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What constitutes a cybercrime in the country ?



acts committed from or against a computer or


computer-mediated activities that can be conducted through global electronic networks

Unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or Online or Internet-based illegal acts

The first recorded cybercrime took place in the year 1820 In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer
France, produced the loom weaving of special fabrics


This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the This

resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened Cont Jacquard from further use of the new technology.This is the first recorded cyber crime!

The employees committed acts of sabotage to discourage The first spam email took place in 1978 when it was sent
over the Arpanet

The first VIRUS was installed on an Apple computer in 1982

Type of Cyber Crime



is commonly referred as unauthorized access to computer systems or network without the permission of the computer owner/user write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer intent to steal, damage, modify or monitor data or settings within the system VIRUS ATTACKS


Computer hacking includes breaking into a computer with the Malicious software that attaches itself to other software Circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on
a network

Affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it


In such crime criminal makes insignificant changes in such a

manner that such changes would go unnoticed

Criminals makes such program thatdeducts small amount like Rs. 2.50 per month from the account of all the customer of the bank and deposit the same in his account. In this case no account holder will approach the bank for such small amount but criminal gains huge amount SOFTWARE PIRACY of software through the illegal copying of genuine programs or the counterfeiting and distribution of products intended to pass for the original and using computer programs in violation of copyrights and trade secret laws revenue losses worldwide are ever increasing due to this crime E-MAIL BOMBS may be an individual or a company by ultimately resulting into crashing.


Copying Retail

It refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which E-mail

"bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly sending an identical email message to a particular address LOGIC BOMBS


Secretly attaches another program to a companys computer Even some viruses may be termed logic bombs because they
lie dormant all through the year and become active only on a

are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs

particular date. INTERNET FRAUD

Any type of fraud scheme that uses one or more components

of the internet such as chat rooms, e-mail, message boards, or Web sites - to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to other connected with the scheme CYBER TERRORISM

It is the actual use of computers and Internet technology to

cause intimidation and destruction

uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers Cyber terrorist could hack
for political reasons into a pharmaceutical companys computers, changing the formula of some essential medication and causing thousands to die PASSWORD TRAFFICKING or

Misuse and illegal selling of other peoples passwords Break a companys password and misuse the password
sale that password to another company or an individual IDENTITY THEFT

Identity theft occurs when somebody steals a personal name

and other personal information for fraudulent purposes

Identity theft is a form of identity crime where somebody uses It

a false identity to commit a crime involves stealing victims personal credentials, often to make purchases information and


You simply have to type credit card number into www page of
the vendor for online transaction

If electronic transaction are not secured the credit card numbers can be stolen by the hackers who can misuse this card by impersonating the credit card owner Characteristics of Computer Crime

Silent in Nature Global in character Nonexistence of Physical Evidence Creates high Impact Gain Benefit Computer

Silent in Nature

crime could be committed in privacy without reaching to scene of crime physically i.e. no eye witnesses. There is no signs of physical violence or struggle Global in character country the entire economy of the country could be destroyed. As digital evidences are fragile in nature one has to respond quickly Nonexistence of Physical Evidence

No national borders. By sitting comfortably far away from the


physical evidence to indicate that crime has been committed. Only on a closer look the trained person could find out the evidences which are not in the traditional format but are in digital format Creates high Impact damage the victim system permanently. Loss of good will

Impact is severe and may be long term. It can

Gain Benefit

A software developer who did not get enough money or good

job would turn to criminal world for their survival. Therefore, the computer crimes have a potential to increase. Hence organized mafia may enter into this sector CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIME

Computer as Target Computer as Tool Computer as incidental to Offence Crimes A

Computer as Target

which compromise the confidentiality of a system, resulting in theft of services or the release of viruses computer virus is a self-replicating computer program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user

Example: Hacking/cracking, computer trespass

Computer as Tool

Crimes migrated from the physical world into cyberspace such

as child pornography, fraud, illegal online sales

This category include such crimes were either computers or

their contents bare used in furtherance of crime or those offences which are committed by manipulating contents of computer systems


sending e-mails, credit telecommunication frauds, identity theft



Computer as incidental to Offence

Computer used to facilitate or execute a crime such as the

storing of child pornography or illicit drug records

This category includes conventional crimes, and with the

advent of computer the criminal have started using the technology as an aid for its perpetuation

Example: Aid for drug trafficking, money laundering, child

pornography etc. Hackers Profile


is a term that is currently used to identify individuals who break into computers

Hackers can be any age, creed or nationality Hackers have gained a negative image due to their exploits in
the past few years

Hackers may commit their criminal activity for excitement, the

challenge or monetary reasons

Hackers tend to be young males who have extremely high

intelligence and curiosity

There has been an increase in the number of females that have acquired the skills to break into computer systems Cyber Crime Methodology process is based on their experience acquired through attempting to break into, and subsequently breaking into computer systems this provides law enforcement is a Modus Operandi (MO) with patterns that prosecutors and police can use to build their case



Law enforcement officials should establish databases on the

MO of cyber criminals in their sectors

Cyber criminals will typically need to use a computer network

that is difficult if not impossible to identify

Cyber criminals will hack into a victim computer or will use

cyber cafs to commit their illegal activity Process of Hacking first phase of their illegal activity

This is done to make it difficult for law enforcement to identify the perpetrator of the cyber crime

Hackers will initially conduct intelligence gathering during the They want to learn network range, extranet connections, etc Hackers next conduct network discovery to identify the

number and operating systems of the target victims computer network vulnerabilities that exist of the system computers vulnerabilities will then be exploited by the criminal criminals will also install password crackers on the network. These crackers will allow them to break the passwords of the authorized users

Hackers will also conduct host enumeration in order to identify The


Once the network has been compromised, cyber criminals will Hackers

usually install sniffers that allow them to capture user id/passwords and other sensitive information may use steganography in order to hide important data from law enforcement personnel

Steganography is very easy to use with automated software

Computer Forensics

Computer forensic is evidence produced by a computer which

is supported, conclusive (convincing), and sufficient to be accepted by the court

Computer forensics is the discipline of acquiring, preserving,

identifying and examining digital media

It involves retrieving computer data in order to meet standards

for admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings


forensic data recovery is the basis for seizure of evidence in all computer-based investigations Why we use Computer Forensics

Imagine the following You didnt recognize critical evidence or information You could not locate vital data You could not use any documents or records You accidentally destroyed evidence You now needed to resolve an allegation or an issue
Where is the Evidence?

Removable Media: Floppy Disk; Zip Disk Hard Drive: IDE; SCSI CDROM Magnetic Tape Electronic Organizers

Examination of Evidence

Reliability of evidence Adherence to accepted protocols and practices Use of proven / accepted software Ability to testify as to methods and results of analysis Trained and certified computer forensics examiners Proper training is crucial for testimonial purposes
Exploitation of Evidence Requires

Separating pertinent evidence from non-pertinent There then must be an evaluation of the evidence for criticality
and usability in judicial environment

There must always Governments

be a documentation of actions taken by

the examiner Cyber Crime Legal Approaches have passed a variety of laws to address the increase of computer crimes

The first computer crime statutes were passed in 1986 Local and regional areas have also passed laws to address
cyber crime at their level

Local and regional laws generally mirror the national laws

Large Nation Response to Cyber Crime

One nation created a Computer Crime & Intellectual Property

Section (CCIPS) to formulate policy on computer crime

CCIPS is responsible for issuing country-wide guidelines on Each

the search and seizure of digital data individual Attorney Generals Office has a specially trained prosecutor that is responsible for the prosecution of crimes where a computer is utilized

Computer crime legislation

The Computer Misuse Act (1990) The Data Protection Act (1998) Information Technology Act, 2000
Protect your P. C.

Use the latest version of anti-virus Use the latest version of the operating system Dont open e-mail attachments unless you know the source Confirm the site you are doing business with Create passwords containing atleast 8 digits Use different passwords for different websites Send credit card information only to secure sites Use a security program that gives you control over "Cookies"
that send information back to websites Safety Tips to Cyber Crime

Use antivirus softwares insert firewalls uninstall unnecessary software maintain backup check security settings Stay anonymous - choose a genderless screen name Never give your full name or address to strangers Learn inetiquette' - follow it and expect it from others Don't respond to harassing or negative messages (flames)

Get out of uncomfortable or hostile situations quickly Save offending messages Learn more about Internet privacy
Prevent Cyber Crime

Spam Blocker Anti-Virus Software Firewall Protection Caution in providing personal information Secure shoping Avoidence of Scam Avast Free Antivirus AVG Free Antivirus Avira AntiVir Personal Kaspersky Antivirus Mcafee Antivirus Symantec Norton Antivirus Quick Heal Antivirus

Some Antivirus Softwares

What constitutes a cyber-crime in the country? By Jitendra Katara 10EUDCS043

What constitutes a cyber-crime in the country?

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology IN Computer Engineering

Session: 2013-14 Submitted To: Asst.Prof. Shritosh Kumar Submitted By: Jitendra Katara VIII & CS-A

Department of Computer Science and Engineering JECRC UDML College of Engineering Opp. Hotel Shiv Vilas, Achrol 10 km Milestone, Kukas Jaipur-Delhi Road, Jaipur-302028