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Chapter 4

Interdependence among Living Organisms and the Environment.

Interdependence among Living Organisms

Population: A number of organisms of the same species living together Species: Have common characteristic that can produce fertile offspring

A community: Many populations living together in a particular place

What is habitat and Ecosystem?

The area where an organism lives and reproduces is its habitat. An ecosystem refers to the community of organisms living in the same habitat, together with the non living environment.

Interdependence of Living Organisms creates A balanced ecosystem

These different populations that live together are interdependent on one another for survival. Therefore, the interdependence among living organisms and the environment creates a balanced ecosystem.

Interaction between Living Organisms

Prey Predator: A relationship where an animal captures and eats other animals. For example, lion is a predator and zebra is its prey. Competition: Compete each other for food, light, water, shelter mate or minerals. Consists of two types: Intra-specic: The same species Inter-specic: Different species


-Relationship between two organism, in which oneorganism (the commensal) benets from the other

-Interaction that benets both

-Parasites benet by living in or on the host. The host would be harmed by the parasites.

Food Web
What is producer, consumer and decomposer? Producer is green plants that produce foods, Consumer are usually the one that ate the producer and decomposers are organisms that break down dead animals.

Food Chain

Food Web

Pyramid of Numbers
A diagram that shows the relative number of organisms at each level of food
Level 4 (Tertiary Consumer) Level 3 (Secondary Consumer) Level 2 (Primary Consumer) Level 1 (Producer)

There is a progressive decrease in number from a lower level to a higher level

Process in which green plants absorb solar energy to make food from carbon dioxide and water

Requirements of Photosynthesis
Plants need light, chlorophyll, water and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.

Conservation and Preservation

Conservation: Wise use of natural resources with the least disturbance of living things and their environment. Preservation: Measures or steps taken to maintain living things and the environment.

Natural Resources management:

-To protect our ora and fauna by setting up animal sanctuaries, forests and wetland reserves.

Renewal of natural resources:

-To restore damaged or destroyed habitats due to logging, overshing and mining.

Forest Management:
-To minimise deforestation and illegal logging -To prevent forest res.

Conservation and Preservation of Living Organisms

Pollution Control:
-To minimise destruction of habitat caused by pollution.

Legislation on wildlife protection:

-To control commercial hunting -To prevent overshing -To protect endangered species

-To increase public awareness on the importance of conservation and preservation of living organisms and their environment.

Role of Humans Maintaining the Balance of Nature

Deforestation: when trees are cut down and forests cleared the natural habitats are destroyed. Land overuse by intensive farming: When farming is carried out intensively without practicing conservation Overshing and overhunting: Extinction of certain species of animals. Industrialism: Combustion in cars, engines and factories causes air pollution and acid rain. Poor solid waste management: Rivers and lakes are often used as rubbish dumpsites.

Ways to Overcome
Legislation: Laws are made to stop activities that are harmful to the environment. Any violation is punishable by law. Education: Helps people realize what their responsibilities to the environment. Pollution control: Reduction in pollution will reduce damage to the environment. Reusing or recycling: Make use of materials or recycled waste instead of throwing them away. Protecting habitats: Set up forests reserves and animals sanctuaries Restoring damaged or destroyed habitats: Convert them into recreation parks or botanical gardens.