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Internet Classics Archive ( http://classics.mit.edu//Hippocrates/airwatpl.html) Internet Classics Archive by Daniel C.

Stevenson !eb Atomics "#$$%&'((( Introduction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocrates Hippocrates is etymologized as "Horse Power", a funny name for a Greek. n top of that, the legend says that his papa was Her !ul, a ""ake #an" in $%rkic, another oddity in Greek, its Grecized form is Hercules. &cythians were temporarily and 'y force di(orced from the $%rkic people only in the )*th c., ),+** years after Hippocrates wrote his n ,irs, -aters, and Places. Part ./ ,nd with regard to the pusillanimity and cowardice of the inha'itants, the principal reason the ,siatics are more unwarlike and of gentler disposition than the 0uropeans is, the nature of the seasons, which do not undergo any great changes either to heat or cold, or the like1 for there is neither e2citement of the understanding nor any strong change of the 'ody where'y the temper might 'e ru3ed and they 'e roused to inconsiderate emotion and passion, rather than li(ing as they do always in the state. It is changes of all kinds which arouse understanding of mankind, and do not allow them to get into a torpid condition. 4or these reasons, it appears to me, the ,siatic race is fee'le, and further, owing to their laws1 for monarchy pre(ails in the greater part of ,sia, and where men are not their own masters nor independent, 'ut are the sla(es of others, it is not a matter of consideration with them how they may ac5uire military discipline, 'ut how they may seem not to 'e warlike, for the dangers are not e5ually shared, since they must ser(e as soldiers, perhaps endure fatigue, and die for their masters, far from their children, their wi(es, and other friends1 and whate(er no'le and manly actions they may perform lead only to the aggrandizement of their masters, whilst the fruits which they reap are dangers and death1 and, in addition to all this, the lands of such persons must 'e laid waste 'y the enemy and want of culture. $hus, then, if any one 'e naturally warlike and courageous, his disposition will 'e changed 'y the institutions. ,s a strong proof of all this, such Greeks or 'ar'arians in ,sia as are not under a despotic form of go(ernment, 'ut are independent, and en6oy the fruits of their own la'ors, are of all others the most warlike1 for these encounter dangers on their own account, 'ear the prizes of their own (alor, and in like manner endure the punishment of their own cowardice. ,nd you will 7nd the ,siatics di8ering from one another, for some are 'etter and others more dastardly1 of these di8erences, as I stated 'efore, the changes of the seasons are the cause. $hus it is with ,sia. Part .9. In 0urope there is a &cythian race, called &auromatae, which inha'its the con7nes of the Palus #aeotis, and is di8erent from all other races. $heir women mount on horse'ack, use the 'ow, and throw the 6a(elin from their horses, and 7ght with their enemies as long as they are (irgins1 and they do not lay aside their (irginity until they kill three of their enemies, nor ha(e any connection with men until they perform the sacri7ces according to law. -hoe(er takes to herself a hus'and, gi(es up riding on horse'ack unless the necessity of a general e2pedition o'liges her. $hey ha(e no right 'reast1 for while still of a tender age their mothers heat strongly a copper instrument constructed for this (ery purpose, and apply it to the right 'reast, which is 'urnt up, and its de(elopment 'eing arrested, all the strength and fullness are determined to the right shoulder and arm. Part .:. ,s the other &cythians ha(e a peculiarity of shape, and do not resem'le any other, the same o'ser(ation applies to the 0gyptians, only that the latter are oppressed 'y heat and the former 'y cold. -hat is called the &cythian desert is a prairie, rich in meadows, high;lying, and well watered1 for the ri(ers which carry o8 the water from the plains are large. $here li(e those &cythians which are called <omades, 'ecause they ha(e no houses, 'ut li(e in wagons. $he smallest of these wagons

Scythians, Sarmats, democracy HIPPOCRATES On Airs, Waters, and Places English translation by Francis Adams

ha(e four wheels, 'ut some ha(e si21 they are co(ered in with felt, and they are constructed in the manner of houses, some ha(ing 'ut a single apartment, and some three1 they are proof against rain, snow, and winds. $he wagons are drawn 'y yokes of o2en, some of two and others of three, and all without horns, for they ha(e no horns, owing to the cold. In these wagons the women li(e, 'ut the men are carried a'out on horses, and the sheep, o2en, and horses accompany them1 and they remain on any spot as long as there is pro(ender for their cattle, and when that fails they migrate to some other place. $hey eat 'oiled meat, and drink the milk of mares, and also eat hippace, which is cheese prepared from the milk of the mare. &uch is their mode of life and their customs. Part .=. In respect of the seasons and 7gure of 'ody, the &cythian race, like the 0gyptian, ha(e a uniformity of resem'lance, di8erent from all other nations1 they are 'y no means proli7c, and the wild 'easts which are indigenous there are small in size and few in num'er, for the country lies under the <orthern >ears, and the ?hiphaean mountains, whence the north wind 'lows1 the sun comes (ery near to them only when in the summer solstice, and warms them 'ut for a short period, and not strongly1 and the winds 'lowing from the hot regions of the earth do not reach them, or 'ut seldom, and with little force1 'ut the winds from the north always 'low, congealed, as they are, 'y the snow, ice, and much water, for these ne(er lea(e the mountains, which are there'y rendered uninha'ita'le. , thick fog co(ers the plains during the day, and amidst it they li(e, so that winter may 'e said to 'e always present with them1 or, if they ha(e summer, it is only for a few days, and the heat is not (ery strong. $heir plains are high;lying and naked, not crowned with mountains, 'ut e2tending upwards under the <orthern >ears. $he wild 'easts there are not large, 'ut such as can 'e sheltered underground1 for the cold of winter and the 'arrenness of the country pre(ent their growth, and 'ecause they ha(e no co(ert nor shelter. $he changes of the seasons, too, are not great nor (iolent, for, in fact, they change gradually1 and therefore their 7gures resem'le one another, as they all e5ually use the same food, and the same clothing summer and winter, respiring a humid and dense atmosphere, and drinking water from snow and ice1 neither do they make any la'orious e2ertions, for neither 'ody nor mind is capa'le of enduring fatigue when the changes of the seasons are not great. 4or these reasons their shapes are gross and @eshy, with ill;marked 6oints, of a humid temperament, and de7cient in tone: the internal ca(ities, and especially those of the intestines, are full of humors1 for the 'elly cannot possi'ly 'e dry in such a country, with such a constitution and in such a climate1 'ut owing to their fat, and the a'sence of hairs from their 'odies, their shapes resem'le one another, the males 'eing all alike, and so also with the women1 for the seasons 'eing of a uniform temperature, no corruption or deterioration takes place in the concretion of the semen, unless from some (iolent cause, or from disease. Part )*. I will gi(e you a strong proof of the humidity Ala2ityBC of their constitutions. Dou will 7nd the greater part of the &cythians, and all the <omades, with marks of the cautery on their shoulders, arms, wrists, 'reasts, hip;6oints, and loins, and that for no other reason 'ut the humidity and @a''iness of their constitution, for they can neither strain with their 'ows, nor launch the 6a(elin from their shoulder owing to their humidity and atony: 'ut when they are 'urnt, much of the humidity in their 6oints is dried up, and they 'ecome 'etter 'raced, 'etter fed, and their 6oints get into a more suita'le condition. $hey are @a''y and s5uat at 7rst, 'ecause, as in 0gypt, they are not swathed ABC1 and then they pay no attention to horsemanship, so that they may 'e adepts at it1 and 'ecause of their sedentary mode of life1 for the males, when they cannot 'e carried a'out on horse'ack, sit the most of their time in the wagon, and rarely practice walking, 'ecause of their fre5uent migrations and shiftings of situation1 and as to the women, it is amazing how @a''y and sluggish they are. $he &cythian race are tawny from the cold, and not from the intense heat of the sun, for the whiteness of the skin is parched 'y the cold, and 'ecomes tawny. Part ).. It is impossi'le that persons of such a constitution could 'e proli7c, for, with the man, the se2ual desires are not strong, owing to the la2ity of his constitution, the softness and coldness of his 'elly, from all which causes it is little likely that a man should 'e gi(en to (enery1 and 'esides, from 'eing 6aded 'y e2ercise on horse'ack, the men 'ecome weak in their desires. n the part of the men these are the causes1 'ut on that of the women, they are em'onpoint and humidity1 for the wom' cannot take in the semen, nor is the menstrual discharge such as it should 'e, 'ut scanty and at too

long inter(als1 and the mouth of the wom' is shut up 'y fat and does not admit the semen1 and, moreo(er, they themsel(es are indolent and fat, and their 'ellies cold and soft. 4rom these causes the &cythian race is not proli7c. $heir female ser(ants furnish a strong proof of this1 for they no sooner ha(e connection with a man than they pro(e with child, owing to their acti(e course of life and the slenderness of 'ody. Part )). ,nd, in addition to these, there are many eunuchs among the &cythians, who perform female work, and speak like women. &uch persons are called e8eminates. $he inha'itants of the country attri'ute the cause of their impotence to a god, and (enerate and worship such persons, e(ery one dreading that the like might 'efall himself1 'ut to me it appears that such a8ections are 6ust as much di(ine as all others are, and that no one disease is either more di(ine or more human than another, 'ut that all are alike di(ine, for that each has its own nature, and that no one arises without a natural cause. >ut I will e2plain how I think that the a8ection takes its rise. 4rom continued e2ercise on horse'ack they are seized with chronic de@u2ions in their 6oints owing to their legs always hanging down 'elow their horses1 they afterwards 'ecome lame and sti8 at the hip;6oint, such of them, at least, as are se(erely attacked with it. $hey treat themsel(es in this way: when the disease is commencing, they open the (ein 'ehind either ear, and when the 'lood @ows, sleep, from fee'leness, seizes them, and afterwards they awaken, some in good health and others not. $o me it appears that the semen is altered 'y this treatment, for there are (eins 'ehind the ears which, if cut, induce impotence1 now, these (eins would appear to me to 'e cut. &uch persons afterwards, when they go in to women and cannot ha(e connection with them, at 7rst do not think much a'out it, 'ut remain 5uiet1 'ut when, after making the attempt two, three, or more times, they succeed no 'etter, fancying they ha(e committed some o8ence against the god whom they 'lame for the a8ection, they put on female attire, reproach themsel(es for e8eminacy, play the part of women, and perform the same work as women do. $his the rich among the &cythians endure, not the 'asest, 'ut the most no'le and powerful, owing to their riding on horse'ack1 for the poor are less a8ected, as they do not ride on horses. ,nd yet, if this disease had 'een more di(ine than the others, it ought not to ha(e 'efallen the most no'le and the richest of the &cythians alone, 'ut all alike, or rather those who ha(e little, as not 'eing a'le to pay honors to the gods, if, indeed, they delight in 'eing thus rewarded 'y men, and grant fa(ors in return1 for it is likely that the rich sacri7ce more to the gods, and dedicate more (oti(e o8erings, inasmuch as they ha(e wealth, and worship the gods1 whereas the poor, from want, do less in this way, and, moreo(er, up'raid the gods for not gi(ing them wealth, so that those who ha(e few possessions were more likely to 'ear the punishments of these o8ences than the rich. >ut, as I formerly said, these a8ections are di(ine 6ust as much as others, for each springs from a natural cause, and this disease arises among the &cythians from such a cause as I ha(e stated. >ut it attacks other men in like manner, for whene(er men ride much and (ery fre5uently on horse'ack, then many are a8ected with rheums in the 6oints, sciatica, and gout, and they are inept at (enery. >ut these complaints 'efall the &cythians, and they are the most impotent of men for the aforesaid causes, and 'ecause they always wear 'reeches, and spend the most of their time on horse'ack, so as not to touch their pri(y parts with the hands, and from the cold and fatigue they forget the se2ual desire, and do not make the attempt until after they ha(e lost their (irility. $hus it is with the race of the &cythians. Part )+. $he other races in 0urope di8er from one another, 'oth as to stature and shape, owing to the changes of the seasons, which are (ery great and fre5uent, and 'ecause the heat is strong, the winters se(ere, and there are fre5uent rains, and again protracted droughts, and winds, from which many and di(ersi7ed changes are induced. $hese changes are likely to ha(e an e8ect upon generation in the coagulation of the semen, as this process cannot 'e the same in summer as in winter, nor in rainy as in dry weather1 wherefore, I think, that the 7gures of 0uropeans di8er more than those of ,siatics1 and they di8er (ery much from one another as to stature in the same city1 for (itiations of the semen occur in its coagulation more fre5uently during fre5uent changes of the seasons, than where they are alike and e5ua'le. ,nd the same may 'e said of their dispositions, for the wild, and unsocia'le, and the passionate occur in such a constitution1 for fre5uent e2citement of the mind induces wildness, and e2tinguishes socia'leness and mildness of disposition, and therefore I think the inha'itants of 0urope more courageous than those of ,sia1 for a climate which is always the same induces indolence, 'ut a changea'le climate, la'orious e2ertions 'oth of 'ody and mind1

and from rest and indolence cowardice is engendered, and from la'orious e2ertions and pains, courage. n this account the inha'itants of 0urope are than the ,siatics, and also owing to their institutions, 'ecause they are not go(erned 'y kings like the latter, for where men are go(erned 'y kings there they must 'e (ery cowardly, as I ha(e stated 'efore1 for their souls are ensla(ed, and they will not willingly, or readily undergo dangers in order to promote the power of another1 'ut those that are free undertake dangers on their own account, and not for the sake of others1 they court hazard and go out to meet it, for they themsel(es 'ear o8 the rewards of (ictory, and thus their institutions contri'ute not a little to their courage. &uch is the general character of 0urope and ,sia. Part )E. ,nd there are in 0urope other tri'es, di8ering from one another in stature, shape, and courage: the di8erences are those I formerly mentioned, and will now e2plain more clearly. &uch as inha'it a country which is mountainous, rugged, ele(ated, and well watered, and where the changes of the seasons are (ery great, are likely to ha(e great (ariety of shapes among them, and to 'e naturally of an enterprising and warlike disposition1 and such persons are apt to ha(e no little of the sa(age and ferocious in their nature1 'ut such as dwell in places which are low;lying, a'ounding in meadows and ill (entilated, and who ha(e a larger proportion of hot than of cold winds, and who make use of warm waters ; these are not likely to 'e of large stature nor well proportioned, 'ut are of a 'road make, @eshy, and ha(e 'lack hair1 and they are rather of a dark than of a light comple2ion, and are less likely to 'e phlegmatic than 'ilious1 courage and la'orious enterprise are not naturally in them, 'ut may 'e engendered in them 'y means of their institutions. ,nd if there 'e ri(ers in the country which carry o8 the stagnant and rain water from it, these may 'e wholesome and clear1 'ut if there 'e no ri(ers, 'ut the inha'itants drink the waters of fountains, and such as are stagnant and marshy, they must necessarily ha(e prominent 'ellies and enlarged spleens. >ut such as inha'it a high country, and one that is le(el, windy, and well;watered, will 'e large of stature, and like to one another1 'ut their minds will 'e rather unmanly and gentle. $hose who li(e on thin, ill;watered, and 'are soils, and not well attempered in the changes of the seasons, in such a country they are likely to 'e in their persons rather hard and well 'raced, rather of a 'lond than a dark comple2ion, and in disposition and passions haughty and self;willed. 4or, where the changes of the seasons are most fre5uent, and where they di8er most from one another, there you will 7nd their forms, dispositions, and nature the most (aried. $hese are the strongest of the natural causes of di8erence, and ne2t the country in which one li(es, and the waters1 for, in general, you will 7nd the forms and dispositions of mankind to correspond with the nature of the country1 for where the land is fertile, soft, and well;watered, and supplied with waters from (ery ele(ated situations, so as to 'e hot in summer and cold in winter, and where the seasons are 7ne, there the men are @eshy, ha(e ill;formed 6oints, and are of a humid temperament1 they are not disposed to endure la'or, and, for the most part, are 'ase in spirit1 indolence and sluggishness are (isi'le in them, and to the arts they are dull, and not cle(er nor acute. -hen the country is 'are, not fenced, and rugged, 'lasted 'y the winter and scorched 'y the sun, there you may see the hardy, hardy, slender, with well;shaped 6oints, well; 'raced, and shaggy1 sharp, industry and (igilance accompany such a constitution1 in morals and passions they are haughty and opinionati(e, inclining rather to the 7erce than to the mild1 and you will 7nd them acute and ingenious as regards the arts, and e2celling in military a8airs1 and likewise all the other productions of the earth corresponding to the earth itself. $hus it is with regard to the most opposite natures and shapes1 drawing conclusions from them, you may 6udge of the rest without any risk of error. ,nd there are in 0urope other tri'es, di8ering from one another in stature, shape, and courage: the di8erences are those I formerly mentioned, and will now e2plain more clearly. &uch as inha'it a country which is mountainous, rugged, ele(ated, and well watered, and where the changes of the seasons are (ery great, are likely to ha(e great (ariety of shapes among them, and to 'e naturally of an enterprising and warlike disposition1 and such persons are apt to ha(e no little of the sa(age and ferocious in their nature1 'ut such as dwell in places which are low;lying, a'ounding in meadows and ill (entilated, and who ha(e a larger proportion of hot than of cold winds, and who make use of warm waters; these are not likely to 'e of large stature nor well proportioned, 'ut are of a 'road make, @eshy, and ha(e 'lack hair1 and they are rather of a dark than of a light comple2ion, and are less likely to 'e phlegmatic than 'ilious1 courage and la'orious enterprise are not naturally in them, 'ut may 'e engendered in them 'y means of their institutions. ,nd if there 'e ri(ers in the country

which carry o8 the stagnant and rain water from it, these may 'e wholesome and clear1 'ut if there 'e no ri(ers, 'ut the inha'itants drink the waters of fountains, and such as are stagnant and marshy, they must necessarily ha(e prominent 'ellies and enlarged spleens. >ut such as inha'it a high country, and one that is le(el, windy, and well;watered, will 'e large of stature, and like to one another1 'ut their minds will 'e rather unmanly and gentle. $hose who li(e on thin, ill;watered, and 'are soils, and not well attempered in the changes of the seasons, in such a country they are likely to 'e in their persons rather hard and well 'raced, rather of a 'lond than a dark comple2ion, and in disposition and passions haughty and self;willed. 4or, where the changes of the seasons are most fre5uent, and where they di8er most from one another, there you will 7nd their forms, dispositions, and nature the most (aried. $hese are the strongest of the natural causes of di8erence, and ne2t the country in which one li(es, and the waters1 for, in general, you will 7nd the forms and dispositions of mankind to correspond with the nature of the country1 for where the land is fertile, soft, and well;watered, and supplied with waters from (ery ele(ated situations, so as to 'e hot in summer and cold in winter, and where the seasons are 7ne, there the men are @eshy, ha(e ill;formed 6oints, and are of a humid temperament1 they are not disposed to endure la'or, and, for the most part, are 'ase in spirit1 indolence and sluggishness are (isi'le in them, and to the arts they are dull, and not cle(er nor acute. -hen the country is 'are, not fenced, and rugged, 'lasted 'y the winter and scorched 'y the sun, there you may see the hardy, hardy, slender, with well;shaped 6oints, well;'raced, and shaggy1 sharp, industry and (igilance accompany such a constitution1 in morals and passions they are haughty and opinionati(e, inclining rather to the 7erce than to the mild1 and you will 7nd them acute and ingenious as regards the arts, and e2celling in military a8airs1 and likewise all the other productions of the earth corresponding to the earth itself. $hus it is with regard to the most opposite natures and shapes1 drawing conclusions from them, you may 6udge of the rest without any risk of error. ,mong Hippocrates o'ser(ations: .. -arlike people are free people. $hus, the warlike &armats li(e in democratic society. $hat society is akin to Greek democracy, and unlike anything found in traditional Indo;0uropean societies of any @a(or e2cept for Polish #edie(al society with its &armat shlyalhta ). &armat women are as warlike as men. $hus, &armat women are ,mazons, or (ice;(ersa. &armat women are not male;dominated a la Indo;0uropean model, or Indo;Iranian model, as they are made to 'e in the &cytho;Iranian theory +. &armats are &cythian nomads li(ing in wagons co(ered with felt, remaining on any spot only for foraging, women li(e in wagons, men are riding horses, and dri(e herds of sheep, o2en, and horses. $hus, ethnologically &armats are indistinguisha'le from the nomadic $%rks and #ongols, and are 5uite di8erent from the agricultural Indo;Iranian, Iranian, Indian, &la(ic, Fhinese, etc. farmers li(ing of land and li(ing on grains. $he felt, again, is (ery speci7c material, 5uite foreign to the same Greek, Indo;Iranian, Iranian, Indian, &la(ic, Fhinese, etc. ethnologies, 'ut most used material in $%rkic ethnic traditions, not only for wagon and yurt co(ers, 'ut also as carpet, winter 'oots, 'onnet hats, horse trappings, and protecti(e armor. E. &armats li(e on meat, mare milk, and mare milk cheese. $hus, &armats did not su8er lactose intolerance that a3icts Indo;Iranians, Iranians, Indians, Fhinese, etc. &armats were not lactose intolerant. $o claim that lactose intolerant people can li(e on milk is pure idiocy, and unlike some of our superpatriotic contemporaries, for the last )G** years Hippocrates is not known for his mental fee'leness. G. &armats are &cythians, and ha(e a peculiarity of shape that does not resem'le any other phenotype. $heir 7gures resem'le one another, their shapes are gross and @eshy with ill;marked 6oints, they all, men and women, use the same food and the same clothing summer and winter. $hey are fat, and hairs are a'sent from their 'odies, their shapes resem'le one another, the males 'eing all alike, and so are the women1 $hat agrees with conclusions of physical anthropologists that &armats were Hraloids, distinct from Greeks, &emites, Indo;Iranians, Iranians, Indians, Fhinese, and what ha(e you. $he Greek father of medicine must know something a'out hairiness when he states that &armat 'odies are not hairy like that of the male Greeks, &emites, or Iranians

/. &armats are de7cient in tone. $he &cythian race is tawny from the cold, and not from suntan, the whiteness of the skin is parched 'y the cold and 'ecomes tawny. $hus, in modern indoor conditions and strictly in medical lingo, &armats would 'e nota'le for natural paleness of their skin, much like the modern <orthern 0uropeans, $unguses and !oreans, and unlike tone;skinned Greeks, &emites, Indo;Iranians, Iranians, and Indians. -hat Hippocrates termed tawny, ,mmianus #arcellinus called swarthy in relation to the weathered tone of the Huns. >ut the <orthern Fhinese, noting unusually large noses and deep;set eyes of the Huns, ne(er noted anything uncommon on the tone of their skin. $hey were massacred for the size of their noses, and not for the color of their skin 9. &armats are &cythians, and the &cythians are not proli7c. $he male se2ual desires are not strong from riding on horse'ack. $he women are plump, and the mouth of the wom' is shut up 'y fat and does not admit the semen. $hat is contrasted with their slender female ser(ants, who ha(e a child as soon as they mate with a man. $hese medical o'ser(ations agree well with demographic assessment A,.!hazano(C that estimated an a(erage size of &cythian family at 'etween E and G mem'ers, much lower than that of the sedentary agricultural societies of the time, 'e it Greeks, &emites, Indo;Iranians, Iranians, Indians, Fhinese, etc. :. &armats are &cythians, and the &cythians are the most impotent of men. Impotence is more pre(alent among aristocracy. $he o'ser(ation on impotence is echoed 'y other Flassical authors, who report the (isi'le social phenomenon. $he real reason may 'e the traditional $%rkic practice of dual e2ogamy that recycles the same genes o(er many generations. Hnknown to the ancient medicine, this e8ect 'ecame medically well;known after the e2perience of #iddle ,ge ghettoes, and in modern conditions at ethnical island encla(es in metropolitan cities. =. &armats are &cythians, and the &cythians always wear 'reeches. In his conte2t, Hippocrates did not state that 'oth se2es are dressed the same, and 'oth se2es wear 'reeches, 'ut we know that from other Flassical authors, plus the 'ashlyk A'aIlJk in todays $urkishC 'onnet hat. $he uniformity of the $%rkic traditional dress spans form depictions on the earliest &cythian gra(e steles to modernity: left;lapelled caftan, trousers and 'ashlyk. 4or a millennia, it 'ecame a ?ussian trademark dress. Fhinese made a fuss of the left;lapelled caftan, trying to force the &outhern Huns to change it to right;lapelled ro'e, and su8ered a 'ad re(olt as a conse5uence. $he dress is another ethnical marker that is unlike anything known in the Greek, &emite, Indo;Iranian, Iranian, Indian, Fhinese, etc. worlds. Source : http://s#))'*$'#).onlinehome.us/tur+ic/#(,History/HippocratesSarmatScythians.htm
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