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Deseree Tuttle Professor Presnell English 1102 26 March 2014 Child Soldiers: Evaluated Works Cited

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Achvarina, Vera and Reich F., Simon. No Place to Hide: Refugees, Displaced Persons, and the Recruitment of Child Soldiers. International Security,Vol.31,No.1.(Summer,2006). 127164. The MIT Press. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. This article talks about the recruitment of Taliban children as insurgents and possible suicide bombers surfaced in the US media in August 2005. It talks about how child soldiers use in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict were used as soldiers by the Taliban against Soviet forces in the 80s, and how many of the current adult insurgents in Afghanistan came from the ranks of these former child soldiers. It speaks of how there is a growing list of consequences with the use of child soldiers around the globe. I believe this article to be neat, due to the fact it speaks of something I can relate to, the war in Afghanistan. It definitely gave me another perspective on how child soldiers were being used and what was being done not only in Taliban but in the US about the use of child soldiers. After researching the authors, Vera Achbarina and Simon Reich, I found out they are both professors at prostegious Universities. Achbarina has won many awards and her main study is of Human Security. Reich has the published nine books, his most recent book being Global Norms, American Sponsorship and the Emerging Patterns of World Politics (Palgrave MacMillan, 2010). He has also published over 40 articles or book chapters, including journal articles in Governance, International Interactions, International Organization, International Security, and the Review of International Political Economy.

Becker, Jo. Child Soldiers: Changing a Culture of Violence.Human Rights, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Winter 2005).16-18. American Bar Association.Web. 26 Mar. 2014. This article speaks of many countries and how each of them have child soldiers and what governments have tried to do to get rid of child soldiers and how others have merely brushed into under the table. Children are fighting in almost every armed conflict in the world. Child soldiers include both boys and girls, from ages as early as 8 years old; boys are recruited into paramilitar-

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ies in Colombia, and girls are trained as suicide bombers by the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, also children are kidnapped from their homes by rebels in Uganda (Invisible children). This article addresses many key aspects of child soldiers. It is more general and gives a sense of background information; why they are used, what is being done, how old does recruitment begin, etc. It has helped me in getting a general overview of child soldiers and what countries I would like to zero in on. After researching the author, Jo Becker, I found that she is an award-winning American journalist working as an investigative reporter for The New York Times. She, and her colleague Barton Gellman, are the 2008 Pulitzer Prize winner for National Reporting.

"Lost Children: Ugandas Youngest Soldiers." Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2005. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. This film shows the terror in Northern Uganda and how the Lords Resistance Army has abducted thousands of children of the Acholi tribe and forced them to kill among their own people. This documentary examines the tragic aftermath and then follows the lives of two boys and two girls, ages 8-14, who escape captivity. It shows how when returning to their villages after escaping they are often branded as killers by their own families. The children are helped by social workers to help gain peace with the situation they have dealt with. This documentary really helped me to see child soldiers in a different perspective. By seeing it through a childs standpoint and what they endure mentally, helped me see how wrong it can be. This film comes from Films Media Group, which is an educational movie site.

Stark, Lindsay, Neil Boothby, and Alastair Ager. "Children And Fighting Forces: 10 Years On From Cape Town." Disasters 33.4 (2009): 522-547. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. This article speaks about the adoption of the Cape Town Principles and how the recruitment of child soldiers has either came to a stop or is still going on in countries today. It examines empirical evidence that supports lessons learned from work with children formerly connected with fighting forces. It evaluates what is known, where promising practice exists, and lacunae in five programming areas: psychosocial support and care; community acceptance; education, training and livelihoods; inclusive programming for all war-affected children; and follow-up and monitoring. The article is in study/research form, so it gives many statistics and charts on how child soldiers are being affected psychologically. It isnt so much about what they do, but how they are affected and the science on why countries result to child soldiers. This article has helped

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me see things as a big picture. Although I am strongly against using child soldiers, especially at such young ages, this article helped me to break down why certain governments do what they do. After researching the author, Lindsay Stark, I found out she is an assistant professor at Colombia University Medical Center of Population and Family Health. She has over a decade of experience leading applied research on protection of women and children in humanitarian settings.

Mann, Howard. International Law and the Child Soldier. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Jan., 1987).32-57. Cambridge University Press. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. This article talks about how the UN General Assembly adopted a series of five resolutions dealing with the international humanitarian law. The time period is from the beginning of th 1960s till now. In the 70s, the supervision of the task (international humanitarian law) was undertaken by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Among the changing circumstances, the ICRC presumed its efforts to increase the use of children in armed conflicts. This article summaries the governmental choices of the UN to use child soldiers and the reasoning behind it. It also states how it all came about and the five different resolutions the UN came up with to face these humanitarian laws. This article showed me how different the use of child soldiers can be from country to country. Comparing the UNs decision for having child soldiers and the way they are recruiting and used, is completely different to the way most countries in Africa have gone about having child soldiers and the way they are used and how they become established. After researching the author, Howard Mann, I found out he was appointed as an Associate and Senior International Law Advisor to IISD in 1998. Howard is a special expert panel for the International Commission of Jurists on corporate complicity in human rights violations, advised on the development of the UN Principles on Business and Human Rights.