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Introduction of A.

Klyosov's method of tracing lineages drastically changed the face and direction of genetic studies, forcing genetic analysis to a new grade. Many pre-20 2 studies lost validity of their conclusions and were reduced to statistical reports of uneven !uality. "he correlation #etween anthropological and genetical ma$e-up is determined #y genetic process. %ur appearance is created #y recom#ination of maternal and paternal genes. &e loo$ as our parents, or their com#ination, and pass that along. %ur mamas loo$ed as selected #y generations of their papas, and our papas loo$ li$e selected #y generations of their mothers. "he maternal mt'(A is !uite sta#le, mutations are rare and far #etween, they are not practical for dating purposes. "he paternal )-'(A is dynamic, mutations occur a#out once in * generations. "he !uic$ pace of changes in )-'(A allows to date mutations, and #uild genetical graphs that re+ect splitting of genetic lines. )-'(A is no good as a mar$er of appearance, people of most di,erent loo$s may carry the same paternal )-gene, a gene that is held #y some to #e a mar$er of -aucasoidness .misla#eled as /uropoidness and even as Indo-/uropoidness0 can #e encountered among typical Africans or typical Mongloloids, without any outer trace of -aucasoid forefather. 1opulation genetics loo$s for analogies and their locations, correlating individuals with statistical data #ase for di,erent populations. /ach location has a value for the diversity, with the highest diversity value ta$en as a place of origination. "hus, a variety of a haplogroup with an origin in one place may show up in !uite another place, pointing to migration, and low diversity and high prevalence of a haplogroup indicates migration of a genetically cohesive group to a remote location. %ther than the origin of forefathers, the )-haplogroup does not carry any information on the race, language, and culture of individuals, they have to #e identi2ed #y other disciplines. Global Picture - Genetics -hi$isheva ". Anthropological differentiation in S.-W. Siberian population Klyosov A. Türkic Y-DNA genealogy Klyosov A. The 3 R ! in R" #aplogroup Klyosov A. R"b Y-DNA #i!tory Klyosov A. R"a Y-DNA in Altai Klyosov A. R"a Y-DNA - Aryan! -avalli-3for4a $%N%T&' (A) $enetic!* +lood Type! $enetic!* ,ingo-%thnical Tree Türkic and %uropean $enetic di!tance Mc'onald 5.'. DNA -ap! Türkic $enetic! Türkic $enetic 'hart! %upedia - (ap! o. Neolithic and +ron/e Age -igration! in %urope and the Near %a!t Ancient Nomads – Genetics 'entral A!ian! -tDNA $enetic! "0 - " cc. +' 12 345 W.%ura!ian6 035 %.%ura!ian6 75 &ndian Sibirian 8urgan Y- and -t-DNA 12 neither !tati!tic!6 nor &ranian!6 but enough Türk! Sar-atian -tDNA 9 c. +'-: c. AD 12 " W.%ura!ian6 " Turkic -a-a!6 papa! later ". )a/yryk -tDNA $enetic! 0-: c. +' 12 (an!i6 Tu;a6 and 8a/akh Scythian -a-a! :. )a/yryk -tDNA $enetic! 0-: c. +' 12 )aleo-Sibirian and Altaian Scythian -a-a! 3. (odern Türk! o. )a/yryk De!cent 12 N. Altaian!6 Teleut!6 Shor! 0. Scytho-Siberian -tDNA genetic! Altai 3th cc. +' 12 )aleo-Sibirian and A!iatic ". %a!tern #un $enetic! 3 c. +' - "c. AD 12 'A<N%A papa! and Tungu! -a-a :. %a!tern #un $enetic! 3 c. +' 12 Turki!h -a-a! and papa! 3. %a!tern #un Y-DNA $enetic! ca. 4 AD 12 Sakha-Yakut papa! 0. %a!tern #un -tDNA $enetic! 3 and "cc. +' 12 "<: )ortuge!e "<: Turkic -a-a!

=iking! - Scandina;ian #un! >Da;id 8. ?au@A (odern Bigur Y-DNA 12 carrying Y-DNA .ro- #un! to Anatolia Tari- genetic!6 Bigur!6 and &% e@uberance 12 (allory<(air<+arber<Anthony et al. Tele Cgu!e! - Androno; "3-"4 cc +' and Tagar 12 'auca!o-(ongoloid! and blue eye! Tele Cgu!e! - Androno; "3-"4 cc +' and Tagar 12 (i@ed 'auca!o-(ongoloid! %thnic ADliation Scythian! 8i!a-o; N. ?act! again!t Scytho-&ranian Theory Ancient Nomads – Craniology 6a4im4yanov )hy!ical anthropology .ro- #un! to pre!ent &til +ulgar! "i$honov Scythian! 7 c. +' Ismagulov %. Androno;o6 +on/e Age6 Saka6 E!ün! and Türkic people )a#lons$y 7.". +urial place o. a (a!!agetan Farrior G-7 c. +' -oon -.3. 'raniology And #i!tory -oon -.3. 'orded 'ulture - Altaic Root! )a#lons$y 7.". Kelteminar -raniology .0 Kim A.8. "ele ."eleut0 -raniology )a#lons$y 7.". "racing 9uns from /ast to &est )a#lons$y 7.". 1aleoanthropology of 3outhern :rals population in 7ate 3armat time -aucasus Anthropological "ypes Ancient Nomads – Dentistry
Ancient No-ad! - Denti!try )a#lons$y 7.". )aleoanthropology o. Southern Bral! population in ,ate Sar-at ti-e

Perspectives
C!!etian $enetic! 12 Digorian! H Adyg!6 &ronian! H $eorgian! Fith -a-a! ":-3"5 )er!ian %tru!can $enetic! 12 035 Türkic6 335 +a!Iue6 and :45 N A.rican A-erind $enetic! Teleut Y-DNA 'hu;a!h $enetic!

!ource * http*<<!"33:3J:"3.onlineho-e.u!<turkic<94K$enetic!<'ontent!Turkic$enetic!.htKlyosov A. ";r$ic '(A genealogy Alinei M. Kurgan -ulture Mesolith 3tearns 1.(. <hou 3ynopsis %gur and %gu4
#o-e +ack Türkic $enetic! 'ontent! )a/yryk $enetic! 'ontent! A-erin $enetic! Source! Root! Ta-ga! Alphabet Writing ,anguage $enetic! $eography Archeology Religion 'oin!