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The Five
mon body pf signs. Each is involved in a develop-
mental process of change in which every member
is determinative in some way of the group as a
hose of us who have experienced the joy whole, yet the whole has an emergent character

T and terror of the intensive formation of

a philosophical community of inquiry
_ _ _ (COl) over an extended period. under-
that transcends anyone individual. Each commu-
nity is uninterpretable in any complete sense apart
from the others. Gesture and language have a cer-
tain primacy in that they are the exoteric systems
stand intuitively that it is a process of develop-
through which the more esoteric bodies of signs
ment which has ceruin characteristic soucrures
of mind, interest. and love are expressed, but that
and panerns. These can be glossed in a number of
expression is always onJy a translation, and both
ways, all of which will be metaphors, if only be-
gesture and language may in a deeper sense be
cause any given moment within the life of the
said to have their origins in the other three com-
COl is an instant of vertiginous freedom.
A first assumption of the COl is that its form, munities.
which includes its characteristic soucrures and dy- I also want to identify some dynamic panems of
intersubjectivity which run through each of these
namic panems, is not just fortuitous, or only one
communities--ways our conversations seem to
way of arriving at outh. It has the form it does be-
ouse the world is so consoucted that the individ- work, things we find ourselves thinking and saying
and doing over and over again. One is crisis,
ual cannot know reality adequately; therefore in-
which comes from the Greek word for judgment,
quiry must be a communal venture. The outh, as
and of which riSK and opportunity are inseparable
Charles Saunders Peirce formulated it, is "what
components. Other themes which I will character-
the unlimited community of inquirers will discov-
er to be the case in the long run. "I T.ruth which is iz.e are dialogue, play, teleology, conflict, and dis-
cipline. But first to the five communities.
adequate to us all is only arrived at in this way,
through a long, often tortUous process of con-
srruction, reorganization, and re-articulation of
the meanings which everywhere announce them-
selves inchoateJy around us.
The five srruetura.l dimensions of the COl This is perhaps the most obvious form of com-
which I am identifying could be perhaps be munity, and yet the most ignored. I am referring
grouped differently, and called by different to the fundamental somatic and lcinaesthetic level
of intersubjectivity "before" language, which
names. Furthermore, I am prying them apart in
grounds, frames, and comments on verbal and no-
order to understand them bener, but they are of
course really all one thing, or at least inextricably etic levels of interaction. Even before we open our
overlapping, interdependent. and interactive. I mouths we are making meaning together. Before
call them gesture, language, mind, love, and inter- the signs which represent ideas or even objects in
est. I want to oll them "communities" because the world, there are the more fundamental signs
each of them is the expression of a communica- of the mental feeling states of the body-James
tive, interpretive process, converging on a com- Edie refers to this as "the physical appearance of

r-:OVE,\1BER 94

meaning"-and this sign world, like the sign place he refers to this process as a "dialogue" of
world of language. is a shared, interactive, one.1 body images.) We are located in this constam co-
The gestural is a sign world is one of intense, construction because our own body image is in-
unremitting intervisibliry. We aJl sit facing each complete apart from an other; on a gescural level,
other at the table-we :lre all in each other's view, the other knows more about us that we do about
directly or peripherally. But the visual is onJy a ourselves. So we are involved in an unending pro-
son of gateway for all the liminal and sub-liminal cess of self-understanding on a somatic level
processes of what Howard Gardner has character- through identification, projection, and other pro-
iz.ed as an intelligence unto itself-the bodily- cesses by which parts of us and parts of others in-
kinaesthetic. J On this level, everything is happen- terplay, communicate, and dance our both con-
ing simuJtaneously, and everything has an effect: structive and destructive, dominant, submissive.
shift of posture, lifting of ann, tension of back and and egalitarian, inclusive and exclusive energies.
neck, movement of head and eyes when talking, What is always missing, however, from the en-
when listening, etc. This constant postural, kine- counter, what makes it forever incomplete, what
sic diaJogue is immediate, simultaneous, and com- makes of it a drama of the hidden and revealed, is
pletely unavoidable. The moment you are in my the uneliminable residue of hiddenness, of opacity
physical space, whether we are embracing, have before you-my radical isolation-for there are
our backs to each other, or anywhere in between. aspects of who I am which are present in the natu-
I feel and perceive my physical presence different- ral sign world of my gestures, but are unknown ei-
ly than when alone, and we are involuntarily in a ther to you or myself. It is the interplay of the
simation of attUnement or non-attunement, an in- hidden and the revealed which creates the drama
terplay of mutual arousal regulation, in which, it is of our gestural dialogue.
true, we can be more or less sensitive, more or less What also makes of it an incessant constructive
responsive, but never neutnI. In all of our gestu- effon is its inchoate character. The dance which
ral interaction-proxemic, kinesic, facial expres- expresses this murual entrainement, although it
sion, gne, voice modulation, and timing of verbal both grounds and comments on speech discourse,
response and delivery-we are continually both is in itself a speechless speech. It is naCUre speak-
monitoring and acting to alter each other's vitality ing, what Dewey (170) caUed "natural" as opposed
affects, which, especially in the Cal, maintains to "intentional" signs. So, as a cloud sunds for
and enhances our linguistic and noetic interaction. rain but does not intend to stand for rain, a blush,
This dance is also gendered; each member brings a tightening of the mouth, sunds for something in
both the body language characteristic of his or her spite of our intentions. In it we are liable to all the
sex, as well as the subtle gestural differences of in- involunurisms of our social animal nature: syn-
ter- and intn-gender interaction to the discus- chronization of gesture, postur:1l1 impregnation,
sion. 4 gaze panems, an~ various forms of affective at-
Not onJy is there mutual reguJation ~f arousal nmement and contagion, through "motor mimic-
going on in the gestural conununity, but)there is a ry"-rnirroring,'echoing and the like. It is experi-
co-construction of body images. When you, with enced by us, 35 Merleau-Ponty described it, as
whom I have spent hours sitting around a table to- magic, or "action at a distance." We experience a
gether talking, agreeing and disagreeing, strug- collective participation in what he refers to as
gling to express ideas--when, as you talk. you "current of undifferentiated psychic experience ...
raise your head, you meet my eyes in just such a a state of permanent 'hysteria" (in the sense of in-
way, a way which at the beginning was strange to distincmess between that which is lived and that
me, but now I have come to expect and to under- which is only imagined between self and others)."6
stand as meaningful in just the way in which you, To deny our location in this space of contagion,
physically and gestunlly, i.e. more or less uncon- involuntary transgression, "building," "melting,"
sciously, mean-then 1, in my own gestural ac- and "spreading" (Schilder's terms), of incalculable
conunodation to i.t, am affording you a new un- effects, is to deny a fonn of knowledge whose
derstanding of your own gesture. Thus, in our source we cannot identify or control, but which is
gestural dance we are revealed to ourselves anew. no less a fonn of knowledge for all that. Nor can
I think this is what Paul SchiJder means when he the linguistic discourse structure of the cal exist
says that "everybody builds his own body-image separately from it, for it is its ground and its vehi-
in contact with others," and his reference to it as a de. "Speech emerges from the 'toul language' as
"concinual constructive effon." He says that there constituted by gestures, mimicries, etc." says Mer-
is "a constant 'unconscious' wandering of other leau-Ponty.' Not just speech in general, but the
personalities into ourselves.... a continuous functional elements of dialogue--elaboration, re-
movement of personalities, and of body-images pair, timing, and anunement-are grounded here,
towards our own body-image...." In another in the body.

Is there a definable collective process building pie. "even ifI am unable to define it," through the
in the process of the COl, a gestural group ges- "comprehending power of my corporeality. "Q

talt? Schilder says there is no such thing as a col- Over rime in the COl, as we understand each oth-
lective body image, but only what he calls a "par- er with our bodies. and in coordination with the
tial community of body images" going on, but one realities of language, mind, power, and desire, we
is tempted to claim that a collective gesrura.l ges- build together a way of sitting at the t2ble which
talt is a necessary analogue to the collective pro- is both the swn of all our postural, facial. gaz.e, ki-
cess of mind and language-i.e. the Argument- nesic manners, and also something which is great-
which is easier to see, beC2use it leaves traces, it is er than the sum. Like each of our body images in
not "dumb." Merleau-Ponty at least implies a relation to each other, this whole is continually
group coordination of physiognomic perspectives under constrUction, there is, as Schilder says of
when he claims that "In the activity of the body, the dialogue of individual body images, "a 'contin-
like that of language, there is a blind logic, since ual testing to find out what parts fit the plan and
laws of equilibrium are observed by the communi- fit the whole. "10 This unfinished whole both in-
ty of speaking subjects without any of them being fonns the movement of the Argument, and is in-
conscious of it.". Perhaps we C2n approach this fonned bv it, in the sense that when the moves are
idea, again with Merleau-Ponty's help, through "good" it'knits, there is a sense of shared excite-
his idea of "style," which he defines as "a 'manner' ment which is expressed gesturally. It is continual-
that I apprehend and then imit2te" in other peo- ly being altered as weH by how well-rested people

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are, by the state of their health, and by the various Yet words, at least in the community of inquiry,
energies of desire and interest-whether conflict, are always lifting and pointing beyond gesture. to-
expansion, the subtleties of eros. dominance. in- wards thought. The paradox is that they can never
timidation, confusion, etc. When a "great one" grasp, map, or express thought completely, be-
addresses us-typically a master of language and cause they are an ineradicable part of thought, and
mind (although that very mastery has a gestural cannot map, grasp, or express themselves. 'z
counterpart)--we sit, we move, we gaze, different- In spite of this weakness, both gesture and
ly. When a loose canon. a "rogue" (whether a mind, which are respectively "below" and "above"
chronic, momentary, or episodic one) irritates, words, are faced with the problem that they de-
confuses or infects us. our whole-group style pend on words for their complete expression, even
changes. Those who are gifted bodily- though complete expression is impossible. Ges-
kinaesthetically move us gestunlly, with pro- cure. as a natural as opposed to an intentional
found, if subtle effect. around the table. As a com- sign, is inchoate and frusrrated apart from the
muni£}' of love. we instinctively work to assimilate word which emerges from it, IJ and mind, apart
individuals who are gesruraJly incongruent-who from its grounding in the involuntary feeling- .
are over-expressive, under-expressive, who are less world of signs which is gesture, and its more mys-
well-"timed" in the sense of the gesruralaspects of tiell iconography in the arts. only emerges at all
convers3tional maintenance and repair-into our through words. Words. at least in the practice of
larger gestural style, which is building through poetry. philosophy. and of real dialogue, are a
continuous interaction, and which in turn is influ- boundary phenomenon. Speech and writing
enced by them. And as the community of inquiry emerge in front of thought; they meet mind in
practices other expressive forms such as sharing mid air somewhere; they never mow if they are
meals together, dancing, making music, making finding and expressing mind, or making it.
drama, drinking, exercising. gaming, rravelling. These pandoxes of expression all point to the
spending individual time together, etc.• that cu- mediating. or translating function of language in
mulative experience is brought, dumb but expres- the COL It is true that all the conununities are in
sive. back: to the table. where its subtle but inalter- a continual process ofinter-translation. each seek-
able changes add their effect. So the gesruraJ ing to become tnnsparent in terms of the other.
community. like the others, develops over time in But words. as "wimess to another order" are pre-
the direction of greater inter-activity and coonu- eminently between the communities, srruggling to
nation, or loss of coordination, or some place in translate the meanings of each into an ideal
between. tongue. The community of language is always
tempted into thi.nlcing that, whatever the subject,
a formal proposition is just around the comer-
THE COMMUNTIY OF LANGUAGE some way to "s~y it all." This assumptive role of
language as the objective sphere. the community
J have already quoted Merleau-Pon~as saying. where it can be said, often blinds us to the amount
"Speech emerges from the 'total language' as con- of tranSlation which is constantly necessary within
stituted by gestures, mimicries. etc." He goes on the speech community itself. Most obviously,
to say: "But speech transfonns. Already it uses the translation is necessary becween the variety of lan-
organs of phonation for a function that is Wlnatu- guages spoken within the community. each of
ral to them-in effect, language has no organs. All which has a distinctive way of putting thoughts to
the organs that conrribute to language already words, as well as distinctive interlocutive proto-
have another function.... Language inrroduces cols, and distinctive habitual ways of combining
itself as a superstructure, that is. as a phenomenon word and gesture. Each member of a language
that is already a wimess to another order."'l It is group must work to translate, not just the words.
of course as wimess to that ~other order" which but these more fundamenul characteristics of the
gives the community of signs which is language its other group's discourse. Whenever there are cwo
primacy in the COL The gestural-a shrug, a or more languages present in a group, this be-
rrembling of the hand, a raising of an eyebrow, a comes a critical
blush or a pallor. a thrusting forward or backward Among speakers of the same language there are
of the head as a point is made, etc.-introduces a different genres and vocabularies (philosophical,
permanent element of ambiguity into any speech poetic, narrative. historical, etc.) which inform. of-
act. h can undermine speech aets--the trembling ten unconsciously, the way people talk, and re-
hand delivering confident words--support them. quire intertranslation. There are also expressive
or comment ironically on them. Gesture can gloss styles (circular. linear. aphoristic, systematic, ellip-
the linguistic even to the point of making words allusive. inspirational, ironic, etc.) which
mean exactly the opposite of their usual meaning. characterize, not only individuals, but the sorts of

language necessary [0 express (while simultane- fectJy in. But this doesn't mean it is pure, ethereal,
ously influencing, in an incalculable mix) certain or "spirirual" apart from language, for as Perrce
kinds of thinking. points out, "the sruff of mind is feeling, ideas be-
Finally, there is the music of stress, pitch, con- ing nothing other than continua of living feeling...
[Our and juncture, which acts as an even more es- Because "vague feeling is the primordial state of
senrial ground for speech than the gesrural. Ima- mind," and feelings are vague thoughts, the COl
gine a voice on the telephone, or spealcing from is as much an emotional as a mental phenomenon.
behind a screen: it can communicate independent- Both mind and feeling operate through associa-
ly from gesrure, indeed often more intensely, un- tion, spread, connections, weldings. The argu-
complicated as it is by the opacities and ambigui- ment is always leading as much to a state of feel-
ties of gesrure and physiognomy. The musical ing as to some purely cognitive judgment. "The
element in speech is essential to meaning, from highest truths can only be felt"'4; and strong, if
the most generic, e.g. the meJodic contours which vague, emotion always accompanies the most ab-
make questions, commands, warnings, reassuranc- stract sort of reflection.
es, etc.; to the most subtJy particular, for example The community of mind is like the community
the quality of the individual communicated by her of gesrure to the extent that, for one thing, think-
voice. If, through a phenomenon known as "mask- ing is specific. As Dewey puts it, "different things
ing, " we disguised the content of speech of the suggest their own appropriate meanings, tell their
COl, and only heard the melodic, we would still own unique stories, and they do this in very differ-
have a record of a session, in the rising and falling, ent ways with different persons." $0 a person's
the rhythms, the pauses, the intensities, of the in- thinlcing styl~ is as idiosyncratic, and as tied to the
terlocutors. This musical level of language is in a particular thirig being thought about, as a gesture
relationship with gesrure, with wordS, with think- is tied to a specific person, moment. feeling, or
ing patterns, with love and power rela tionships, postural and kinesic interaction.
i.e. with all the communities; and as all the com- Mind is also like gesture in that-again in
munices do for each other, it both expresses all Dewey's words- "it is not we who in any
the others, and is incomplete without them. actively responsible sense; thinking is rather
something that happens in us." Like the gestural
dance in which we are all engaged, the inexorable
THE COMMUNITY OF MIND dialectic of thought plays itself out in us, individu-
ally and as a group. We are familiar with its dou-
The community of mind operates on a continu- ble movement, from the finite, partial, confused
um from the deliberate, disciplined thinking of given, to a whole which involuntarily suggests it-
estern logic, in voluntary submission to its laws; self, which then calls fOM additional cases which
to the quality of mindedness of the whole, an that suggested whole has directed our attention
emergent field of ideas, which finds itself moving to. Group inquiry is bridging gaps, binding to-
eerily beyond the law of contradiction and the ex- gether, moving back md forth, by a process of
cluded middle. The leading edge of this emer- analysis and synthesis, between the observed and
gence is sometimes called the "argument," which, the conditional. The drive is always, however in-
through a dialectical, dialogical process, seeks an choately or deviously, toward generalization, com-
mfirutely receding horizon. The emerging edge prehending and uniting elements .which were pre-
unphes a whole, which is apprehended by each in- viously understood as isolated, disparate. IS Thus
dividual as much aesthetically and emotionally as ordinary logic-the logic of classes-is operating
logically. I gnsp it according to my capacity to in- under what Peirce characterizes as the "lure" of a
tegrate it. and its whole quality changes every whole, which it vaguely senses as a meaning freed
time I act within it. It is vulnerable to the confu- from local restrictions, md only understood
sion of the argument "getting lost," but the very through another .kind of logic, which he calls the
quality of emergence, of self-correetingly feeling "logic of relations." The latter intuitively under-
one's way, is necessary to its advance. Perhaps stands its own current position as moving from
more than any other, the community of mind de- fngment to system, proceeding to~rds ever
mands a cenain courage, or discipline of playful- more comprehensive systems of relations. 16 Often
ness, a trust in the unfolding of the argument this movement involves what Corrington calls a
through the conflict and interplay of perspec- "leap beyond the current data, [in an] attempt to
tives. reach greater generic spread."17 Ideas spring up
We all have the sense that mind, or thought, is spontaneously, spread, become affected by one
to some extent outside of time; it is a system of another, and fonn more general ideas.
signs-whether natural, intentional, iconic, enac- But though we are intuitively aware that no
tive or linguistic-that brings it, however imper- thought is isolated, and that any given noetic

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r..:OYEMBER 94

structure we are contemplacing is a fragment of a form of love, 19 a hunger for which meaning and
greater whole, that whole lies beyond us. And be- beauty are synonymous. AlJ persons have a natural
cause thought can only be expressed in signs, and desire, like a fonn of curiosity, for a widening of
any sign is determined by both what came before their range of acquaintance with persQns and
it and what comes after it, mind is inoinsically things. We instinctively understand that we are
hampered in itS movementj it is fallible, always not whole as long as we are single, that one per-
contested, at risk. The direction of the argument son's experience is nothing if it stands alone·10
emerges only through tentative probings, and is This drive for association is the Eros which Freud
never more than partially visible. But what keeps called an instinct,I1 the creative, sympathetic force
us in a state of obscure excitement as we follow that impels us toward relationship as a fonn of
the argument, is the sense that what lures us is a self-realization, and connectS us to each other
summum bonum-a coordination of perspectives even as it connects ideas to each other. In its agap-
which is as much an emotional, gestural, and per- ic dimensions,l1 love sublates the more concrete,
ceptual state as :I cognitive one. sensuous, sexual quality of the erotic, and is expe-
rienced as a mediating influence, which, analo-
gous with the law of mind, both projectS us into
THE COMMUNITY OF LOVE independency and draws us into harmony.
But it is through alJ the modalities of love-
The community of inquiry is a group romance, from the sexual to the agapic-that the communi-
whose eros is both sexual, Platonic (in the sense of ty of inquiry comes together, is held together,
the eros of the Symposium), and agapic. The sex- worles through conflict and undertakes discipline
ual eros of the COl is experienced as, not only together, and grows in both unity and complexity.
various mutual attnctions between individuals or It is in love that we understand the COl as a
combinations of indivi~als, apprehended at vari- "greater self" in fonnation. In the community of
ous levels of sublimation or desublimation, but as love, as Corrington says, "Individual horizons of
a group drive for unity on a somatic levd, which is meaning become open to each other so that honz-
both initiated and sustained by the community of onal plenitude may replace the narcissistic self-
gesrure. The telos of the community onove can reference of pre-communicative life. "2) The COl
be hypothesized as what Marcuse describes as the is by definition a community of persons who are
"transfonnation of sexuality into eros," through friends or in the process of becoming friends, who
the emergence of "non-repressive sublimation. "18 in the face of the powerful forces of self-interest
This transformation is experienced by members of and fear, undergo a growth of reasonableness
the group as a vivid sense of beauty, energy, and which is as much ethical, aesthetic, social, and
mutual affinity, as well as a drive for disdosure, emotional as cognitive.
vulnerability, and murua! C2.fe, which is where it These relationS are hard-won. There is an al-
assumes agapic proportions. It is the aMjogue of ready existing connectedness in any group, in
the drive of the noetic community tOw:ufd the co- which love and interest are tangled up (nor are
ordination of perspectives which is implicit in the they ever completely untangled), and it is the
apprehension of the whole, and of the gestural work of the COl to forge relations of love out of
community towards the perfectly fulfilling kinesic, this already existing connectedness. At a certain
proxemic, haptic, and gaze dance. The rules which point in our fonnati.on, we face the developmental
the community of love face include the ever- crisis of the "group illusion" mentioned above; at
present possibility of personal and social disinte- which point a "rupture" is necessary, something
gration through sexual and/or emotional exploita- which breaks the false sense ofhannony, and con-
tion, and emotions of jealousy, unrequited love, fronts us realistically with our differences, our dis-
antagonism, excessive diffidence, etc., all of which tances, and the extent to which what appears as
are associated with the vicissirudes undergone love is self-interest disguised. And that is not the
within the community of interest. Also associated onJy crisis. The success of the community of love
with the community oflove is the "group illu- is more often than not snatched from the jaws of
sion," i.e. the perception of a harmony which is as what Corrington calls the "corrosive forces of so-
yet wishful thinking. But it is the community of lipsism and aggressive individualism, "24 at the COSt
love which offers the oppommity of healing, in of conflict, careful self-discipline, and numerous
the sense of making whole, of regaining a kind of acts of sacrifice, small and large. But this work, aJ-
emotional balance in which the individual experi- though it progresses through sacrifice, is uJtimate-
ences his identity as completed, by the group, and Iy in league with the community of interest, be-
Vlsa versa. cause it is sustained by our intuitive understanding
The community of love is no less a noetic than that love is not irrational; on the contrary, it is the
an emotional one. Reason may be understood as a highest logic, which, according to Peirce, "inexor-

ably requires th,u our interestS should not be lim- guity, the usk of a aue coordination of perspec-
ited. They must not stOp at our own fate but em- tives appears as an infinite and arduous one, for it
brace the whole community.... Logic is rooted involves the crucifixion of the solipsisric elements
in the social principle."15 of one's own horizon.:' Ie is also the case, howev-
er, that the greatest gift to the cal is the individ-
uality of each member, in aU his or her finitude;
THE COMMUNITY OF INTEREST and it could be that interest is the force which
drives the development of the community from
The cOllUl1unity of interest could also be char- one end, while love "lures" it from the other. M v
acterized as the communirv of self-interest, or ineradicable individuality is both my tngic flaw:
simply of self, or as the poiiticaJ community. It is through which I find myself in a sute of horizonal
the community of individuals who are seeking fragmentation, and also my "happy fault," for it
power and invulnerability through friendship, alli- goads me to overcome my separation through dia-
ance, performance, influence, domination, hierar- logue. The argument, which promises to over-
chy, special favor, etc. Each individual is driven to come the distortions which selfhood creates, is in
"be somebody," to count, to make a difference, our ultimate interest to follow, because it promis-
d in order to do that, is continually, mostly un- es the overcoming of division and distortion, and
consciously, negotiating influence and recognition thus represents the completion of self.
both with the group as a whole, with various sub- The COl takes very seriously the task of deveJ-
groups, and with each individual within the group. oping towards a conununiry which includes all, fa-
The negotiation is socially consaucted, with vors none, ;f1d limits the tendencies of dominant
power relations aJways already, taci.dy or other- or disruprivemdividuals. The doser a group getS,
wise, defined, but always in the protess of change the more the danger of such disruption is present,
and shift. This is necessary to the extent that to be through each individual's drive for affinnarion
:t self is to undergo a continuous series of inter- and power. This is because love draws us toward
preutions that are partly derived from the com- self-disclosure, but that self-disclosure includes
munal scructure, and so my self-undersunding de- the disclosure of our radical finitude, the darkness
pends in large degree on how the group and abjecmess we all carry, our particular fonns of
understands me. On the other hand, it is a tragic self-ishness. The more we see into each othee, the
necessiry, because what makes it necessary at all is more we need to tolerate. But there are also
my radical finitude, an involuntary solipsism that things in each other we need, qat just to tolerate,
grounds the "narcissistic self-reference of pre- but to forgive: conditions of moral and intellectual
communicative life" mentioned above. I am isolation which, to the extent that the COl is a
trapped in my own horizon, and that horizon is transformative process, must be overcome, or the
rooted in what Corrington calls the "unbridled whole group is compromised. The isolated indi-
nd unguided will to live.... found in all beings, vidual is brought back/in through both sacrifice
[which] forces them to srruggle against each other and confrontation. But the outcome is never as-
for domination... [giving] rise to a tr:lgic srruggle sured, and the process of the tl"ansfonnation of
at, in itS extreme, makes community impossi- the isolated and disruptive individual through the
ble. "16 love of the group is rife with ambiguities and
This tragic finitude makes for the pathological blind spots. Just as what we judge to be the argu-
and dysfunctional elementS which so easily beset ment losing its way might actually be where we
the Cal-individuals or subgroups who hold too need to foUow it; so an individual's disruption, ap-
much or too little power, or who are srruggling parendy solipsistic, might be just what the whole
with resentment or exdusion; individuals involved needs in order to overcome a collective solipsism;
in personality struggles, or with needs or ambi- nor does that fact necessarily mitigate the solipsis-
tions that have a disruptive effect upon the group. tic origins of the disruptive individual's behavior.
tc. In such an :Ionosphere, distortion of the com- What does seem dear is that the" Cal moves most
munity's drive towards semeiotic transparency is genuinely forward through acts, small and large,
inevitable. It manifests, not only in the som of of self-discipline and sacrifice, which break the
scruggles and tensions JUSt mentioned, but in a po- spell of interest, and point to the omega point of
liticalization of the hermeneutic process itself, re- the community oflove--every individual merging
sulting in individuals, groups, or the whole group his or her individuality in sympathy with his or
not so much following the argument where it her neighbors.
leads, :IS unconsciously orchestrating the argu-
ment to validate prior ideological structures, or to
glorify themselves even more directly. Given this
tragic situation, full of unconsciousness and ambi-

t'O\'EMBER 94

SOME INTER-RELATIONSIllPS way I have of bearing my identity through rime;

which in rum is connected with characteristic
Now I want [Q explore some of the analogical forms of interest and desire, i.e. a way of reaching
relationships, expressive attunements, and mutual (or not reaching) beyond myself for you, or for an
influences between the five communities; not for- orner, and for the community as a larg'er whole of
getting that these relationships are always only de- which I feel myself a pan. What am I really after?
scribed "in a manner of speaking," given tha t in What am I willing to give up in order to get it?
experience the five communities are inseparable. How am I a part of this group? How am I using
Gesture and language are always in some rela- it? How am I allowing it to use me? What sort of
tionship of direct entrainement, although the mo- love am I capable of, finally? This is true for the
dalities of that entramement may be ironic, con- characteristic forms of love and interest, not only
tradictory, or ambiguous. Gesture also interacts of individuals, but of subgroups, and of the group
with mind, in the form of mirroring, or expressing as a whole. The interplay between love and inter-
its generalizing and dialectical movement within est is complex and fraught with vicissirude and
us and between us, in a natural semeiotic whose self-dissimulation, and it is their intersection
more intentional form is the dance. 21 $0 thought which makes of the COl a community of justice
moves us: our faces brighten, contract, we are or injustice, of real democratic impulses and prac-
elecuified posrurally by an idea; a contribution tices, or subtle tyrannies. This becomes particu-
which pulls the argument together also pulls us larly problematic when justice issues in the school,
together around the table. the community, or the larger society become so
Love and interest inform the most fundamental pressing th:lt the COl, in orde.r to maintain its
energies and modalities of the gestural, in that, bi- ethical identity, must assume them as one of the
ologically, movement is TOoted in desire and fear elements of its inquiry.l9
(we move toward or away from) which play them- In addition to the relationships between the
selves out in the goals, cathexes, antipathies, se- communities, there are characteristic dynamic, in-
curities and insecurities of the ego and its rela- teractive panerns that run through the 'whole de-
tions. Interest and desire are also reflected and velopmental process of the COl, which we see
expressed in the intersubjective dancing that goes playing themselves out again and again. The ex-
on between individuals and sometimes between tent to which any given COl Stays together, and
subgroups, whether the dance is erotic, diffident, grows, and reaches judgmenl:S that are meaning-
aggressive, playful, abstract, ambiguous, formal, fuJ, depends to a great extent on how its members
indecisive, etc. undergo these pattems--how they endure them,
Language, just because it is a translation of are obedient to their constraints, master them,
mind, is already a distortion. if a coherent one. learn to take a direction (or avoid one) by them. I
This is also true for its effect on the other com- have identified six.,
munities. In each case, the cost which it extracts
for translating things intO words is the~ry di-
mensionality which ma}(es the community it is CRISIS
translating what it is. Although the poetic, to the
extent it is a disordering of language, brea}(s this It has become almost a cliche of developmental
hold of the logic of grammar, it only allows theory that forward movement in any dialectical
glimpses of "pure" mind, desire, interest, and not process involves a falling out of a previous balance
systematic translation, for that would end one in order to esta blish one on a higher level. Inquiry
bac}( in a linguistic system again. Besides, the COl progresses through continual disruptions; Lipman
cannot long sustain the poetic as a form of dis- compares it to walking, "where you move forward
course, because the latter is a transgressive, asym- by constantly throwing yourself off balance." JO
meoicaJ, individualistic discourse, and thus inimi- Doubt and belief-a complex web of instinctive
cal to the community's need for the building up of beliefs and assumptions, mostly vague, many of
a universe of common signs. them at any given point in time altogether uncon-
Mind, language and gesture are stages, or sciousl'--stand in constant state of dynamic ten-
screens, or expressive spaces. where the dissimula- sion. It is when these belief-habits come into cri-
tions of eros and agape, of the ambiguities of indi- sis, are thrown by experience into a state of
vidual selfhood and the will to power, are repre- perplexity. that the act of search, of investigation
sented and played out. As you come to mow me begins. As Dewey S:lYS. "Thinking begins at a
through my ideas, through the chancteristic way I forlced-road simation. "12 Like the need to put the
talk about my ideas, and through my postural and other foot down, the drive to come back into baJ-
kinesic presence, you increasingly understand all ance, to a state of belief, is irresistible. ll
these to point to a characteristic quality of self. a The quintessential experience of the COl is of a

drama DC sense of heightened meaning through gurnene takes its way through chis endless process
being confronted by a problem which is not a of ineerpreeation and reinterpretation, through
mere exercise, but is genuinely compelling. The which meanings come to be truly shared by the
COl is a place apan, where we have come togeth- community.11 Although each member's perspec-
er to experience this crisis of meaning. It is the tive, in its finitude, is irreducible co e2ch other,
space of problematization, of wonder and reversal. yet each perspective can become pan of a larger
where the lack of understanding, the partial ab- perspective, which is forever emergent through
sence of meaning which inhabits even the most fa- the continual reformulation of positions as a result
miliar and commonplace, is no longer routinely of the interplay of perspectives.
suppressed, but elevated inro what we notice
mosr.J.l This requires a cenain counge, abandon,
and ability ro endure. It makes of the episremo- PLAY
logical, psychological, and social space of the COl
an extraorclinary location, a place of agon from As a moment of negativity, of the undergoing
which we emerge changed. of conrradiction, dialogue is a most profound kind
of work, even what Socrates referred to in the
Phaedo as a "practicing death." From the poine of
DIALOGUE view of the field of emergene meaning it creues,
dialogue is profoundly playful, because it breaks
It is through an other thar the crisis is precipi- the spell of ~e insoumental, the "unbridled and
tared. Dialogue begins in the realm of Peirce's unguided Wltho live. " In opening ourselves to the
"secondness," where experience offers contradic- pe.rspective of the other, we are released into a
tions ro our perspectives, which in turn requires space of emergence and ttansfocmation, where the
mediation, which process results in judgments argument no longer comes from anyone person,
which lead ro an increasing coordination of per- bue from the interplay of persons. Through what
spectives. So clialogue begins in what Gadamer Peirce called "interpretive musemenc," we "allow
calls a "moment of negativity, "11 of conrradiction signs to unfold in creative and novel panerns. "19
by an other, through which complexity deepens. and it is often the unexpected, the chance combi-
Because ir is a process in which some e.lements of nation which allows the argument to move for-
my perspective are confinned and some are ren- ward.
dered doubtful. ro undergo it requires loyalty to It is the principle of Peirce's notion of "ty-
the belief that the experience of conrradiction. un- chism" (Gk. tyche, chance) that chance begets or-
den.aken in good faith. will lead to a srrengthen- der, for in its spontaneity, its difference, its varia-
ing of my own perspective and a further coordina- tion, it acts as a catalyst in the production of
tion of perspectives among USi so, according to higher levels of uniformity, through breaking up
Peirce, the direction of evolution is towards an in- old habits, and stimulating the developmenc of
crease in variety and diversification, and an in- new laws of behavior. 4O Tychism is a function of
crease in regularity, of lawfulness. "Even as "the the logic of relations, which operates through as-
homogeneous puts on heterogeneity' rhese di- sociation of apparendy unlike elements, which are
verse elements are dnwn into harmonious rela- then found to be related within ever larger frame-
nonship on another level, and become coorcfuut- works. It is through an allowance of the play-
eod within some more general system of relations. impulse in the community of language, mind, and
From this perspective varieey is never mere chaos, even gesture, that these larger panems become
the simple disruption of order; it is, most essen- visible. For if, as Peirce said, "emotion is vague,
tially, a necessary catalyst for the growth of re2- incomprehensible thought, "41 play is the feeling-
son." The COl may be thought of as a larger per- response to ideas, to the unity of a horizon of
son, and the growth of persons is never just meaning beyond us, which acts as a lure, for the
addition, but "continual diversification and the ve.ry meaning of playing is entering and respond-
harmonization, one wirh another, of ever more ing with our whole being to something larger
complex systems ... ")6 than us.
Dialogue has the paradoxical character of Both Peirce and Dewey associate the "purpose-
"travelling apan toward unity."" The argument lessness and disinterestedness" of the play impulse
finds its way forward through entanglement in with the scientific attitude,41 The ideal mental at-
conrradiction. This is inevitable, in that commu- tirude is "to be playful and serious at the same
nication is asymmetrical-the very reception of a time," in th2t "free mental play involves serious-
sign by another is its irrevocable transformation ness, the earnest following of the de,,:eJopment of
into another sign, and it is impossible [0 return to the subject maner," while "pure interest in outh
its original meaning before interpretation. The ar- coincides with love of the free play of thought. "41


,.., ~J

When we are playing with ideas in the COl we ent chaos, avoiding what Dewey called "fooling."
are allowing the structure of the community of which, as an excess of playfulness, leads to dissipa-
mind to crystallize and articulate beyond us, from tion and disintegration of the inquiry.4s
between us and among us. I have been concentrating on the play of the
The release of ourselves to the intrinsic play of community of mind. but play is certainly present
the relations ever-emergent in the community of as well in language. which loves to play with
mind requires the courage to take. in Dewey's sound, sense, and structure; in gesture, where imi-
words, "a leap, a jwnp, the propriety of which tation and unconscious commentary of posture,
cannot be absolutely wa.rnnted in advance. no movement, and expression engage in constant in-
maner what the precautions taken."4-I It takes dis- terplay; in interest and love, which both seek,
cipline to suspend judgment, and to cultivate a va- spontaneously and mostly unconsciously, pla~ful
riety of alternative suggestions without settling on expression in erotic, compassionate, dominance-
one prematurely. We learn to balance our focus submission and intrigue relations with others. All
between the inquiry as it flows from moment to these forms are, not just analogues but elements
moment, and as it promises a culmination, an out- of the play of the community of mind, in that each
come. We know we are at play when we find our- community is a dynamic, reflective translation of
selves noticing the beauty of the internal relations each other.
of the emergence of mind in the logic of relations,
aU the while sensing its uJtimate direction as a ho-
rizon, inuninent yet infinitely hr. 1h.rough the TELEOLOGY
moves which carry us along, we have an aesthetic
sense of its structure as it forms just beyond us, a We are able [0 give ourselves up to the play of
thread of continuity binding together the succes- dialogue in the cor because we trust implicitly
sive stages. This gives us the strength and trust to that there is an immanent fonnation and unfold-
follow the argument where it leads through appar- ing of both thought and relational structure


among us. We sense that we are embarked togeth- reduce the great risk it represents for the COL
er on a movement tQward a coordination of per- This risk is only increased by the fact thar we tend
spectives through which our universe of meaning to hold implicitJy to a homeostatic or "order"
will be transfonned, including the fundamenral model of group process, which understands con-
relationship between the individual and the group, flict to be inherentJy demonic and disintegrative,
i.e. the ontic structure of the community itself. and therefore to be avoided or suppressed at any
This tdos presents itself as what Corrington calls price. But as cognitive conflict transfonns the
an "unconditional source of va.lue" which both community of mind, so social conflict transforms
drives us from within and Jures us from without. the communities of love and interest, and produc-
It promises a state of perfect reasonableness, in- es moral awareness. When conflict is undergone
clusive unity, and radical openness,46 i.e. the over- with a hwnility which comes from the awareness
coming of the tragic finitude which blunts and that it is potentially rransformative, individualism
distorts our inquiry, as well as our relationships. is tempered, and the individual-group relation is
So each individual interpretive act points beyond gradually altered.
itseJf to a whole-in-fonnation, an encompassing Vlhat causes social conflict in the COl? All per-
perspective in which all signs are located in rela- sons experience themselves as parts of a greater
tion to each other. Each interpretive act is ulti- whole, but we also experience a fundamental, irre-
mately judged by that infinite horizon, that felt ducible dimension of discontinuity, because each
promise of a whole truth, or "infinite long run of us occupies a horizon which both connects and
which guarantees the validation of interpretive separates U$ from others. We rarely attempt to
acts. "47 probe and uncuJare our own horizon-in fact, as
Although we cannot help but operate under the Corrington says, "It is part of the logic of hori-
lure of this infinite horizon, it always exceeds the zons that it forgers it is a horizon." In addition,
horizon of what CU1 be present to us at any given there is a drive from within each individual hori-
rime; so we have only partia.l truths, glimpses of zon to become all in all; Corrington calls it "the
the truth as it displays aspects of itself in human hunger of each horizon for generic expansion and
discourse; nor can we deduce in advance what it encompassment, its desire to become identical to
wiJllook like. As Corrington puts it, "no [sign]se- the world itself. "SO This hunger is in fuct connect-
ries will reach torality, yet no series will be free ed to the "happy fault" mentioned above-the
from the longing for full encompassment." Some- drive for unity which, combined with the lure of
thing like a "generic hunger animates each series the "encompassing," impels us toward the coordi-
as it drives toward the Encompassing itself. "~~ nation of perspectives. It is always an ambivalent
drive, but only becomes demonic when it persists
in the otherness, the independency which is the
CONFLICT source ofits drive for unity. In Peirce's fannula-
tion, "individuality is the locus of evil if it is con-
Conflict in the COl is usually associated with strued as the terminus rather than as a moment or
the cOITUllunity of interest-with ego barnes, or phase of the circuJar movement of 10ve. H
ideological divisions, or insensitive, presumptu- This forgetfulness of my own horizon--<>r even
ous, backbiting, etc. attitudes or behaviors. But in that 1 occupy a horizon-typically leads less to
that reason necessarily involves itself in contradic- wickedness than to various fonns of rigidity and
tions in order to develop, conflict is a universal inertia, or to ideological commianents which
theme of the COL The experience of inquiry al- "blunt the open movement of sign articulation. "52
ways bears a negative element, a necessity that My forgetfulness CU1 not be overcome from with-
one be refuted in order to learn what one does not in my own horizon, but only through its being hu-
know. The dia of dialectic stands for the process miliated in one form or another: it is the shoch,
of differentiation, of a going-through in which the ruptures which I experience through dialogue
there is implicit a talcing things asunder, which al- which serve to cbrify my horizon for myself, and
ways involves a certain degree of conflict. thereby allow funher coordination with the hori-
Conflict is a result of the resist.ance by second- zons of others. My horizon will never be fully
ness, the non-ego, the particuJar and disruptive, to transparent to myself-that seems to be an onto-
oUI expectations. This resistance is a key element logical impossibility. But when it collides with an
in the progress of the argument, for through it, alien horizon, what's hidden in it is revealed. and
reality resists the claims of any theory which be- it is forced into a new self-reflectiveness. ' !
comes preswnptive, and attempts to explain more The irrevocable character of OUI finitude ma.kes
than it rea.lly can; thereby false paths are e1iminat- for an inexpungable element of hiddenness of in-
ed.[49] But the fact that conflict is a necessary, di...i duals from each other. This "ultimate recalci-
central aspect of any dialectical process does not trance on the part of horizons to reveal all of their


,1- ~
r-.:OVEMBER 94

idiosyncratic and demonic rraits"H is a t:r:lgic ele- character of the COl-that though Ureason loves
ment in communal life. But from the point of to hide," the argument, like water seelcing its lev-
view of the dialectical movement which we sense el, will eventually overcome all obstacles to its ad-
we are involved in as a community, this radical vance.
surd of individuality appears as the necessary neg- In the areas oflove and interest, th~ same disci-
ative moment in love's creative development. s; pline is necessary to protect the spirit of inquiry
The tension between the irreducible obscurities of from the pitfalls of monopolization, aggressive-
our own horizon :and the horizon of horizons ness, competitiveness, seductiveness, timidity, in-
which lures us forward, calls for a discipline of timidation, overexcitement, dissipation, negativ-
which, through love, we find ourselves to be capa- ism, paralysis, trivialization, and so on. In
ble. addition, any given discussion will generate its
own logic and rhythm, which cannot be brought
to closure by a mechanical method. Understand-
DISCIPLINE ing must wait upon the biros, the opportune mo-
ment, and not force the dialogue into predeter-
Discipline is the operative virtue of the Cal, in mined pattemsY E.3ch member of the cal must
that it implies the minimal level of individual and come to Wldersrand and pnctice the sacrifices,
collective self-conrroJ which makes it possible to large and small, that are necessary to foster and
undergo the conflicts and vicissitudes, not only of protect this opponune moment. This sacrificial
the argument, but of the group's social process ability is expressed in very concrete ways as mem-
without Josing heart, turning inward, striving to bers learn to withhold a conrribution because they
dominate, becoming entangled in ideological con- sense some larger emergence on the discursive
flict. expecting more of the community than it is horizon, or to phrase a conrribution as a question
able at anyone moment to give, and so on. E.3ch rather than as a positive statement, or to give up
COl demands its particular form or expression of the opportunity to continue an exchange that lim-
this virtue, depending on the individuals involved, its the conrributions of others. This discipline is
but what seem to be generic to all its modalities under the Christim sign of crucifixion, or the
are self-restraint and perseverance. principle that nothing is tr2J1Sformed without a
The community of mind demands the disci- death, or loss-in this case, the little death of our
pline of the logic of classes, and also the larger, own potential conrribution. It acts to undermine
more rigorous discipline of enduring the psycho- the more extreme forms of individualism, and to
logical suspense which critical thinking requires. progressively purify the individual of subjective
In the realm of the expression of ideas, there is a hermeneutic distortions, II which in turn increases
discipline made necessary by the phenomenon her acuity of judgment, and thereby her disci-

that, in Dewey's words, "direct or immediate dis-
~""rge or expression of an impulsive t~ency is
fa to thinlcing. Only when the impulse is to
.Ie enent cheCked and thrown back upon itself
does reflection ensue. "56 This is true not only for
pline. The bettet the sense I have of the argu-
ment's overall movement, the easier it is for me to
suppress my own conttibution for the moment,
for I'm intuitively aware of more than one place I
can conrribute. Thus Dewey said that when disci-
the individual, but also for the group, for in fol- pline is conceived in intellectual tenn5, it is "iden-
lowing the argument where it leads there is a tified with freedom in its true sense." So the dis-
holding to a course which often demands of us cipline of the cal becomes less onerous and
that we restrain a thought or contribution when more joyous as the community develops. The ex-
there is no obvious or intrinsic reason to do so, citement of foUowing the argument where it leads
except that at anyone moment in the cal there rewards our patient, tenacious effortS, and our
are as mmy conttibutions possible as there are continual slcirmishes with confusion and delay.
members, and each one has a claim to being the That excitement reminds us that we are being
one which could move the argument along, even transformed, individually and in terms of our rela-
(remembering the principle of tyehism) if it ap- tion to each othe.r, by an unceasing dialectical pro-
pears to be a digression. The discipline required cess.
of me to withhold my conrribution in the interest
of another's is rendered even more rigorous when
the other's conrribution appears to my under- CONCLUSION
standing as confused, obfuscatory, off the point,
or even if it just seems to be tllcing the discussion Even before it is a community of natural and in-
away from a point that I do not understand us to tentional signs, the COl is a communicative con-
have finished with. In order to be able to practice text, a field of dynamic intersubjectivity, which is
this discipline, I must believe in the evolutionary always growing, changing, busy being born or

busy dying. Its inquiry is not just cognitive. but 2. ):unes M. Edie. "Foreward," in Maurice
linguistic, personal, social. emotional, political. Merleau-Ponry, Consouumw anti fht Acquisin'rm of
erotic, agapic. If it is developing weU, it is open on ungwzgt. Translated by Hugh J. Silverman
(Ennston, IL: Northwestern Universiry Press.
aU these levels to the emergence of something, in
1973), pp. xiii-xiv.
a dialectical, self-correcting movement which ap- 3. See Howud Gardner, Framu of Mind (New Yor~
pears infinite. What keeps it going is the erotic Basic Booles, 1985).
drive for wisdom. and it is this eros which makes 4. Th~e fundamenCll mutual arousal regulation
possible the sacrifices it demands. The lover of patterns an be rraced to the primal interlocutive
the whole sacrifices his exclusive claims in the in- simarion of the infant and mother. The mother
terests of a transformation of the group which will and infant are one person to the extent the infant
also transform him. This principle runs like a red lacks the ability to regulate her own vitality affect.
thread through all the dimensions of the COL In and therefore depends on the mother for
sdf-regulation. The way the mother "dances"
the community of mind, we must accept the dis-
with the infant in order to do this is internalized
membering of our claim, the giving up of a tem- by the child, and becomes a fnmework of g~runl
porary closure in order for the argumem to con- e.xpecraoons, a particular sryfe of dancing, which
tinue, and to come together on a higher level. can be more or less inhibited, more or less
The very narure of dialogue involves this wander- attUned, etc. See Danid Stem, Tht Inmptr1011JlI
ing in the interests of getting there. In the com- World offhtlnftmf, (New Yor~ Basic Booles,
munity of gesrure the so-onger ego learns, in the 1985), especiilly Chapter 7, where he describes
exchange of vital affect, to hold back. and allow the what ho calls" affect: arruneroem ."
other to initiate, so that we reach a common plen- 5. Paul SchilcIer, 10t 117U1gr anJ Apptaranu of tht
Human BoJy: Studies in rht ConstrTJaiut EnlTg;u of
irude. In the community of language, we learn to
tht Psycht (New Yor~ Intc.rtUoorul Universities
question rather than declaim. to clarify nther Press, 1950). pp. 235,273.
than proliferate points. In the community of in- 6. Merleau-Ponty, pp. 45-46.
terest, we learn that our own personal empower- 7. Ibid. p. 12.
ment, the recognition by the group of who we are 8. Ibid, p. 95.
and who we want to be, depends ultimately on our 9. Ibid, pp. 42-43.
own recognition of the unique, irreplaceable indi- 10. Schilder, p. 286.
viduality of the other, and on our honoring of that II. Merleau-Ponty, p. 12.
individuality as having its source in something 12. Ths seems to be related to the paradox pointed
out by Russell, of the class which cannot include
even beyond that individual. In the community of
itsdf.-e.g. the of chairs is not irself a cluir.
love, we discover the complex affective and erotic 13. I have :l1ways wanted to conduct a session of the
disciplines which lead to a capacity for deeper lev- COl without words.-gesture onJy.
els of murua! friendship. 14. Raposa, pp. 38, 131.
These sacrifices seem worth it to us, because we 15. John Dewey, HC1f1J Wt Think. (BuffaJo r-,'Y:
sense the connection between them and the So- Prometheus Booles, 1991 (1910», pp. 39, 34,79,
cratic notion of philosophy as "practicing death." 80,211.
We sense that nothing advances. is transformed, 16. Raposa pp. 18,25.
without death. The tragic relation between the in- 17. Robert S. Corrington, 10t CUT1TT11uniry of
dividual and the group is resolved through sacri- InmpTutr1 (Macon, GA: Mercer Universiry Press,
1987), p. 3.
fice, on the other side of which the individual 18. Herbert Mareuse, Eras anJ Civiliurion (Boston:
finds himself again in a larger context. The risk is Beacon Press. 1955), Oupter I0, ~Thc
that the sacrifice leads nowhere-that one holds Transformation of Sexuality into Eros."
back for a truth that never emerges, or is sabo- 19. See Ann Sharp, "Peirce, Feminism, and
taged by those (including oneself) who are too Philosophy for Children," A=/yrU Teaching (14,1),
self-interested, or lad:: the discipline, to hold badc. p.58.
But as unavoidable as is the risk, the drive for in- 20. Raposa, p. 83.
dividual and collective transformation is even Z1. Peirce identified it as more than that. For him it is
in fact the principle of ~C'Volutionarylove," for
greater, and its promise beckons eternally.
which both nature and mind, or thought. tend
towards uniry Uld wholeness. Given Freud's
meuphysics, "instinct" may have been the onJy
thing he could ca.1J it.
22. I am deliberately refusing any sort of final
distinction between eros and agape. I consider
NOTES them to forms, mod~, or dimcn.sions of the same
I. Michael L. Raposa, Ptim's PhikJsophy ofRtligion 23. Corrington. p. 43.
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989), p. 24. Ibid, p. 17.


I '1, ~