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KISI-KISI UJIAN KIMIA KOLOID DAN PERMUKAAN What is absorption? absorption - A process "to take in and incorporate.

" In chemistry, a term often used to describe the dissolution of a gas into a liquid or solid. The dissolving gas is said to be "absorbed." Or a liquid substance can be "absorbed" by a solid. This is a bulk process, not to be confused ith adsorption . What is adsorption? adsorption ! "# The formation of a layer of gas, liquid, or solid on the surface of a solid or, less frequently, of a liquid. There are t o types depending on the nature of the forces involved. In chemisorption a single layer of molecules, atoms, or ions is attached to the adsorbent surface by chemical bonds. In physisorption adsorbed molecules are held by the eaker van der $aals% forces. &# An increase of the concentration of a so !te in the vicinity of a solid surface, over that in the bulk of the solution, due to the attractive interaction bet een the solid immersed into the solution and the so !te . Adsorption on a solid from a gaseous phase also occurs. It is a surface process, not to be confused ith absorption . What is anion? anion ! A negatively charged ion, i.e. an ion that is attracted to the anode in e ectrophoresis . The name is derived from anode ion. The negative charge results because there are more electrons than protons in the anion. Anions can be formed from nonmetals by reduction 'see o"idation and red!ction# or from neutral acids 'see acids and bases# or polar compounds by ioni(ation. anode - A positive e ectrode . In e ectrophoresis anions are attracted to the anode. #ro$nian %otion - )haotic motion of minute particle suspended in a gas or liquid. More &&& cathode - A negative e ectrode . In e ectrophoresis cations are attracted to the cathode. What is cation? cation ! A positively charged ion, i.e. an ion that is attracted to the cathode in e ectrophoresis . The name is derived from cathode ion. The charge results because there are more protons than electrons in the cation due to missing orbital electrons. )ations can be formed from a metal by o*idation 'see o"idation and red!ction#, from a neutral base 'see acids and bases# by protonation, or from a polar compound by ioni(ation. )ationic species include Ag'+#, ,a'+#, -g'++#, and

,.'/+#. The cations of the transition e e%ents have characteristic colors in solution. Sa ts are made up of cations and anions. What is coa'! ation?


coa'! ation - The process in hich colloidal particles come together irreversible to form larger masses. )oagulation can be brought about by adding ions that change the ionic strength of the so !tion and thus destabili(e the colloid. What is co oida si (er? co oida si (er so !tion ! A so !tion containing pure ater and nano%eter si(ed si (er partic es in a colloidal suspension. -ost silver colloids also contain si (er ions . Typically, the silver in ionic form constitutes 012 or more of the tota si (er in so !tion . If the solution contained all ions and no particles, it ould be considered an ionic solution, not a colloid since there ould be no particles suspended in the ater. If the solution contained only particles and no ions, it ould be considered a pure colloid. The particles remain suspended in the ater o ing to a partic e char'e hich causes an electrostatic %!t!a rep! sion of the particles. This particle charge is due to adsorption of ions from the surrounding solution and is called )eta potentia . dispersant - 3omething that disperses. A chemical substance added to a dispersion capable of maintaining the dispersed particles in s!spension . e ectric do!b e a*er - The liquid layer surrounding the particle e*ists as t o parts4 an inner region '3tern layer# here the ions are strongly bound and an outer 'diffuse# region here they are less firmly associated. More &&& What is + occ! ation? + occ! ation - The process in hich particles in a colloid a''re'ate into larger clumps. Often, the term is used for a reversible aggregation of particles in hich the forces holding the particles together are eak and the colloid can be redispersed by agitation. What is co oid stabi it*? co oid stabi it* - The interaction of particles in polar liquids is not governed by the e ectrica potentia at the surface of the particle, but by the effective potential of the particle and its associated ions . To utili(e electrostatic control, it is the )eta potentia of a particle that must be measured rather than its surface charge. Overall colloid stability depends on the interaction bet een individual particles. If %!t!a rep! sion e*ists bet een particles in a colloid, the dispersant ill resist + occ! ation . .o ever, in the long term there may be caking or creaming through natural sedi%entation . Attracti(e +orces present in the dispersant ill cause flocculation or coa'! ation to occur. -ost stability problems may be approached by considering the balance bet een the rep! si(e and attracti(e forces. In practice there are t o ays to achieve this balance5 '"# Po *%ers may be added hich adsorb on to the surface of the particles ithin the colloid causing repulsion by steric e++ects . '&# Alternatively, the ionic composition of the colloidal solution can

be ad6usted, ith the change in distribution of charged species determining the stability of the colloid. 7oth methods have benefits depending on the application. 8enerally, a combination of electrostatic and steric effects is responsible for stability. More&&& partic e char'e ! A charge imparted to the particle due to adsorption of ions from the surrounding so !tion . The charge is produced at the s ippin' p ane surrounding the particle and is called the )eta potentia . 9article behavior in an electric field is determined by its (eta potential. partic e s!r+ace area ,cm&:m;# - Total surface area in square centimeters 'cm&# of all the particles in one milli-liter'm;# of colloid. The surface area is a calculated value based on the concentration of particles 'ppm# and the mean diameter of the particles. The mean diameter is determined from the volume analysis of the 9article 3i(e <eport generated by the -alvern Photon -orre ation Spectro%eter& If the volume analysis consists of more that one peak, then total surface area is calculated as a eighted sum of the surface areas of the mean particle diameters at the peaks. The calculation assumes the particles are spherical. 9article surface area is inversely proportional to particle si(e, hich means for a constant concentration of particles, the surface area increases as the particle si(e decreases. =or e*ample, the particle surface area of " ppm of particles having a mean diameter of "1 nm is 1./&> cm&:m;, hile " ppm of " nm diameter particles has a particle surface area of /.&&0 cm &:m;. 9article surface area serves as a metric for comparing different colloidal solutions. In the chemical orld, reactivity increases ith increasing surface area. Therefore, the effectiveness of colloidal solutions increases ith decreasing particle si(e. si (er so !tion - A so !tion consisting of ionic si (er 'silver dissolved in ater#, but ithout metallic si (er partic es . A silver solution is not colloidal silver since no particles are present. -any products claiming to be colloidal silver are technically silver solutions since the entire silver content is in the form of si (er ions and they do not contain silver particles. s!spension - A mi*ture in liquid or gas. hich small solid or liquid particles are suspended in a

t!rbidit* - )loudiness or opaqueness of ater due to suspended particles in the ater causing a reduction in the transmission of light. Turbidity is measured by passing a beam of light through the sample and detecting the scattered light at 01degrees from the incident light. The unit of measure is the ,ephelometric Turbidity ?nit ',T?# hich is numerically the same as a =orma(in Turbidity ?nit '=T?#. )alibration of the turbidimeter is by standards of kno n turbidity consisting of forma(in solutions. =or colloidal silver solutions the turbidity measurement provides a relative metric for Tyndall effect. 9articles in solution affect .*nda e++ect but ions do not. .*nda e++ect ,.E/ - The scattering of light as is passes through a medium containing small particles. If a po *chro%atic beam of light is passed through a medium containing particles less than about one-t entieth of the avelength of light, the scattered light appears blue. This accounts for blue appearance of tobacco smoke. At higher particle diameters, the scattered light remains polychromatic. The

effect is seen in suspensions and metal colloids. =or comparative purposes, Tyndall effect can be quantified by measuring the sample t!rbidit* . ,amed after @ohn Tyndall '"A&1-"A0>#. (an der Waa s0 +orce ! An attractive force bet een atoms and molecules, named after @. B. van der $aals '"A>C-"0&>#. The force accounts for the term a:D & in van der $aalsE equation. These forces are much eaker than those arising from valence bonds are inversely proportional to the seventh po er of the distance bet een the ato%s or %o ec! es . There are three factors causing such forces5 "# dipole-dipole interaction, i.e. electrostatic attractions bet een t o molecules permanent dipole moments4 &# dipole-induced dipole interactions, in neighboring molecule4 ith

hich the dipole of one molecule polari(es a

># dispersion forces arising because of small instantaneous dipoles in atoms. $hen the distance separating individual atoms is only a fe atomic diameters, the force of attraction can e*ceed "11,111 8-forces. In a colloid, this attractive force ould cause + occ! ation of the particles if it not for the force of %!t!a rep! sion that counters this attractive force thus causing the colloid to be stable. What is )eta potentia ? )eta potentia - Feta potential is a measure of the magnitude of the repulsion or attraction bet een particles. -ost particles in a polar medium such as ater ill possess a surface charge. A charged particle ill attract ions of the opposite charge in the dispersant , forming a strongly bound layer close to the surface of the particle. Those ions further a ay from the core particle make up a diffuse layer, more loosely bound to the particle. $ithin this diffuse layer is a notional boundary, inside hich the particle and its associated ions act as a single entity, diffusing through the dispersion together. The plane at this boundary is kno n as the surface of hydrodynamic shear, or the s ippin' p ane . The potential at this boundary is kno n as the (eta potential. It is important to note that the magnitude of the (eta potential is affected by both the nature of the surface of the particle, and the composition of the dispersant . Feta potential is affected by p.. More &&& Feta potential is an important property of colloidal solutions and is essential to the understanding of co oid stabi it* . The (eta potential of silver colloidal solutions has been measured to be bet een !"G %1 to !H1 mD. More &&& ere