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Acoustics of Green Buildings

Ralph T Muehleisen Ph.D., P.E., LEED AP BD+C, INCE Board Certified, FASA Principal Building Scientist Argonne National Lab

Outline • Part I: What is a Green Building?
‒ Environmental Impacts of Buildings ‒ How Green Buildings Help ‒ The LEED Green Building Rating system

• Part II: Acoustics of Green Buildings
‒ Conflicts between Green Building Design and Office Acoustics ‒ Synergies and Opportunities for Better Acoustics in Green Buildings

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Part I: What is a Green Building

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Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 4 . before we discuss what they are. But. Muehleisen . we also have to understand what Green buildings are and understand how they are different than conventional buildings. let’s take a minute to discuss why people want to make buildings more green to begin with Ralph T.Why Do We Need Green Buildings? To understand the Acoustics of Green Buildings.

Much of that is from buildings Ralph T.Rise in CO2 Emissions and Global Warming • The scientific community agrees that the earth is warming from man made CO2 emissions. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 5 .

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 6 . Muehleisen .How Is This Related to Buildings? Global CO2 Emissions by Sector: #1: Buildings #2: Industry #3: Transportation Ralph T.

Muehleisen .CO2 Sources and Emitters in 2444 Of 6576 Source: EIA Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the US 2009 Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 7 .

141015Wh= 3.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 8 .58 1 Quad =1010therms= 1015BTU = 3.36 Of 94.14109MWh Source: EIA Annual Energy Review 2009 Ralph T. Muehleisen .Energy Flow in the US US Energy use in Quads (Quadrillions of BTU) 39.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 9 .Why Do We Need Green Buildings? Buildings account for a LOT of resource use and greenhouse gas emission. Muehleisen . In the US buildings account for: 13% of Potable Water Use 37% of Greenhouse Gas 41% of Primary Energy Use 72% of Electricity Consumption Ralph T.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 10 .What Can We Reduce With Green Buildings? Ralph T. Muehleisen .

What Other Benefits Do Green Buildings Provide? Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 11 . Muehleisen .

These ways include: • Lower energy use in construction and operation • Less water use in construction and/or operation • Destroy less of the environment during construction and/or operation • Provide a better indoor environmental quality (leading to better worker satisfaction and performance) Ralph T.What is a Green Building? “Green” buildings are buildings that are better for the environment (i.e more sustainable) than a conventional building in one or more ways. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 12 .

How Are Green Buildings Different? Green building design aspects focus on reduced energy use. and more use of sustainable materials through: • More use of natural ventilation • More use of daylight and passive solar heating • More use of radiant heating/cooling • More use of wood and stone and less use of fiberglass or mineral fibers • More use of glass for daylight integration and views of outside world • Less interior walls and partitions Ralph T. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 13 . water use.

Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 14 .How Do We Know If A Building Is Green? One way in which buildings are determined to be Green or not is through Green building rating systems ‒ Energy Star (from US EPA and DOE) ‒ LEED (from US Green Building Council) ‒ Green Globes (from Green Building Initiative) ‒ ASHRAE 189 (standard from ASHRAE) ‒ BREEAM (from UK) ‒ Green Star (from Green Building Council Australia) Ralph T.

it tends to be details that are different.Introduction to LEED • LEED is the predominate Green Building Rating system in the US so let’s explain it in a bit more detail. Muehleisen . • Those of you who were familiar with LEED and maybe even are a LEED Accredited Professional (LEED AP) but have not kept up to date might find something new in here Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 15 . • Most of the other rating systems are fairly similar.

‒ There are multiple levels of certification • Getting a building LEED certified is voluntary … except when it isn’t ‒ Many state and local governments require LEED certification of any building built with public funds ‒ Some municipalities (e. Muehleisen .What is LEED? • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a system for rating Green Buildings • Buildings are “Certified” as LEED when they have a high enough rating.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 . San Francisco) are requiring LEED certification for any new construction or major renovation 16 Ralph T.g.

The International Building Code • Is NOT a construction standard ‒ They usually define performance levels of specific building components and describe methods of how to measure performance • E.G.1 Energy Standard. ANSI S12.What LEED is NOT • LEED is NOT a city in the UK ‒ That would be Leeds • Is NOT building code ‒ That is municipal law that regulates building design and construction • E.60 Ralph T.G. Muehleisen . ASHRAE 90.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 17 .

Muehleisen .LEED Rating Systems • There are different LEED Rating systems for different types of buildings Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 18 .

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 19 . Ralph T. construction. and owner/developer industries.Who Creates LEED Rating Systems? • LEED is a consensus based rating system that is organized by the US Green Building Council. a non-profit organization with members from all of the building industry including members from the design. Muehleisen .

Four Levels of LEED Certification • • • • LEED Certified: 40-49 points LEED Silver: 50-59 points LEED Gold: 60-79 points LEED Platinum: > 80 points 20 Ralph T. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 .

material use. and indoor environmental quality. Muehleisen .LEED Prerequisites and Points • To get any certification.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 . a building must meet all the prerequisites of the rating system and achieve at least 40 points • Prerequisites are minimum building standards and they basically ensure that the building is not “bad” ‒ The prerequisites are often found as part of the local building code so meeting them is already a requirement to build • Points are awarded for enhanced performance in many areas including construction. 21 Ralph T. energy use.

Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 22 .What Things Go Into a LEED Rating? • LEED prereqs and points are broken down into 5 main areas with differing levels of importance • Additional areas for points are design innovation and regional priority Ralph T.

list the prerequisites and available design points for one rating system.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 23 . ‒ There are only 100 points available in the main rating system ‒ This is going to stay fixed in future updates. LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovation (LEED NC 2009) • With Innovation and Design and Regional Priority credits there are up to 110 points available.Overview of the LEED 2009 NC Rating System • The following slides show the categories. although the prereqs and details of the available points may change Ralph T. Muehleisen .

1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.3 Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 6.Sustainable Sites (SS) Sustainable Sites Prereq 1 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4.2 Credit 4.2 Credit 8 Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Site Selection Development Density and Community Connectivity Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation—Public Transportation Access Alternative Transportation—Bicycle Storage and Changing Rooms Alternative Transportation—Low-Emitting and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Alternative Transportation—Parking Capacity Site Development—Protect or Restore Habitat Site Development—Maximize Open Space Stormwater Design—Quantity Control Stormwater Design—Quality Control Heat Island Effect—Non-roof Heat Island Effect—Roof Light Pollution Reduction Possible Points: 26 1 5 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Ralph T.1 Credit 5. Muehleisen .1 Credit 7.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 24 .4 Credit 5.

Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 25 .Water Efficiency (WE) Water Efficiency Prereq 1 Credit 1 Water Use Reduction—20% Reduction Water Efficient Landscaping Reduce by 50% No Potable Water Use or Irrigation Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction Reduce by 30% Reduce by 35% Reduce by 40% 2 to 4 2 4 2 2 to 4 2 3 4 Possible Points: 10 Credit 2 Credit 3 Ralph T.

Energy and Atmosphere (EA) Ralph T. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 26 .

Floors.Acoustics of Green Buildings 27 . Muehleisen . and Roof Reuse 55% Reuse 95% Building Reuse—Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements Construction Waste Management 50% Recycled or Salvaged 75% Recycled or Salvaged to 3 Credit 1.2 Credit 2 to 2 Credit 3 Materials Reuse Reuse 5% Reuse 10% to 2 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7 Recycled Content 20% of Content Regional Materials 20% of Materials Rapidly Renewable Materials Certified Wood to 2 to 2 Ralph T.1 Possible Points: 14 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 31-Oct-2011 Storage and Collection of Recyclables Building Reuse—Maintain Existing Walls.Materials and Resources (MR) Materials and Resources Prereq 1 Credit 1.

2 Credit 4.1 Credit 3.1 Credit 8.Acoustics of Green Buildings .1 Credit 6.4 Credit 5 Credit 6.2 Credit 8.1 Credit 7.Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Indoor Environmental Quality Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3. Muehleisen .2 Possible Points: 15 Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Increased Ventilation Construction IAQ Management Plan—During Construction Construction IAQ Management Plan—Before Occupancy Low-Emitting Materials—Adhesives and Sealants Low-Emitting Materials—Paints and Coatings Low-Emitting Materials—Flooring Systems Low-Emitting Materials—Composite Wood and Agrifiber Products Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control Controllability of Systems—Lighting Controllability of Systems—Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort—Design Thermal Comfort—Verification Daylight and Views—Daylight Daylight and Views—Views 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 31-Oct-2011 28 Ralph T.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 4.2 Credit 7.3 Credit 4.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 29 .2 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.Innovation and Design (ID) and Regional Priority Innovation and Design Process Credit Credit Credit Credit Credit Credit 1.2 1.5 2 Innovation in Design: Specific Innovation in Design: Specific Innovation in Design: Specific Innovation in Design: Specific Innovation in Design: Specific LEED Accredited Professional Title Title Title Title Title Possible Points: 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 Possible Points: 4 Specific Specific Specific Specific Credit Credit Credit Credit 1 1 1 1 Regional Priority Credits Credit Credit Credit Credit 1.4 Regional Priority: Regional Priority: Regional Priority: Regional Priority: Ralph T. Muehleisen .4 1.1 1.

LEED Prerequisite and Points in More Detail Let’s look at a prerequisite and a point so you can see a little more about what must be done. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 30 . Each prereq and point has several sections: • Intent: ‒ This explains why it is in LEED • Requirements: ‒ This explains what has to be done • Potential Technologies and Strategies: ‒ This gives some brief ideas of how to achieve the prereq or point • Required Documentation (In the Full Reference Guide Only): ‒ This explains what you have to submit Ralph T.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 31 .From the LEED 2009 NC Rating System PDF Ralph T. Muehleisen .

From the LEED 2009 NC Rating System PDF Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 32 . Muehleisen .

Important LEED Documents • LEED Rating Systems ‒ PDF Documents that give an overview of all the prereq and points.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 33 . Must be bought from USGBC Ralph T. Muehleisen . Does not explain required documentation or required submittals. includes references and explains required documentation and submittals. Free download from USGBC • LEED Reference Guide ‒ PDF or print book that explains the rating system in details. Free download from USGBC • LEED Checklist ‒ Excel spreadsheet that lists the prereq and points useful for double checking your design.

Ralph T. 2010. • USGBC. • US Energy Information Administration.References and Resources • US Energy Information Administration. LEED 2009 For New Construction and Major Renovations.org/ShowFile.gov/environment/emissions/ghg_report/. Muehleisen . Annual Energy Review 2009.usgbc. 2011.Why Build Green? https://www.usgbc.eia. 2011.org/ShowFile. • USGBC.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 34 .gov/totalenergy/data/annual/. 2011.aspx?DocumentID=4317.aspx?DocumentID=8868. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009. Building Impacts . http://www. http://www. http://www.eia.

Part II: Acoustics of Green Buildings – Conflicts and Synergies Ralph T. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 35 .

Muehleisen .What is Architectural Acoustics • Architectural acoustics is the study of sound in buildings and the design of buildings for proper acoustics including ‒ Control of sound transmission throughout building ‒ Maintaining conditions for good speech intelligibility ‒ Maintaining sound isolation for speech privacy ‒ Enhancing the acoustic signal in performance spaces Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 36 .

the less reverberation and the easier it is to understand speech.Reverberation • Reverberation is the bouncing sound in a room from the room surfaces ‒ We characterize by the Reverberation Time. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings . RT. the amount of time it takes the sound energy to decay from absorption by 60 dB • The shorter the reverberation time. ‒ Most rooms should have reverberation times well under 1 second to be good for speech • High reverberation tends to mask sound reducing speech intelligibility 31-Oct-2011 37 Ralph T.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 38 . the better the isolator ‒ Measured with ASTM Standards • STC > 50 is desired for high sound isolation Ralph T. Muehleisen .Sound Isolation • Sound isolation is the ability to block sound transmission from one area to another • Sound isolation capability depends upon the mass and construction details of a partition or fenestration • We often characterize sound isolation by a single number called the sound transmission class or STC ‒ The higher STC.

the attenuation between speaker ‒ Sentence understanding of 90-95% is usually desired ‒ Speech Intelligibility is objectively measured with the Speech Intelligibility Index ( ANSI S3. Muehleisen . the background noise level at the listener.Speech Intelligibility • Speech Intelligibility is the ability to hear and understand a conversation ‒ The higher the speech intelligibility.5) or the Speech Transmission Index (IEC 60268-16) Ralph T. the more a conversation is understood • Speech intelligibility is related to the sound power and directivity of the speaker.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 39 .

Speech Privacy • Speech Privacy is the inability to understand someone else's speech ‒ It’s basically the opposite of speech intelligibility ‒ This is important for legal and security issues as well as annoyance • Like Speech Intelligibility. Muehleisen . and listener language skills ‒ Speech privacy is measured by the Privacy Index (ASTM 1130) in open offices and the Speech Privacy Class (ASTM 2638) in closed offices ‒ Good Speech Privacy has a PI > 95% or SPC > 80 Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 40 . attenuation. background noise level. Speech Privacy is related to sound power.

Office Acoustics • The “acoustics” of a room in an office are largely defined by ‒ the overall background noise level ‒ the speech intelligibility between co-workers who are working together ‒ speech privacy between workers who are not working together Ralph T. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 41 .

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 42 . Muehleisen .What affects Office Acoustics? ‒ The noise generated by building systems and people ‒ The sound absorption of the room’s surfaces • Low sound absorption means high reverberation • Workstation-to-workstation reflections mean reduced speech privacy ‒ The sound isolation capabilities of walls/roofs/windows and partitions • Poor sound isolation means increased background noise and reduced speech privacy Ralph T.

Muehleisen . asthma • These all result in reduced productivity and increased health insurance costs ‒ Note: A 1% decrease in productivity (about 5 minutes per day) equals $600-700 per employee per year! Ralph T.How Do Buildings Affect Occupants? • Poor building designs can cause or exacerbate: • • • • • hidden sick days – higher absenteeism high stress levels high blood pressure respiratory ailments allergies.Acoustics of Green Buildings 43 31-Oct-2011 .

Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 44 .Where Does Acoustics Fit In? • Acoustics is an important part of employee comfort and well-being – it is a significant portion of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) • Poor acoustics will ‒ Inhibit Communication ‒ Create Vocal Strain ‒ Limit Attention Span • These problems lead to ‒ Increased Stress Levels ‒ Higher Absenteeism ‒ Decreased Productivity Ralph T.

Acoustics in Green Building Standards • The new ASHRAE 189.1 has some acoustics • AIA Guidelines for Healthcare Facility Design (which is quite Green) has some acoustics • LEED for Schools ‒ LEED for Schools requirements are a reduced version of the ANSI S12. design teams have no incentive (from the rating system) to design for good acoustics or even consider them within the design phase Ralph T.60 Classroom Acoustics Standard • LEED for Healthcare will have a little acoustics ‒ LEED for Healthcare requirements are a reduced version of the acoustics in AIA Guidelines • The most popular LEED rating systems (NC and EB/OM) have no acoustics whatsoever (yet) ‒ As a result. Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 45 .

• Look at surveys of occupants to see if they find that the indoor environmental quality is improved ‒ We call these surveys of the occupants after they have used the building. Muehleisen . “Post Occupancy Evaluation” (POE) surveys 46 Ralph T. A few do not perform as well as expected.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 .Are “Green” Buildings Really Better Buildings? To evaluate if green buildings really are better we can: • Look at resource use to see if it is reduced ‒ Most green buildings really do have reduced energy and water use.

Results of the UC Berkeley POE Surveys Berkeley Post Occupancy Survey Results Acoustics Thermal Comfort Air Quality Lighting Cleaning/Maintenance Office Layout Overall Workspace Overall Building -0.5 LEED/Green 0 0. Muehleisen .5 All Buildings 2 Over 400 total buildings and thousands of respondents in the survey Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 47 .5 New Non-Green 1 1.

2 All Buildings 0. Muehleisen .4 LEED/Green -0.4 New Non-Green • Acoustics is the only category where the performance is worse in new green buildings compared to nongreen buildings and it is the category with the lowest ratings in all buildings. • In short – “green” buildings have worse acoustics Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 48 .2 0 0.Acoustics Survey Results are Poor Berkeley Post Occupancy Survey Results Acoustics Thermal Comfort -0.

Acoustics Complaints Obvious problem: • Poor speech privacy and sound isolation Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 49 . Muehleisen .

unsealed.Office Noise Sound Examples • Acoustically Good Open Office ‒ Absorptive ceiling and floors ‒ cubicles with 5 – 6 ft absorptive walls • Typical Green Office ‒ Hard walls. floors and ceilings ‒ Short or no cubicles • Simple Private Office ‒ Thin walls ‒ Thin. Muehleisen . but closed door Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 50 .

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 51 .Causes of Poor Green Building Acoustics Let us examine some of the causes of poor acoustics: • Natural Ventilation • Daylighting • Radiant Heating and Cooling • Exposed Thermal Mass • Lightweight Steel Frames Ralph T. Muehleisen .

Acoustics of Green Buildings .Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation uses indoor/outdoor pressure differences to drive air flow through holes in walls and open windows ‒ Reduces the energy use to move air in ducts ‒ Can provide higher quality air to occupants This type of system results in: • Reduced HVAC noise ‒ This can be good but sometimes it is too quiet • Poor sound isolation ‒ Outside to Inside ‒ Room to Room ‒ Cubicle to Cubicle 31-Oct-2011 52 Ralph T. Muehleisen .

Muehleisen .Daylighting and Passive Solar Green buildings use a lot more sunlight for illumination (daylighting) and passive solar heating. More sunlight means more windows and skylights ‒ Some even use glass for internal walls to allow more interior sunlight penetration The result of all this is: • Reduced indoor/outdoor sound isolation • Reduced interior sound isolation • More acoustically reflective surfaces on room walls and ceilings • Less surface area available for sound absorptive treatments Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 53 .

Muehleisen .Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 54 . This results in: • More exposed metal and concrete which are sound reflective surfaces • This results in higher reverberant sound levels and high reflection of direct sound ‒ Increased background noise in general from high reverberation ‒ Decreased speech privacy from direct reflections Ralph T.Radiant Heating/Cooling Radiant Heating and Cooling is being used more for improved energy efficiency and improved thermal comfort.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 55 .Thermal Mass • More Thermal Mass is being used in design ‒ Thermal mass is a high heat capacity material like CMU block or concrete • Use of thermal mass results in ‒ Reduced inside thermal variation ‒ Time delay in peak loads ‒ Reduce overall energy costs • Using thermal mass requires direct heat exchange with room ‒ This means we cannot cover surfaces with typical sound absorbing materials Ralph T. Muehleisen .

metal (recycled and recyclable). This means •Reduced use of acoustic ceiling tile •Reduced use of acoustic absorptive panels •Reduced use of carpeting ‒Note: acoustic tiles. and concrete than conventional buildings. Ralph T. stone. panels.Use of Sustainable Materials “Green” buildings tend to use more sustainably farmed wood. Muehleisen . and carpeting all are being made in more sustainable ways by some firms so the trend away from them might be changing.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 56 .

buildings are often being designed with lighter weight.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 57 . welded steel frames and much thinner walls and floors. This results in ‒ Reduced Airborne Sound Isolation ‒ Reduced damping of structure borne sound ‒ Increased coupling of vibration between structural members ‒ Decreased isolation to impact and vibration excitation. Muehleisen . Ralph T.Lightweight Steel Frame Design • If thermal mass systems are not used.

Conflicts with Natural Ventilation and Daylight • There is no simple way to provide sound isolation if partitions need to be reduced or eliminated for natural ventilation and daylighting
‒ Sound masking, the generation of background noise to cover up other noise, can help provide cubicle-to-cubicle sound isolation but only with an increase in the overall noise level

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Conflicts with Natural Ventilation and Daylight • There are no magic bullets to provide good sound isolation with large amounts of glass.
‒ High sound isolation windows are available, but are expensive and their sound isolation is still worse than most opaque wall constructions ‒ Clear and translucent sound absorbing materials are available but are still extremely expensive

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Synergies
• Careful construction to avoid thermal bridging and air infiltration usually results in improved outdoor-indoor sound isolation • Use of high mass construction (concrete, filled CMU) in walls and floors can provide better sound isolation opportunities
‒ Must be careful to install high acoustic absorbing materials where they are acceptable to ensure reverberation is controlled

• Reduced use of forced air HVAC mean less HVAC generated noise and vibration
‒ May need to install noise masking systems to provide speech privacy
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Acoustics of Green Buildings . improve local air quality. reduce roof water runoff. reduce heating and cooling load. increase roof membrane lifetimes.Synergies • Green Roofs can provide improved sound isolation ‒ Green roofs are being used to reduce urban heat islands. Muehleisen . and roof clean water runoff • Studies show that the increased mass and absorbing properties of green roofs can increase sound isolation of roofs by 3-15 dB ‒ The transmission loss difference between the green/pink and blue curves is from the green roof 31-Oct-2011 61 Ralph T.

and building systems designers frequently meet together in design charrettes early in the design phase • The old school methods with discipline separated design must be abandoned in green buildings to ensure energy use is minimized ‒ For this to be able to provide improved acoustics someone on the design team needs to have training in acoustics! Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 62 . ‒ Owners. architects.Opportunities • The use of coordinated and integrated design teams can take advantage of synergies and try to minimize conflicts early in design. Muehleisen .

Muehleisen .Opportunities • Post-occupancy evaluations can be used to find and document acoustic complaints of workers even if upper management is not aware of problems • Market for sustainable acoustic products ‒ Make traditional acoustic treatments more sustainable ‒ Transparent Acoustic Absorbers • Available but very high cost now ‒ Absorbing Radiative Heat Exchangers • None commercially available but the idea is sound (pun intended) 63 Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 .

Charles Salter. Alexis Kurtz. and others • Need to educate architects and engineers on the need to consider acoustics in the design. even if the rating system does not ‒ Make them aware of the implications of poor acoustics (unhappy and unproductive applicants) ‒ Make them understand that some things cannot always be fixed afterward Ralph T.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 64 . in part because of advocacy of ASA members like Dan Bruck. Brandon Tinianov.Designer Needs • Need to get some acoustics into the criteria for green building rating systems ‒ This is slowly starting to happen. Dave Lubman. Muehleisen . David Sykes.

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 65 . productivity. and human performance so we can prioritize design • New Materials and Treatments ‒ Affordable transparent sound absorbers ‒ Sound absorbing radiative heat exchangers ‒ Noise control for natural ventilation ‒ Better acoustic models for green roofs Ralph T.Research Needs • More human performance studies ‒ We need to be able to determine which environmental components have the greatest effect on environmental acceptability. Muehleisen .

Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 66 . Muehleisen . We need to change that ‒ Green building designs tend to remove sound absorbing materials for daylighting. radiative heating and cooling. and exposed thermal mass ‒ Green building designs tend to reduce isolating construction for daylighting and natural ventilation.Summary “Green” Buildings usually have worse acoustical performance than conventional because: ‒ Rating systems do not incentivize good acoustics. Ralph T.

Summary “Green” buildings can provide some good opportunities for improved acoustic performance through: ‒ Coordinated.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 67 . Muehleisen . integrated design teams ‒ High mass construction provides opportunity for improved sound isolation ‒ Green Roofs provide better sound isolation ‒ New markets for sustainable acoustical materials Ralph T.

Ralph T. Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Partitions and Elements. • ASTM E413-04: Classification for Rating Sound Insulation. • ASTM E1130-08: Objective Measurement of Speech Privacy in Open Plan Spaces Using Articulation Index.5-1997: Methods for the Calculation of the Speech Intelligibility Index • ASTM E90-04.Common Standards Used in Office Acoustics • ANSI S3. Muehleisen . Standard Test Method for Measurement of Airborne Sound Attenuation between Rooms in Buildings. • ASTM E336-05.Measurement of the reverberation time of rooms with reference to other acoustical parameters.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 68 . • ASTM E2368-10: Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of the Speech Privacy Provided by a Closed Room • IEC 60268-16: Sound system equipment – Part 16: Objective rating of speech intelligibility by speech transmission index. • ISO 3382:1997 Acoustics -.

"Acoustical design in green buildings.edu/_news/jan_v08. R. pp.informedesign. L. Z. 60-70. (2008).umn. CA). M. Ralph T." ASHRAE Journal 50.Green Building Acoustics Resources and References • Center for the Built Environment: Occupant Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Survey.htm • Muehleisen.pdf. T.berkeley. • Muehleisen. Lehrer. Zagreus. M. Muehleisen . 365-370." in PLEA2009 26th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture (Quebec City. Vol III (International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate).. • Abbaszadeh.. "Occupant satisfaction with indoor environmental quality in green buildings. Richter. (2009). 493-506." in Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006. S. "Acoustics of Green Buildings. pp." in InformeDesign Implications (InformeDesign). T. (2009). C. R. http://www. • Field. CA). Ottawa.. Lisbon." Noise Control Engineering Journal 57.. (2010). "Review of the Implementation and Recent Changes of Several Acoustic Criteria Used in United States Schools. Khaleghi. "Occupant Satisfaction with the Acoustical Environment.Acoustics of Green Buildings 31-Oct-2011 69 . 1-7 http://www.edu/research/survey." in Inter-Noise 2009 (Institute of Noise Control Engineers. "Design and evaluation of noiseisolation measures for the natural-ventilation openings in a `green' building.. A.cbe. • Hodgson. M. and Razavi. C. D. and Huizenga. • Hodgson. (2006).. (2009).