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GEOTECHNICS GEOTECHNICS

GEOTECHNICS

GEOTECHNICS

FOR

FOR

THE STRUCTURAL

THE

STRUCTURAL

ENGINEER

ENGINEER

DENIS DENIS H. H. CAMILLERI CAMILLERI dhcamill dhcamill@@maltanet maltanet.net .net BICC BICC CPD CPD 22/04/05 22/04/05

The Development of Foundation limit State Design

Before

Before World

World War

War IIII codes

codes of

of practice

practice for

for

foundation engineering

foundation

engineering were

were used

used only

only inin aa

InIn 1956

countries.

of partial

closely toto

first time

the limit

time the

used for

the first

context.

linked the

Brinch

for the

and he

words

small

the

the

he

words limit

geotechnical context.

Brinch Hansen

concept closely

design concept

safety factors,

small number

Brinch linked

partial safety

Hansen used

design inin aa geotechnical

of countries.

1956 Brinch

factors, and

limit design

limit design

the concept

number of

concept of

introduced

introduced these

these two

two concepts

concepts inin Danish

Danish

foundation

foundation of

of engineering

engineering practice.

practice.

Basis Behind Eurocode 7

The Limit

The

Limit state

state concept

concept isis today

today widely

widely accepted

accepted as

as aa

the work

the

basis

of the

From

the very

codes of

basis for

for codes

structural engineering.

From the

of practice

work onon the

engineering.

beginning of

very beginning

practice inin structural

Eurocodes itit was

Eurocodes

was aa foregone

foregone conclusion

conclusion that

that the

the

Eurocodes should

Eurocodes

should be

be written

written inin the

the limit

limit state

state design

design

format

format and

and that

that partial

partial factors

factors of

of safety

safety should

should be

be

used. used.

Consequently itit was

Consequently

was decided

decided that

that also

also those

those parts

parts of

of

the Eurocodes

the

Eurocodes which

which will

will be

be dealing

dealing with

with

geotechnical

geotechnical aspects

aspects of

of design

design should

should be

be written

written inin

the limit

the

limit state

state format

format with

with the

the use

use of

of partial

partial factors

factors

of safety

of

safety

Geotechnical Categories & Geotechnical Risk Higher Categories satisfied by greater attention to the quality of the geotechnical investigations and the design

Table 1-Geotechnical Categories related to geotechnical hazard and vulnerability levels

Factors toto be

Factors

be

 

Geotechnical Categories

Geotechnical

Categories

considered considered

GC1

GC1

GC2

GC2

GC3

GC3

Geotechnical

Geotechnical hazards

hazards

/vulnerability /risk

/vulnerability

/risk

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderate

High

High

Ground conditions

Ground

conditions

Known from

Known

from comparable

comparable

experience

experience toto be

be

straightforward. straightforward. Not Not

involving involving soft, soft, loose loose or or

compressible compressible soil, soil, loose loose

Ground conditions

Ground

conditions and

and

properties

properties can

can be

be

determined

determined from

from routine

routine

investigations

investigations and

and tests.

tests.

Unusual

Unusual or

or

exceptionally difficult

exceptionally

difficult

ground conditions

ground

conditions

requiring

requiring non

non--routine

routine

investigations

investigations and

and

fill fill or or sloping sloping ground. ground.

tests.

tests.

Regional seismicity

Regional

seismicity

Areas with

Areas

with no

no or

or very

very low

low

earthquake hazard

earthquake

hazard

Moderate earthquake

Moderate

earthquake

hazard where

hazard

where seismic

seismic

design

design code

code (EC8

(EC8 Part

Part

V)

V) may

may be

be used

used

Areas of

Areas

of high

high

earthquake hazard

earthquake

hazard

Surroundings

Surroundings

Negligible risk

Negligible

risk of

of damage

damage

toto or

or from

from neighbouring

neighbouring

structures

structures or

or services

services and

and

negligible risk

negligible

risk for

for life

life

Possible risk

Possible

risk of

of damage

damage

toto neighbouring

neighbouring

structures

structures or

or services

services

due, for

due,

for example,

example, toto

excavations

excavations or

or piling

piling

High risk

High

risk of

of damage

damage toto

neighbouring

neighbouring

structures

structures or

or services

services

Table 1 (cont.)

   

Geotechnical Categories

Geotechnical

Categories

 

GC1

GC1

GC2

GC2

GC3

GC3

Expertise

Expertise

required

required

Person with

Person

with appropriate

appropriate

comparable experience

comparable

experience

Experienced qualified

Experienced

qualified

person Civil

person

Civil Engineer

Engineer

Experienced

Experienced

geotechnical

geotechnical

specialist

specialist

Design

Design

procedures

procedures

Prescriptive

Prescriptive measures

measures and

and

simplified design

simplified

design procedures

procedures

e.g. design

e.g.

design bearing

bearing pressures

pressures

based onon experience

based

experience or

or

published

published presumed

presumed bearing

bearing

pressures. Stability

pressures.

Stability of

of

deformation calculations

deformation

calculations may

may

not be

not

be necessary

necessary

Routine calculations

Routine

calculations for

for

stability

stability and

and

deformations

deformations based

based onon

design

design procedures

procedures inin

EC7

EC7

More sophisticated

More

sophisticated

analyses

analyses

Examples of

Examples

of

structures structures

--

Simple

Simple 11 && 22 storey

storey

structures and

structures

and agricultural

agricultural

buildings having

buildings

having maximum

maximum

design

design column

column load

load of

of 250kN

250kN

and maximum

and

maximum design

design wall

wall load

load

of 100kN/m

of

100kN/m

--

Retaining

Retaining walls

walls and

and

excavation

excavation supports

supports where

where

ground level

ground

level difference

difference does

does not

not

exceed 2m2m

exceed

Conventional:

Conventional:

--

Spread

Spread and

and pile

pile

foundations

foundations

--

Walls and

Walls

and other

other

retaining

retaining structures

structures

--

Bridge piers

Bridge

piers and

and

abutments

abutments

Embankments and

Embankments

and

earthworks

earthworks

--

Very large

Very

large

buildings

buildings

--

Large bridges

Large

bridges

--

Deep

Deep

excavations excavations

-- Embankments Embankments

onon soft soft ground ground

Tunnels inin soft

Tunnels

soft or

or

highly

highly permeable

permeable

ground ground

 
 

Ultimate Limite State (ULS) partial factors (persistant & transiet situations)

 

Table 2- Partial factors for ultimate limit states in persistent and transient situations

Parameter

Parameter

Factor

Factor

Case

Case AA

Case

Case BB

Case CC

Case

Case C2

Case

C2

Case C3

Case

C3

Partial load

Partial

load factors

factors ((γγ FF ))

 

(UPL)

(UPL)

(STR)

(STR)

(GEO)

(GEO)

(EQU)

(EQU)

(HYD)

(HYD)

Permanent

Permanent

unfavourable action

unfavourable

action

γγ GG

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.35

1.35

1.00

  • 1.35 1.35 1.00

1.00

Variable

Variable unfvaourable

unfvaourable

action

action

γγ QQ

 
  • 1.50 1.50 1.30

1.50

1.50

1.30

  • 1.50 1.50 1.20

1.20

Permanent fvourable

Permanent

fvourable

action

action

γγ GG

 
  • 0.95 0.95 1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

  • 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00

Variable

Variable favourable

favourable

γγ QQ

00

00

00

00

00

action

action

Accidental action

Accidental

action

γγ AA

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

  • 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00

Values inin red

Values

red are

Values inin green

Values

green are

are partial

partial factors

factors either

either given

given or

or implied

implied inin ENV

ENV version

version of

of EEC7

C7

are partial

partial not

not inin the

the ENV

ENV that

that may

may be

be inin the

the ENEN version

version

 
 

Table 2 (Cont.)

Parameter

Parameter

Factor

Factor

Case

Case AA

Case

Case BB

Case CC

Case

Case C2

Case

C2

Case C3

Case

C3

Partial material

Partial

material factors

factors ((γγ mm ))

 

(UPL)

(UPL)

(STR)

(STR)

(GEO)

(GEO)

(EQU)

(EQU)

(HYD)

(HYD)

Tan φφ

Tan

γγ tan tanφφ

1.10

1.10

  • 1.00 1.00 1.25

1.25

1.00

1.00

1.20

1.20

Effective cohesion

Effective

cohesion cc

γγ cc

1.30

1.30

  • 1.00 1.00 1.60

1.60

1.00

1.00

1.20

1.20

Undrained

Undrained shear

shear strength

strength cc uu

γγ cucu

1.20

1.20

  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.40

1.00

1.00

1.40

1.40

Compressive

Compressive strength

strength qq uu

γγ ququ

1.20

1.20

  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.40

1.00

1.00

1.40

1.40

Pressuremeter limit

Pressuremeter

limit

pressure pp limlim

pressure

γγ plim plim

1.40

1.40

  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.40

1.00

1.00

1.40

1.40

CPT resistance

CPT

resistance

γγ CPT CPT

1.40

1.40

  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.40

1.00

1.00

1.40

1.40

Unit weight

Unit

weight of

of ground

ground γγ

γγ gg

1.00

1.00

  • 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Values inin red

Values

red are

are partial

partial factors

factors either

either given

given or

Values inin green

Values

green are

are partial

partial not

not inin the

the ENV

ENV that

or implied

implied inin ENV

ENV version

version of

of ECEC77

that may

may be

be inin the

the ENEN version

version

 
 

Table 2 (Cont.)

Parameter

Parameter

Factor

Factor

Case

Case AA

Case

Case BB

Case CC

Case

Case C2

Case

C2

Case C3

Case

C3

Partial

Partial resistance

resistance factors

factors ((γγ RR ))

 

(UPL)

(UPL)

(STR)

(STR)

(GEO)

(GEO)

(EQU)

(EQU)

(HYD)

(HYD)

Bearing resistance

Bearing

resistance

γγ RVRV

--**

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.00

1.00

1.40

1.00

1.00

Sliding resistance

Sliding

resistance

γγ rSrS

--**

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.10

1.00

1.00

1.10

1.00

1.00

Earth resistance

Earth

resistance

γγ Re Re

--**

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.00

1.00

1.40

1.00

1.00

Pile

Pile base

base resistance

resistance

γγ bb

--**

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.30

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.00

1.00

Pile

Pile shaft

shaft resistance

resistance

γγ ss

--**

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.30

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.00

1.00

Total pile

Total

pile resistance

resistance

γγ tt

--**

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.30

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.00

1.00

Pile Tensile

Pile

Tensile resistance

resistance

γγ stst

1.40

1.40

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.40

1.60

1.60

1.40

1.00

1.00

Anchor

Anchor pull

pull--out

out resistance

resistance

γγ AA

1.30

1.30

 
  • 1.00 1.00 1.20

1.50

1.50

1.20

1.00

1.00

Values inin red

Values

red are

are partial

partial factors

factors either

either given

given or

or implied

implied inin ENV

ENV version

version of

of ECEC77

Values inin green

Values

green are

are partial

partial not

not inin the

the ENV

ENV that

that may

may be

be inin the

the ENEN version

version

** Partial

Partial factors

factors that

that are

are not

not relevant

relevant for

for Case

Case AA

 

Serviceability Limit State Calculations (SLS)

Table 3 – Serviceability limits

   

of damage

Degree of

damage

Degree

Effect onon

Effect

Crack width

width mmmm

Crack

Dwelling

Dwelling

Commercial or

Commercial

public

public

or

Industrial

Industrial

structure and

building use

structure

building

and

use

>> 0.1

0.1

Insignificant

Insignificant

Insignificant

Insignificant

Insignificant

Insignificant

None

None

toto 0.3

0.3

0.1

0.1

Very slight

slight

Very

Very slight

slight

Very

Insignificant

Insignificant

none

none

toto 11

0.3

0.3

Slight

Slight

Slight

Slight

Very slight

slight

Very

Aesthetic only

Aesthetic

only

toto 22

11

moderate moderate

Slight toto

Slight

moderate moderate

Slight toto

Slight

Very slight

slight

Very

weathering toto

Accelerated

Accelerated

weathering

external features

external

features

toto 55

22

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Slight

Slight

Serviceability of

Serviceability

building will

the building

will

the

of

toto 1515

55

Moderate toto

Moderate

severe

severe

Moderate toto

Moderate

severe

severe

Moderate

Moderate

affected, and

towards the

be affected,

towards

and

the

be

1515 toto 2525

Severe toto very

Severe

severe severe

very

Moderate toto

Moderate

severe

severe

Moderate toto

Moderate

severe

severe

upper bound,

stability may

stability

bound,

also be

at risk

upper

be at

may

risk

also

>25

>25

Very severe

dangerous

dangerous

severe toto

Very

dangerous dangerous

Severe toto

Severe

dangerous dangerous

Severe toto

Severe

Increasing risk

of structure

Increasing

becoming

becoming

structure

risk

of

dangerous

dangerous

LIMIT STATE DESIGN –

CHARACTERISTIC VALUE & DESIGN

STRENGTH

CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH

CHARACTERISTIC

STRENGTH OF

OF AA

MATERIAL isis the

MATERIAL

the strength

strength below

below which

which not

not

more than

more

than 5%5% (or

(or 11 inin 20)

20) samples

samples will

will fail.

fail.

CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH

CHARACTERISTIC

STRENGTH ==

MEAN VALUE

MEAN

VALUE 1.64

1.64 XX Standard

Standard Deviation

Deviation

DESIGN STRENGTH

DESIGN

STRENGTH ==

CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH

CHARACTERISTIC

STRENGTH

MATERIAL FACTOR

MATERIAL

FACTOR OF

OF SAFETY

SAFETY

ff uu

γγ mm

EXAMPLE:

EXAMPLE:

Ten

Ten concrete

concrete cubes

cubes were

were prepared

prepared and

and tested

tested by

by crushing

crushing inin

compression

compression at

at 2828 days.

days. The

The following

following crushing

crushing strengths

strengths inin N/m

N/mmm 22

were obtained:

were

obtained:

  • 44.5 44.5 47.3

47.3 42.1

42.1 39.6

39.6 47.3

47.3 46.7

46.7 43.8

43.8 49.7

49.7 45.2

45.2 42.7

42.7

Mean strength

Mean

strength xx mm

== 448.9

448.9 == 44.9N

44.9N/mm

/mm 22

1010

Standard Standard deviation deviation == [(x [(x--xx mm )) 22 /(n /(n--1)] 1)] == (80/0) (80/0)

2.98N/mm 22

== 2.98N/mm

Characteristic Characteristic strength strength == 44.9 44.9 (1.64 (1.64 XX 2.98) 2.98)

== 40.0

40.0 N/mm

N/mm 22

Design Design strength strength == 40.0 40.0 == 40.0 40.0

γγ mm

26.7N/mm 22

== 26.7N/mm

1.5

1.5

EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: Ten concrete cubes were prepared and tested by crushing in in compression at 28
Project 05/02 Date: 05/02 Date: Output Output Ref Ref Calculations Calculations ref: Job ref: Job DHC
Project
05/02
Date: 05/02
Date:
Output
Output
Ref
Ref
Calculations
Calculations
ref:
Job ref:
Job
DHC
Project
CPD COURSE
COURSE
FOUNDATION CPD
FOUNDATION
INDUSTRY
BICC
BICC
Structure
Part of
of Structure
Drawing Ref:
Range of typical
V values
of VV for
may may be be used used toto determine determine that that XX KK value, value, given given by by
For For aa small small sample sample size size the the Student Student tt value value for for aa 95% 95% confidence confidence level level
not not possible possible toto rely rely onon Normal Normal Distribution. Distribution.
portion portion of of the the total total volume volume invol involved ved inin aa design design situation situation isis tetested, sted, itit isis
ToTo find find the the 95% 95% confidence confidence level, level, for for soil soil properties, properties, asas only only aa small small
34.5°°,36.0
following following ∅∅’’ KK values values were were determined determined from from 1010 traxial traxial tests: tests: 3333°°,, 3535°°,,
required required for for aa 10m 10m depth depth of of grou groundnd consisting consisting of of sand sand for for which which the the
The The Characteristic Characteristic Value Value of of the the angle angle of of shearing shearing resistance resistance ∅∅’’ KK isis
VALUE DETERMINATION
Drawing
COUNCIL
COUNCIL
CONSULTATIVE
CONSULTATIVE
BUILDING INDUSTRY
BUILDING
by: DHC
Ref:
Done by:
Done
tanφ ’
0
– 0.10
XX KK == XX mm [[ ll--tVtV ]] == XX mm -- ttσσ
√√nn
values of
typical values
Some
Some typical
33.5°°,, 32.5
33.5
32.5°°,, 37.5
37.5°°,, 34.5
– 0.70
0.05
0.30
c’
c
Soil Property
0.20
m
v
0.20
γ (unit weight)
0.01
different soil
DETERMINATION
CHARACTERISTIC VALUE
CHARACTERISTIC
Part
31.5°°,, 3737°°,, 33.5
33.5°°
√√nn
by
given by
properties given
soil properties
u
for different
,36.0°°,, 31.5
Recommended V
Value if limited
Test results available
0.10
– 0.15
– 0.50
0.40
0.30
– 0.40
0.40
 

BICC

BICC

BUILDING

BUILDING INDUSTRY

INDUSTRY

Project

Project

FOUNDATION CPD

FOUNDATION

CPD COURSE

COURSE

Job ref:

Job

ref:

 

CONSULTATIVE

CONSULTATIVE

COUNCIL

COUNCIL

Part of

Part

of Structure

Structure

CHARACTERISTIC && DESIGN

CHARACTERISTIC

DESIGN VALUE

VALUE

DETERMINATION

DETERMINATION

 
 

Drawing

Drawing Ref:

Ref:

Done by:

Done

by: DHC

DHC

 

Ref

Ref

Calculations

Calculations

Output

Output

 

Average angle

Average

angle of

of shearing

shearing resistance

resistance AVAV == 34.4

34.4°°

With aa Standard

With

Standard Deviation

Deviation

σσ

==

1.97°°

1.97

Coeff

Coeff of

of variation

variation

VV

== 0.057

0.057

Student Student tt for for aa 95% 95% confidence confidence level level

 

with

with 1010 test

test results

results

== 2.

2.2626

KK == 34.4 34.4 -- 1.97 1.97 XX 2.26 2.26 // 1010 == 33.0 33.0°°

The The Design

Design Value

Value XX DD == XX kk //γγ mm

Applying

Applying the

the γγ mm == 1.25

1.25 for

for Case

Case CC inin Table

Table 22

cc == arc arc tan tan (tan (tan KK )) // 1.25 1.25

27.8°°

== 27.8

 

The t values are given in Table 4

The t values are given in Table 4

Basic Cohesive Soil Founding Pressures

Shallow Foundation

Shallow

Foundation occurs

occurs when

when founding

founding depth

depth (D)

(D) isis

less than

less

than width

width (B)

(B)

use the

soil type

type use

Shallow

the base

or when

the EC7

per unit

Hansen

qq BB == 9c

For the

for rafts)

not be

Deep

rafts)

area

area

D/B

unit

For

For

when d<3m

Shallow foundation

foundation qq BB == 5c

Deep foundation

resistance qq BB per

Brinch--Hansen

base resistance

conditions, the

For undrained

applicable for

be applicable

undrained conditions,

EC7 Brinch

d<3m (may

general soil

the general

foundation

D/B << 11 or

9c uu ++ γγ ss DD

5c uu ++ γγ ss DD

(may not

equation.

equation.

MALTESE CLAYS CHARACTERISTICS

Referring

Referring toto Mr.

Mr. A.

A. Cassar

Cassar A&CE,

A&CE, from

from various

various

Also the

may be

(LL) at

(PL) of

limit of

limit of

at 23%,

given at

value of

having

with the

given by

SPT and

out using

very stiff

of 5050 and

stiff inin its

the liquid

state,

PI

be

by

The

200.

tests

Also

with

described

23%,

insitu

lower

1988).

with aa

of 200.

of clay

as stiff

and laboratory

of 100KN/m

described as

tests carried

natural state,

Maltese clays

and anan upper

The plasticity

Bonello 1988).

clay isis given

plasticity index

100KN/m 22 ,, with

average CC value

at 70%70% ((Bonello

samples, Maltese

tests onon recovered

having anan average

recovered samples,

insitu tests

limit (PL)

clays may

index (PI)

limit (LL)

using SPT

thus given

the plastic

its natural

PI == LLLL PLPL == 47%47%

laboratory

(PI) isis thus

lower limit

carried