You are on page 1of 23

Attribute Data Models

GIS Database Management System

GE517
Engr. Ablao

Introduction
GIS involves both spatial and attribute data.
Spatial geometry of map features Attribute characteristics of the map features

Attribute data are normally stored in tables.


Record or tuple row Field or item column Attribute A ib intersection i i of f row and d column l

Data models relate spatial & attribute data.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Spatial data (left) are linked to attribute data (right) by the label ID.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

File Structures (File-based datasets)


Simple list Simplest file structure Unordered/unstructured Arrangement is by whichever comes first Ordered sequential files Simple lists that are arranged according to some order (ex. Alphabetical order) Indexed files An index to the directory is needed for more efficient searches involving finding entries given certain criteria Can be developed as direct files or inverted files
GE 517 Geographic Information System 8/20/2010

Indexed Files
Direct Indexed Files
Records are used to p provide access to other

pertinent information

Indirect Indexed Files


Index is based on possible search criteria, not on

the entities themselves Attributes are the primary search criteria and the entities rely on them for selection

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Flat file database


Contains all data in a large file Software could only y operate p on one file at a time Format is very inflexible with respect to the modification of the

database structure

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Flat file database

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Database
An integrated set of data on a particular subject Collection of interrelated data stored together

with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications in an optimal fashion Requires more elaborate structure called a database structure or database management system
A DBMS manage attribute data in separate tables

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Significance of Database
Most GIS activities consist of storing entity and attribute data

so that we can retrieve any y combination of these objects. j Each graphical feature must be stored explicitly with its attributes so that their combined search becomes faster.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Advantages of Database over File-based datasets


Collecting data at a single location reduces redundancy and

duplication p Lower maintenance cost due to better organization and decreased data duplication Multiple applications can use the same data and can evolve separately over time

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Advantages of Database over File-based datasets


User knowledge can be transferred between applications

more easily because database remains constant Facilitated data sharing, with a corporate view provided to data managers and users Security and standards for data and data access can be established and enforced

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Types of Database Structure


1. 2. 3.

Hierarchical Data Structures Network Systems y Relational Database Structures

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Hierarchical Data Structure


one-to-many or parent-child relationship
Implies p that each element has a direct relationship p to a number of

symbolic children Each child is capable of having the same direct relationship with his/her own offspring, and so on.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Hierarchical database

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Hierarchical Data Structure


Advantages:
Simple p and straightforward g data access since parent p and

children are directly linked Easy to search since structure is well defined Relatively easy to expand by adding new branches and formulating new decision rules

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Hierarchical Data Structure


Disadvantages:
Confined to q queries along g one branch only y Difficult restructuring to allow other possible search criteria Creates large index files Redundant entries for searching

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Network Systems
many-to-many relationship Each individual data is linked directly to anywhere

in the h d database b using pointers, without h the h parentchild relationship.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Network database

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Network Systems

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Network Systems
Advantages:
Less rigid g compared p to hierarchical structure Can handle many-to-many relationships Allows much greater flexibility Reduced redundancy of data

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

10

Network Systems
Disadvantages:
In very complex GIS, the number of pointers can

become large, b l th thus requiring i i al lot t of f storage t space Linkages between data must still be explicitly defined using pointers Numerous possible linkages can become extremely tangled, resulting to confusion and incorrect linkages g Not recommended for novice users

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)


Data are stored as ordered records or rows of attribute values

called tuples Tuples are grouped with corresponding data rows in a form called relations Each column represents data for a single attribute for the entire dataset

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

11

Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)


A key represents one or more attributes whose

values can uniquely identify a record in a table. A key k common to two tables bl can establish bli h connection between records in the tables. Primary key a column which is used to define the search strategy or criterion Foreign key column in the second table to which the primary key is linked

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Relational database

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

12

Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)


Advantages:
Allow us to collect data in reasonably y simple p tables, keeping p g

organization also simple Capable of doing relational joins, as long as there is at least one column common to the tables to be joined Allows greatest flexibility, both in design and querying

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Normalization of relational database


Normalization is a process of decomposition,

taking a table with all the attribute data and breaking it down to small tables while maintaining the necessary linkages between them. Normalization is designed to avoid redundant data in tables, to ensure that attribute data in separate tables can be maintained and updated separately and can be linked when necessary, and to facilitate a distributed database. database Normalization slows down data access.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

13

PIN P101

Owner Gloria Erap

Address 101 Pampanga St. 202 San Juan St. 303 Pangasinan St. 404 Tarlac St. 505 Ilocos Norte St. 606 Pampanga St.

Sale date 01-20-2001

Hectares 1.2

Zone code 1

Zoning Residential

P102

Fidel Cory

06-30-1992

1.5

Commercial

P103 P104

F di Ferdie Dado

06 30 1965 06-30-1965 06-30-1961

21 2.1 0.8

2 1

C Commercial i l Residential

Unnormalized table
GE 517 Geographic Information System 8/20/2010

PIN P101 P101

Owner Gloria Erap

Address 101 Pampanga St. 202 San Juan St. 303 Pangasinan St. 404 Tarlac St. 505 Ilocos Norte St. 606 Pampanga St.

Sale date 01-20-2001 01-20-2001

Hectares 1.2 1.2

Zone code 1 1

Zoning Residential Residential

P102 P102

Fidel Cory

06-30-1992 06-30-1992

1.5 1.5

2 2

Commercial Commercial

P103 P104

F di Ferdie Dado

06 30 1965 06-30-1965 06-30-1961

21 2.1 0.8

2 1

C Commercial i l Residential

First Normal Form


GE 517 Geographic Information System 8/20/2010

14

Second Normal Form

8/20/2010

GE 517 Geographic Information System

Normalized Form

8/20/2010

GE 517 Geographic Information System

15

Data Storage in a DBMS


Object classes/layers are stored in database tables Each layer is stored as a single database table in a database

management system Rows contain objects, while columns contain attributes/properties of the objects

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Basic Database Functions/Operations


Join Tables are j joined together g using g common row/column values or keys y After joining two or more tables, a new table is created which contains all the values of the joined tables Database tables can be joined together to create new relations, or views of the database.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

16

Basic Database Functions/Operations


Link Tables are linked using g common row/column values or keys y Unlike in joining, linking tables does not result to a new table. The original tables are retained but accessing one enables the user to also access a table linked to it

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Database Design
Involves three stages: conceptual, logical, and physical Involves six p practical steps p ( (see Figure) g )

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

17

Stages of Database Design


Conceptual Model Logical Model
User View Geographic Database Types Geographic Database Structure

Physical Model

Object and Relationships p

Database Schema

Geographic Representation
GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Conceptual Model
Steps involved are: 1. Model the users view

Identifying organizational functions, determining data requirements of these functions, organizing data into groups for data management May be presented using a report with tables

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

18

Conceptual Model
2.

Define objects and their relationships


Specification p of object types/classes yp and functions, and their relationships May be presented using diagrams

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

19

Conceptual Model
3.

Select geographic representation


Choosing between the types of discrete objects (point, line, or polygon) or field to represent the data Selection has a critical impact on the database use Although it is possible to switch between representations later on, it would be computationally expensive and would lead to information loss

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Logical Model
Steps involved are:
1.

Match to geographic database types


Matching of object types to be studied to specific data types supported by the GIS

2.

Organize geographic database structure


Defining topological associations, specifying rules and relationships, and assigning coordinate systems

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

20

Physical Model
Step involved is: Define database schema

definition of the actual physical database schema that will hold the database data values usually created using the DBMS softwares data definition language (ex. SQL)

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Attribute data entry


Field definition Attribute data entry y Attribute data verification Creation of new attribute data

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

21

Field definition
Definition of (a) field name, (b) data type, (c) data width, and (d)

number of decimal places. Data type may be (a) numeric (integer or floating-point), (b) string, (c) Boolean, or (d) date. Consider measurement scale of data.

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Attribute data entry


Akin to digitizing for spatial data entry Attribute data need to be entered by typing Given: map with 2,000 polygons and 10 fields Time: At 10 seconds per value, it takes 55 hours 33 minutes 20 seconds (2.3 days) to enter 20,000 values Best to determine if an organization has

attribute data in digital format (e (e.g. g NSO)

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

22

Attribute data verification


In this step: Ensure attribute data are properly linked to spatial data Verify the accuracy of attribute data May be difficult due to observation errors, out-of-date data,

and data entry errors To check for errors:


Table may y be p printed for manual verification Computer programs may be written to automate task

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

Creation of new attribute data


Attribute data classification Example: Elevation
High = {Higher than 600 meters} Medium = {Between 200 and 600 meters} Low = {Lower than 200 meters

Attribute data computation Example: Soil erosion potential = rainfall parameter Soil parameter topographic parameter land cover parameter management parameter Example: Agricultural harvest = area potential yield

GE 517 Geographic Information System

8/20/2010

23