily capacity per lane per direction C = 10 x c = 10 x 3320 =33200 veh/day/lane Since V2030 = 23508 veh/day/lane < C, Hence, Capacity has not been reached after 20 years. From the Nomograph with: ESA = 5.8 x 107 CBR = 5% TA obtained is 24 cm

Layer coefficient and minimum thickness Minimum Layer Material Coefficient thickness (cm) Asphaltic concrete Mechanically a2 Stabilized Crushed Aggregate a3 Sand 0.23 10 0.32 10

a1

1.00

SN = (1.0 x 18) + (0.32 x 35) + (0.23 x 35) = 27.01 cm < 38 cm = TA 2nd Trial Nominate D1 = 25 cm D2 = 35 cm D3 = 35 cm

Hence, the pavement structure of the major road will comprise of the following layer: Wearing course = 10 cm Binder course = 15 cm Road base course = 35 cm Sub-base course = 35 cm

For the road pavement inside the proposed zone, Wearing course Binder course = 5 cm = 6.5 cm

Pavement structure detail The cross-section pavement design of the roads is shown in Appendix 1

10 cm 15 cm

D2

Road-base Course

35 cm

D3

Sub-base Course

35 cm

5 cm 6.5 cm

D2

Road-base Course

30 cm

D3

Sub-base Course

15 cm

4.7

DESIGN SPEED

Speed is a primary factor in all modes of transportation and is an important factor in the geometric design of roads. The speed of vehicles on a road depends to the capabilities of the drivers and their vehicles, upon general conditions such as the physical characteristics of the highway, the weather, the presence of other vehicles and the legal speed limitations.

Design speed is defined as a maximum safe speed selected to establish specific minimum geometric design elements for a particular section of highway. The choice of design speed is influenced primary by factors such as the design standard, category of road and the type of the terrain of the roads. Table below shows the design speed for rural and urban roads. Table 2.3: Design Speed for the Rural Road

From the table above, the design speed of the main road in this project is 80 km/hr through the assumption that the area is Type I while for the roads in the proposed zone are 90 km/hr. However, for the purpose of safety, we decide that the design speed of 90 km/hr is being reduced to 50 km/hr.

4.8

In the design of horizontal curves, it is necessary to establish the proper relation between the design speed and curvature and also their joint relations with super elevation (e) and side friction (f). There are two types of curves that being considered which are Circular Curve and Transition/Spiral Curve. The combination of circular and spiral curve can give the best design of horizontal alignment with the certain design speed.

CIRCULAR CURVE

The minimum radius is a limiting value of curvature for a given speed and is determined from the maximum rate of superelevation and the maximum allowable side friction factor. The minimum safe radius (Rmin) can be calculated from the standard curve formula.

R V2 127 e f

Where: R min = minimum radius of circular curve (m) V e = Design speed (kph) = Maximum superelevation rate = 0.1 for roads at rural area = 0.06 for roads at urban area f = Maximum allowable side friction factor

Figure 4.1: Comparison of Side Friction Factors Assumed for Design of Different Types of Roads Table 4.1: Minimum Radius Design Speed (kph) 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Minimum Radius (m) e = 0.06 560 465 335 280 195 150 100 60 35 e = 0.10 500 375 305 230 175 125 85 50 30

The length of the circular,Lc curve can be determined with using the equation below:

LC R 2na 360

Vehicles follow a transition path as it enters or leave a circular horizontal curve. To design a road with built-in safety, the alignment should be such that a driver traveling at the design speed will not only find it possible to confine his vehicle to the occupied lane but will be encouraged to do so. Spiral transition curve are used for this purpose. The degree of curve varies from zero at the tangent end of the spiral to the degree of the circular arc at the circular curve end. The length of spiral, Ls can be calculated from the equation below: Ls = v3 [ 1 R.g.e / v2 ] cR Where: v c = Speed (m/s) = rate of increase of centripetal accelerating (m/s3) = 1 to 3 (m/s3) R g e = Radius = Gravity acceleration (m/s2) = super elevation rate

Rem arks

Attaining Superelevation

CURVE 1

emax = 9.1%

X

TS SC

+9.1%

CS ST

-2.5%

X = Tangent Runout = (2.5/9.1) x 13.051 = 3.59 m The detailing of the horizontal alignment is shown in Appendix 2.

Calculation CURVE 2

Rem arks

LS LC LS R ES a R E = 30o

Angle of spiral curve: Es = 5.342o Angle of circle curve a = E - 2Es = 30 (2 x 5.342o0 = = 19.316o

CURVE 2

LS LC LS R ES a R E = 30o

Angle of spiral curve: Es = 5.342o Angle of circle curve a = E - 2Es = 30 (2 x 5.342o) = 19.316o

Attaining Superelevation

CURVE 2

emax = 9.1%

X

TS SC

+9.1%

CS ST

-2.5%

X = Tangent Runout = (2.5/9.1) x 13.051 = 3.59 m The detailing of the horizontal alignment is shown in Appendix 2.

INTRODUCTION

Vertical curve are used to effect a gradual change between tangent grades. They should be simple in application and should result in a design that is safe, comfortable in operation, pleasing in appearance and adequate for drainage. For the simplicity, the parabolic curve with an equivalent vertical axis centered on the vertical point of intersection is used.

The design calculations in this particular chapter of vertical curve were based on the engineering surveying method. There are two types of vertical curve which are crest curve and sag curve. Crest curve is the grades meeting at summits whereas sag curve is the grades meeting at valleys. Also, grades are represented in terms of ratio or percentages. Rising grades are known as +ve and those descending as ve.

In vertical curve design, calculations are based on the algebraic difference between gradients. In addition, the type of curve usually used is the parabola because a parabola has a uniform rate of change of gradients from the geometric point of view. Thus, yielding a uniform rate of vertical radial force.

VERTICAL CURVE CALCULATION ROAD 1 For the calculation of vertical curve 1 p = 0.00% q = 0.667 % L = 112.5m

(p q)% B y p

q C L

Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

1059(A) 0 0

1034 25 0

1009 50 0

984 75 0

959 100 0

946.5 112.5 0

934 125 0

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

0.009

0.037

0.083

0.148

0.188

0.232

RL on curve

24

23.991

23.963

23.912

23.852

23.812

23.768

For the calculation of vertical curve 2 p = 0.667% q = 0.000 % L = 112.5m L C q% (p q)% A p% Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

y B 784 50 0.336 759 75 0.5 734 100 0.667 721.5 112.5 0.75 709 125 0.838

834(A) 0 0

809 25 0.167

23.25

23.083

22.914

22.75

22.183

22.5

22.412

0.009

0.037

0.083

0.148

0.188

0.232

RL on curve

23.25

23.092

22.951

22.833

22.331

22.312

22.644

634

609

ROAD 2

(p q)% B y p

q C L

Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

2944(A) 0 0

2969 25 0

2994 50 0

3019 75 0

3044 100 0

3069 125 0

3081.5 137.5 0

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

0.009

0.037

0.083

0.148

0.188

0.232

RL on curve

24

23.991

23.963

23.912

7.98

8.17

8.34

3219 275 0 24 1 23

p%

(p q)%

Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

3219(A) 0 0

3244 25 0.182

3269 50 0.364

3294 75 0.345

23

22.818

22.636

22.455

22.243

22.084

21.958

0.008

0.033

0.074

0.132

0.207

0.250

RL on curve

24

23.992

23.977

23.926

23.868

23.793

23.768

ROAD 3

q C

Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

4585(A) 0 0

4610 25 0

4633 50 0

4660 75 0

4655 100 0

4710 125 0

4757.5 137.5 0

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

0.009

0.037

0.083

0.148

0.188

0.232

RL on curve

24

23.992

23.977

23.926

23.868

23.793

23.768

4860 275 0 24 1 23

C q% (p q)%

A p% Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

y B

4860(A) 0 0

4885 25 0.182

4910 50 0.364

4935 75 0.345

23

22.818

22.636

22.455

22.243

22.084

21.958

0.008

0.033

0.074

0.132

0.207

0.250

RL on curve

23

22.826

22.669

22.529

22.375

22.261

22.209

ROAD 4

(p q)% B y p

q C L

Chainage x (m) dh on grade (xp/100) RL grade (RLA + dh) Offset (y) y = [(pq)/400L]x

2

3550(A) 0 0

3575 25 0

3600 50 0

3675 75 0

3700 100 0

3725 125 0

3750 150 0

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

0.007

0.028

0.063

0.111

0.174

0.250

RL on curve

24

23.993

23.972

23.937

23.889

23.826

23.75

3900 300 0 24 1 23

3900(A) 0 0 23

2

0.007

0.028

0.063

0.111

0.174

0.250

RL on curve

23

22.84

22.694

22.563

22.444

22.340

22.25

4200 300 2 21 1 22

4.9 JUNCTION

INTRODUCTION

Road intersections whether at grade or grade separated are an important component of a road system. It is through these points that the motorists and other road users gain access to the road network. Generally the capacity of major intersections controls the volume of traffic within the system. These intersections also represent the points of conflict in the road networks as the traffic stream will cross, merge, diverge and weave at these locations. Proper design for these intersections will greatly enhance the safety of the road users and improve the capacity of the system.

For high speed expressway, grade separated interchanges are used to control access where mobility is of greater importance. However for lower standard roads in rural and urban area where accessibility is more important, at-grade intersections are used. The common types of at grade and grade separated intersections are:

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

T-Junction, Y-Junction, Staggered Junction, Cross Junction, Roundabout, Trumpet Interchange, Diamond Interchange, Cloverleaf Interchange, and Directional Interchange.

Intersections at grade present a driver with several points of conflict with other vehicles. The aims of intersection design are to improve traffic flow and reduce the likelihood of accidents. This is achieved by controlling vehicle maneuvers and reducing the number of points of conflict. The principal factors influencing the design of an intersection are: a) b) c) d) Traffic volume and characteristics, Topography and environment, Economic considerations, and Human factors.

Safety is a prime consideration in any intersection design. Safe intersection design is based on the following principles: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Reduction of the number of points of conflict, Minimising the area of conflict, Separation of points of conflict, Giving preference to major movements, Control of speed, Provision of refuge areas, traffic control devices and adequate capacity, and Definition of paths to be followed.

The objective of intersection design is to reduce the severity of potential conflicts between vehicle while providing maximum convenience and ease of movement to vehicles. Four basic elements are generally considered in the design at-grade intersection which are: a) b) Human factors such as driving habits and decision and reaction time. Traffic considerations such as capacities and turning movements, vehicle speeds and size and distribution of vehicles. c) Physical elements such as characteristic and use of abutting property, sight distance and geometric features. d) Economics factors such as cost and benefits and energy consumption.

,.1 l\ ,, lo 1 u

Assumption:

The type of junction is T-Junction (3 arms Junction). There are obstructers blocks the view to recognize the traffic sign or traffic signals at intersection.

CL 2.3

The velocity for major road is 80 km/hr. The velocity for minor road is 40 km/hr. Heavier approach of minor road is 150 veh/hr. Heavier approach of major road is more than 600 veh/hr.

ATJ 11/87

Type of intersection:

CL 3.5.1

ATJ 11/87

II

T 2-2B

ATJ 11/87

In design at the grade junction, we choose to design three arms. The type of intersection design is Unsignalized Intersection which connect Collector road (U5) to the Secondary road (R5).

Design Speed of approach road , v

= 80 km/hr

3. Right Turn Lane Length of Right Turn Lane Cl. 3.5.3 ATJ 11/87 Storage Length, LR = 2 xM x S Where: M = 600 veh/hr/60 min = 10 veh/min LR = 2 x 10 x 12 = 240 m But, in this case, we adopt Lmin = 20 m Design speed, V = 80 km/h Cl. 3.5.4 ATJ 11/87 Figure 3-8C ATJ 11/87 Figure 3-8B ATJ 11/87 Yd = width of right turn lane = 3.5 m Therefore, width of central island, W = 2.5 m Length of taper, LT = 1/3 V (Yd)1/2 = 49.89 50 m Right Turn Clearance, E = 1100 Therefore, R = 16.5 m W=8m

Design speed of approach road = 80km/h Minimum design speed of left turn lanes = 40 km/h Table 3.12 ATJ 11/87

Turning Radius, R1: V =40 km/h (Turning speed) Coefficient of friction between tyres and pavement, f = 0.28 Superelevation of curve, e = 0.06 (Urban area) Therefore, R1 = 43 m

Minor road

Design speed of approach road = 40 km/h Minimum design speed of left turn lanes = 30 km/h

Turning Radius, R1: V = 30 km/h (Turning speed) Coeffition of friction between tyres and pavement, f = 0.28 Superelevation of curve, e = 0.10 (Rural area) Therefore, R1 = 18 m Table 3.3 ATJ 11/87

Lane Width for Left Turn Lane Area = Rural (R4) Category of road = Secondary Road

Lane Width = W1

5. Design of Separate Left Turn Lanes Taper Length For Major Road Td = ( V/3.6) x ( Yd /0.9 ) = ( 80/3.6) x ( 3.5 /0.9) = 86.4 m, adopt 100 m Yd = 3.5 m

Tm = ( V/3.6) x ( Ym /0.6 ) = ( 40/3.6) x ( 3.5 /0.6) = 64.8 m, adopt 65 m Cls 3.7.3 Taper Length for Minor road V= 40 km/hr (the velocity for minor road) Yd = 3.5 m (desirable treatment) Td = [V/3.6] x [Yd/0.9] Td = 43.2 m, adopt 45 m

Ym = 3.5 m

V= 30 km/hr (minimum design speed for turn-left channel) Ym = 3.5 m (desirable treatment) Tm = [V/3.6] x [Ym/0.6] Tm = 48.6 m, adopt 50 m

Design speed of approach road = 80 km/h Design speed of exit curve = 40 km/h Length of deceleration Lanes = 94 m Figure 3-18 ATJ 11/87 Treatment in approach to Left Turn

Acceleration Lanes Design speed of road being entered = 80 km/h Design speed of exit curve = 40 km/h Length of acceleration lanes = 180 m Treatment for acceleration lane taper

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, all the calculations done are meeting the standard requirement. From the computation of 20 years design life, the 2 lanes used in this design can provide a smooth journey for the road user. Besides that, the designed road had shown that the horizontal and vertical curves are computed to give an ease movement to the vehicles. Finally, the intersection suggested determines that it can reduce the severity of potential conflicts between vehicles, at the same time, it provides a convenience for the road user. Overall, it can be said that this designed road has fulfilled the important criteria in term of cost, safety, and quality.

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