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REVISITING THE PREFORMANCE

OBJECTIVES OF FIRE PROTECTION


FOR TRANSFORMERS
Kenneth W. Dungan, P.E.
SFPE Professional Development Conference,
Portland OR
October 23-28, 2011


REVISITING THE PREFORMANCE OBJECTIVES OF
FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
LOSS CONTROL GOALS
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
DESIGN CRITERIA



FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
EEI TRANSFORMER FIRE PROTECTION, MARCH 2001
NFPA 850, RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR FIRE
PROTECTION FOR ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS
AND HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT CONVERTER
STATIONS
NFPA 851, RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR FIRE
PROTECTION FOR HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING
PLANTS

FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
FM GLOBAL PROPERTY LOSS PREVENTION DATA
SHEET 5-4, TRANSFORMERS
IEEE STD 979-1994, IEEE GUIDE FOR SUBSTATION
FIRE PROTECTION
NFPA 15, STANDARD FOR WATER SPRAY FIXED
SYSTEMS FOR FIRE PROTECTION

FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
NFPA 850 & NFPA 851
SEPARATION CRITERIA
500 GAL< VOLUME<5000 GAL 2HR BARRIER OR 25FT
VOLUME>5000 GAL 2HR BARRIER OR 50 FT
DRAIN/CONTAIN OIL
DRAINAGE
CONTAINMENT
ROCK FILLED PITS
KEEP FREE OF DUST, DIRT, ASH TO KEEP POROUS
OPEN PITS
WATER SPRAY
FLAME ARRESTOR
WATER SPRAY NFPA 15


FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
FM GLOBAL PROPERTY LOSS CONTROL DATASHEET 5-4,
TRANSFORMERS
Buildings or equipment exposed by transformers should
be protected by separation, a fire barrier or a water
spray system on the transformers.
SEPARATION
CONTAINMENT
PROTECTION
FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
IEEE STD979-1994, IEEE GUIDE FOR SUBSTATION FIRE
PROTECTION
SEPARATION BETWEEN BUILDINGS AND TRANSFORMERS
2000 GAL OR MORE 20FT (REGARDLESS OF PROTECTION)
2000 GAL OR MORE 50FT OR 2-HR RATING
SEPARATION BETWEEN TRANSFORMERS
75 kVA 10 FT
76 333kVA 20 FT
>333kVA 30 FT
OPTION 1-HR BARRIER
FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
EXISTING GUIDEANCE DOCUMENTS
NFPA 15, STANDARD FOR WATER SPRAY FIXED SYSTEMS
FOR FIRE PROTECTION
SECTION 7.4 TRANSFORMERS
COMPLETE WATER SPRAY ON ALL EXPOSED EXTERIOR SURFACES

0.25 GPM/SQFT ON TRANSFORMER SURFACES

0.15 GPM/SQFT ON NONABSORBING GROUND AREA OF EXPOSURE

NO DIRECT IMPINGEMENT ON BUSHINGS OR LIGHTNING ARRESTERS


FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
LOSS CONTROL GOALS
MINIMIZE PROPERTY DAMAGE
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME INTERRUPTION TO
SERVICE
MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS -
RELEASES
FIRE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
LOSS CONTROL GOALS
MINIMIZE PROPERTY
DAMAGE
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
INTERRUPTION TO
SERVICE
MINIMIZE
ENVIRONMENTAL
INSULTS - RELEASES

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE
MINIMIZE FIRE SPREAD
(LIMIT DAMAGE TO
SINGLE TRANSFORMER)
CONTROL FLOW OF OIL
CONTROL THERMAL
EXPOSURE
CONTROL PROJECTILES
SUPPRESS/EXTINGUISH
OIL FIRE

LOSS CONTROL GOALS
DESIGN CRITERIA
CONTROL FLOW OF OIL (CONTAIN OR DRAIN?)
CONTAIMENT
VOLUME OF OIL
VOLUME OF WATER SPRAY (FLOW RATE
& DURATION)
HEAT SINK / ABSORBING SURFACE
CRUSHED ROCK
ROCK FLAME ARRESTOR (12-INCHES OF
STONE)
DRAINAGE
OIL VOLUME - NEED TO ESTABLISH
DRAIN RATE
WATER SPRAY FLOW RATE
RAIN WATER
RETENTION
VOLUME
LOCATION
OIL/WATER SEPARATER


MINIMIZE PROPERTY DAMAGE
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
INTERRUPTION TO SERVICE
MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL
INSULTS - RELEASES

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
MINIMIZE FIRE SPREAD (LIMIT
DAMAGE TO SINGLE
TRANSFORMER)
CONTROL FLOW OF OIL
CONTROL THERMAL
EXPOSURE
CONTROL PROJECTILES
SUPPRESS/EXTINGUISH OIL FIRE

LOSS CONTROL GOALS

DESIGN CRITERIA

CONTROL OF THERMAL EXPOSURE

SEPARATION
SPACE (HOW MUCH?)
BARRIERS

WATER SPRAY
NFPA 15 CRITERIA 0.25GPM/SQFT
OF TRANSFORMER SURFACES

MINIMIZE PROPERTY DAMAGE
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
INTERRUPTION TO SERVICE
MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL
INSULTS - RELEASES

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
MINIMIZE FIRE SPREAD (LIMIT
DAMAGE TO SINGLE
TRANSFORMER)
CONTROL FLOW OF OIL
CONTROL THERMAL
EXPOSURE
CONTROL PROJECTILES
SUPPRESS/EXTINGUISH OIL FIRE

LOSS CONTROL GOALS

DESIGN CRITERIA

CONTROL OF PROJECTILES

SEPARATION
SPACE (HOW MUCH?)
BARRIERS

EXPLOSION PROTECTION

MINIMIZE PROPERTY DAMAGE
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
INTERRUPTION TO SERVICE
MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL
INSULTS - RELEASES

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
MINIMIZE FIRE SPREAD (LIMIT
DAMAGE TO SINGLE
TRANSFORMER)
CONTROL FLOW OF OIL
CONTROL THERMAL
EXPOSURE
CONTROL PROJECTILES
SUPPRESS/EXTINGUISH OIL FIRE

LOSS CONTROL GOALS
DESIGN CRITERIA

FIRE SUPPRESSION

TYPE/LOCATION OF FIRE
TANK FIRE
SPILL FIRE
WATER SPRAY
DENSITY
AREA
FOAM WATER SPRAY
CAF
AFFF

MINIMIZE PROPERTY DAMAGE
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
INTERRUPTION TO SERVICE
MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL
INSULTS - RELEASES

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
MINIMIZE FIRE SPREAD (LIMIT
DAMAGE TO SINGLE
TRANSFORMER)
CONTROL FLOW OF OIL
CONTROL THERMAL
EXPOSURE
CONTROL PROJECTILES
SUPPRESS/EXTINGUISH OIL FIRE