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Practice Set Paper 7 1

!AC"#CE
(Reasoning)

A E!
(1) None (3) Two (5) More than three (2) One (4) Three

REASONING
1. In a certain code. FUEL is written as $% #6 and KITE is written @7#. How is LIFE written in that code? (1) 6%$# (2) 6$%4 (3) 6*$# (4) 6%*# (5) None of these 2. How many such pairs of letters are there in the word ADVERTISE, each of which has as many letters between them in the word as they have in the English alphabet? (1) None (2) One (3) Two (4) Three (5) None of these 3. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to the group? (1) 115 (2) 145 (3) 95 (4) 155 (5) 75 4. If in the word CUSTOMIZE all the consonants are replaced by the previous letter and all the vowels are re placed by the next letter in English alphabet and then all the letters are arranged alphabetically from left to right, which letter will be fourth from the right? (1) R (2) T (3) L (4) M (5) None of these 5. How many meaningful words can be made from the letters ADEL using each letter only once?

Directions (Q.6-10): In each of the questions below are given four statements followed by three conclusions numbered I, II and III. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts. All books are novels. Some novels are poems. Some poems are stories. No story is a movie. Conclusions: I. Some books are poems. II. Some movies are novels. III. No movie is a novel. (1) Only I follows (2) Only I & II follow (3) Only either II or III follows (4) None follows (5) None of these 7. Statements: Some bags are suits. All suits are trousers. Some trousers are shirts. All shirts are coats. Conclusions: I. Some trousers are coats. II. Some bags are trousers. III. Some suits are coats. (1) Only I & II follow 6. Statements:

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2 8 Practice Set Paper (2) Only I follows (3) Only II & III follow (4) All follow (5) None of these 8. Statements: All flowers are fruits. No fruit is juice. Some juices are proteins. All proteins are vitamins. Conclusions: I. Some vitamins are fruits. II. Some juices are vitamins. III. No flower is juice. (1) Only I & II follow (2) Only I & III follow (3) Only I, II & III follow (4) Only II & III follow (5) None of these 9. Statements: Some towers are pillars. Some pillars are buildings. All buildings are flats. No flat is house. Conclusions: I. No building is house. II. Some towers are houses. III. Some towers are flats. (1) None follows (2) Only I follows (3) Only II & III follow (4) All follow (5) None of these 0. Statements: All cups are bowls. All bowls are trays. Some trays are plates. No plate is spoon. Conclusions: I. Some bowls are plates. II. Some cups are spoons. III. No cup is spoon. (1) Only I follows (2) Only II follows (3) Only II & III follow (4) All follow (5) None of these Directions (Q. 11-15): In these questions the symbols @, #, $, % and * are used with different meanings as follows: A @ B means A is not smaller than B. A # B means A is neither smaller than nor equal to B. A $ B means A is neither greater than nor smaller than B. A % B means A is not geater than B. A * B means A is neither greater than nor equal to B. In each question, four statements showing relationships have been given, which are followed by three conclusions I, II and III. Assuming that the given statements are true, find out which conclusion(s) is/are definitely true. 11. Statements: H # R, R @ L, L * W, W % F Conclusions: I. H # L II. F # L III. H$ F (1) Only I follows (2) Only I & II follow (3) Only II & III follow (4) Only either I or II follows (5) All follow 12. Statements: V $ Y, Y @ Z, Z % X, X # T Conclusions: I. T # Z II. X # Y III. Z *Y (1) None follows (2) Only I follows (3) Only II & III follow (4) Only I & III follow (5) None of these 13. Statements:R @ J, J % F, F * E, E % M Conclusions: I. M # J II. F% M III. M * R (1) Only I follows (2) Only II follows (3) Only III follows (4) Only I & II follow (5) All follow 14. Statements: D * Q, Q $ L, L # T, T % H Conclusions: I. D * L II. L# H III. H* L (1) Only I follows (2) Only I & II follow (3) Only either II or III follows (4) All, I, II & III follow (5) Only I and either II or follow

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Practice Set Paper 7 3

15. Statements: M # K, M $ F, F % Q, Q * H Conclusions: I. H# K II. Q# K III. Q@ M (1) Only I & II follow (2) Only either I or II follows (3) All I, II & III follow (4) Only II & III follow (5) None of these Directions (Q. 16-20): Given an input line the machine arranges the words and numbers in steps in a systematic manner as illustrated below: Input line : 56 dress fine shine 32 66 72 offer Step I : 72 56 dress fine shine 32 66 offer Step II : 72 shine 56 dress fine 32 66 offer Step III : 72 shine 66 56 dress fine 32 offer Step IV : 72 shine 66 offer 56 dress fine 32 Step V : 72 shine 66 offer 56 fine dress 32 Step VI : 72 shine 66 offer 56 fine 32 dress Step VI is the last step and the output in Step VI is the final output. As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input. 16. Step II of an input is 53 window 42 50 door lock key 36'. How many more steps will be required to complete the arrangement? (1) Three (2) Four (3) Five (4) Six (5) None of these 17. Step IV an input is 62 sound 56 sleep roam present 33 49'. What will be the input definitely? (1) sound 62 sleep 56 roam present 33 49 (2) sleep sound 62 56 roam present 33 49 (3) 62 sound sleep 56 roam present 33 49 (4) Cannot be determined (5) None of these 18. Which of the following will be the third step for input jockey firm 36 43 growth chart 22 45? (1) 45 jockey 43 growth firm 36 chart 22 (2) 45 jockey 43 firm growth 36 chart 22 (3) 45 jockey 43 growth 36 firm chart 22

(4) 45 jockey 43 firm 36 growth chart 22 (5) None of these 19. Which step will be the last step for an input whose second step is 63 sour 18 56 grapes healthy 32 rise? (1) IV (2) V (3) VIII (4) VII (5) None of these 20. What will be the fifth step of an input whose first step is 85 journey train 36 54 daily 28 mansion? (1) 85 train 54 mansion 28 journey daily 36 (2) 85 train 54 mansion journey 36 daily 28 (3) 85 train 54 mansion 36 journey daily 28 (4) There is no such step (5) None of these Directions (Q. 21-25): In each question below is given a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. A course of action is a step or administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow-up or further action in regard to the problem, policy, etc. On the basis of the information given in the statement, you have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follow(s) for pursuing. if only course of action I follows. if only course of action II follows. Give answer (3) if either course of action I or II follows. Give answer (4) if neither course of action I nor II follows. Give answer (5) it both courses of action I and II follow. 21. Statement: People in the locality were agitated as more than thirty people died in a building collapse. Courses of Action: I. Government should immediately announce compensations for the affected families. II. Authorities should take a stringent action against builders tending to compromise over quality of material used. 22. Statement: More number of students passing SSC examination has resulted into frustration Give answer (1) Give answer (2)

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4 8 Practice Set Paper among children for not getting admissions into colleges of their choice. Courses of Action: I. Government should permit the colleges to increase the number of seats. II. Children and their parents should be counselled for being flexible on the choice of college. 23. Statement: With the onset of monsoon all the hospitals are getting increased number of patients due to various epidemics. Courses of Action: I. Civic authorities should educate the public the need for observing minimum required hygiene. II. Civic authorities should make arrangements to equip the hospitals with required medicines and other facilities. 24. Statement: Expensive clothes and accessories are becoming a growing need among collegegoing teenage children of middle-income group. Courses of Action: I. Colleges should introduce a dress code. II. Children should be counselled emphasising the importance of many other things. 25. Statement: Misuse of subsidies offered to the farmers was observed and brought to the notice of the concerned authorities. Courses of Action: I. Government should issue orders to the concerned officials to be stricter and more careful while verifying the required documents while granting subsidy. II. Government should take stringent action against those making false claim of subsidy. Directions (Q. 26-30): In each of these questions a group of digits is given followed by four combinations of letter/ symbol code numbered (1), (2), (3) & (4). You have to code the group of digits as per the scheme and conditions given below. Serial number of the combination that correctly represents the group of digits is your answer. If none of the combinations is correct, your answer is (5), ie None of these. Digit : 5 7 09 3 164 8 2

Letter/Symbol Code: K E H $ A A J Q R @ Conditions : i) If the first as well as the last digit is odd their codes are to be interchanged. ii) If the first digit is even and the last digit odd both are to be coded by the code for odd digit. iii) If the last digit is 0 it is to be coded by X iv) If the first as well as the last digit is even both are to be coded by 26. 586403 (1) KRJQHA (2) ARJQHK (3) AHJQRK (4) KHJQRA (5) None of these 27. 439157 (1) QA$AKE (2) EA$AKQ (3) QA$AKO (4) EA$AKE (5) None of these 28. 801234 (1) *HA@A* (2) RHA@A* (3) *HA@A* (4) RHA@AQ (5) None of these 29. 389160 (1) AR$AJH (3) XR$AJX (5) None of these 30. 764138 (1) EJQAAE (3) RJQAAR (5) None of these

(2) AR$AJX (4) AR$AJA

(2) RJOAAE (4) EJQAA*

Directions (Q. 31-35): These questions are based on the following information. Study it carefully to answer the questions. Seven officers L, M, N, P, Q, R & S work in three different shifts I, II & III with at least two persons working in each shift. Each one of them has a different weekly off from Monday to Sunday not necessarily in the same order. M works in second shift only with R, whose weekly off is on Friday. Qs weekly off is on the next

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Practice Set Paper 7 5

day of Ls weekly off and both of them work in different shifts. P works in third shift and his weekly off is on Saturday. S has a weekly off on Monday and he works in first shift. The one who has a weekly off on Sunday works in first shift. L and P do not work in the same shift. Ls weekly off is on Tuesday. 31. Whose weekly off is on Sunday? (1) L (2) M (3) N (4) Q (5) None of these 32. Which of the following group of officers works in shift I ? (1) L, N, S (2) L, S (3) N, S (4) L, P, Q (5) None of these 33. On which day is Qs weekly off? (1) Tuesday (2) Wednesday (3) Sunday (4) Cannot be determined (5) None of these 34. Which of the following combinations of shift, person and weekly off is definitely correct? (1) II, M, Sunday (2) III, N, Sunday 3) II, P, Sunday 4) I, L, Tuesday (5) None of these 35. Whose weekly off falls on Thursday? (1) L (2) N (3) Q (4) Cannot be determined (5) None of these Directions (Q. 36-40): In each of the following questions two rows of numbers are given. The resultant number in each row is to be worked out separately based on the following rules and the questions below the rows of numbers are to be answered. The operations of numbers progress from left to right. Rules: (i) If a two-digit odd number is followed by a two-digit odd number they are to be added. (ii) If a two-digit even number is followed by a two-digit odd number which is a perfect square, the even number is to be subtracted from the odd number.

(iii) If a three-digit number is followed by a twodigit number the first number is to be divided by the second number. (iv) If a prime number is followed by an even number the two are to be added. (v) If an even number is followed by another even number the two are to be multiplied. 36. 23 15 12 X 24 49 If X is the resultant of the first row, what is the resultant of the second row? (1) 24 (2) 25 (3) 28 (4) 22 (5) None of these 37. 37 12 21 38 81 14 What is the difference between the resultants of the two rows? (1) 23 (2) 32 (3) 13 (4) 18 (5) None of these 38. 16 8 32 132 11 X2 If X is the resultant of the first row, what is the resultant of the second row? (1) 192 (2) 128 (3) 132 4) 144 (5) None of these 39. 345 23 X 45 17 81 It X is the resultant of the second row, what is the result ant of the first row? (1) 285 (2) 33 (3) 135 (4) 34 5) None of these 40. 12 28 84 37 22 18 What is the sum of the resultants of the two rows? (1) 77 (2) 87 (3) 84 (4) 72 (5) None of these Directions (Q. 41-45): Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

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6 8 Practice Set Paper Mark answer (1): if the inference is definitely true, ie it properly follows from the statement of facts given. Markanswer (2): if the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given. Mark answer (3): if the data are inadequate, ie from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false. Mark answer (4): if the inference is probably false, though not definitely false in the light of the facts given. Mark answer (5): if the inference is definitely false, ie it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts. Growth through acquisitions and alliances has become a critical part of creating value for pharma and biotech manufacturers and their shareholders. However, companies and their investors may risk value destruction if they acquire rights to a drug that suddenly poses unanticipated safety risks for patients. Similarly, safety-related compliance violations committed by an acquired company could significantly impair the ultimate value of the transaction and the reputation of the acquirer. The pace of deal-making between pharma and biotech companies continued to accelerate in 2006, increasing 17% to about $ 18 billion. Pharma companies were typically the buyers, and the premiums they paid increased sub stantially as competition intensified to secure access to novel drugs and biologics. The stakes increase everyday as com petition pushes up prices and drives deal-making to earlier development stages with greater uncertainty and less time to complete thorough due diligence. 41. Pharmaceutical companies at times may incur loss after acquisition of biotech companies. 42. Acquisitions of biotech companies was preferred among pharmaceutical companies in the recent past. 43. Stiff competitions among the prospective buyers have resulted into erosion of value of the biotech companies. 44. Biotech companies are not capable of acquiring pharmaceutical companies. 45. Safety-related issues are prime concerns for the pharmaceutical companies while negotiating acquisition of biotech companies. Directions (Q. 46-50): Below is given passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark answer if you think (1) Definitely True the inference properly follows from the statement of facts given. (2) Probably True the inference may be true in the light of the given facts but not definitely true. (3) Data Inadequatefrom the facts it cannot be said whether the inference is likely to be true or false. (4) Probably False the inference is probably false in the light of the facts given though not definitely false (5) Definitely False the inference cannot possibly by drawn from the facts given or it contradicts. The explosive growth in demand for castor oil abroad is bringing about a silent change in the castorseed economy of Gujarat. The state is well on its way to emerge as a strong manufacturing centre for castor oil relegating to background its current status as a big trading centre. The business prospects for export of castor oil which is converted into valueadded derivatives are so good that a number of castorseed crushing units have already come up and others are on the anvil. 46. Gujarat used to supply castorseeds to the manufacturing units in the past. 47. Gujarat is the only state in India which produces castorseed. 48. India can produce enough castor oil to export after meeting the domestic demand.

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Practice Set Paper 7 7

49. The production of castor oil has become a profitable business proposition. 50. Manufacturing castor oil guarantees more surplus than selling castorseeds. Directions (Q. 51-55): Below is given a passage followed by several inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark answer 1. if the inference is definitely true. Mark answer 2. if the inference is probably true. Mark answer 3. if the data are inadequate. Mark 4. if the inference is probably false and mark 5. if the inference is definitely false. Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy and an aerogenerator can convert it into electricity. Through not much has so far been done in this field, the survey shows that there is a vast potential for developing wind as an alternating source of energy. The wind survey has four components direction, duration, speed and distribution and on this basis U. P. hill areas have been found an ideal place for setting up aerogenerators. In U. P. hills alone as many as 58 sites have been identified. 51. 58 sites, identified in U. P did not have electricity. 52. Only the hilly areas of U. P. were surveyed for setting up aerogenerators. 53. Apart from U. P hills no other site has been identified for setting up aerogenerators. 54. Energy by wind is comparatively low emerging field. 55. The survey was conducted under the aegis of, government of U. P. Directions (Q. 56-60): Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth of falsity. Mark answer: Definitely True if you think the inference properly follows from the statement of facts given.

Probably True if the inference may be true in the light of the given facts but not definitely true. Data Inadequate from the facts it cannot be said whether the inference is likely to be true or false. Probably False if the inference is probably false in the light of the facts given though not definitely false. Definitely False if the inference cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts. The explosive growth in demand for castor oil abroad is bringing about a silent change in the castorseed economy of Gujarat. The state is well on its way to emerge as a strong manufacturing venture for castor oil relegating to background its current status as a big trading centre. The business prospects for export of castor oil which is converter into valueadded derivatives are so good that a number of castorseed crushing units have already come-up and others are on the anvil. 56. Gujarat used to supply castorseeds to the manufacturing units in the past. (1) Definitely true (2) Probably true (3) Definitely false (4) Probably false (5) Data inadequate 57. Gujarat is the only state in India which produces castorseed. (1) Definitely false (2) Data inadequate (3) Probably false (4) Definitely true (5) Probably true 58. India can produce enough castor oil to export after meeting is domestic demand. (1) Probably true (2) Probably false (3) Definitely false (4) Data inadequate (5) Definitely true 59. The production of castor oil has become a profitable business proposition. (1) Probably false (2) Data inadequate (3) Definitely false (4) Probably true 5. Definitely true 60. Manufacturing castor oil guarantees more surplus than selling castorseeds. (1) Probably false (2) Probably true (3) Definitely true (4) Probably true (5) Definitely false Directions (Q. 61-65): Below is given a passage followed by several inferences which can be

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8 8 Practice Set Paper drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth of falsity Mark answer 1. if the inference is definitely true. Mark the answer 2. if the inference is probably true. Mark answer 3. if the data are inadequate. Mark answer 4. if the inference is probably false and mark answer 5. if the answer is definitely false. The central budget for the fiscal year 2004-05 had many welcome features such as considerable reduction in corporate tax to 40%, abolition of levy of Income tax on book profit and liberalised industrial policy. This will encourage growth of the economy. However poor infrastructure is the, biggest bottleneck for that growth. This is mainly related to power. The real problem is not the shortage of power but the management of the transmission and distribution system. The recent announcement of allowing the private sector to make an entry into power generation is a bold and welcome step. 61. The levy of personal Income Tax has been abolished in the central budget of 2004-05. 62. Till date the power generation was restricted to only public sector. 63. In the earlier budget the corporate tax was more than 45%. 64. The public sector is more efficient than private sector in power generation. 65. The amount of generated power is more than the amount consumed. Directions (Q. 66-70): Below is given a passage followed by several inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark answer 1. if the inference is definitely true. Mark answer 2. if the inference is probably true. Mark answer 3. if the data are inadequate. Mark answer 4. if the inference is probably false and mark answer 5. if the inference is definitely false. cities. The first result of the 2001 census suggest that the density of population. in urban areas is Within manageable limits, with most cities, including greater Mumbai, being will below the 23000 per square kilometre mark set by Kolkata. But within several of the older cities the walled areas have high densities which exert pressure on the out dated amenities in these areas, a pressure that is accentuated by the poor maintenance of housing as well as other assets in the inner cities. The inner cities were designed for a pattern of urban life far removed from what exists today. The makers of narrow Winding lanes could hardly have anticipated modern transpiration. 66. The rate of growth in density of population in the inner cities has been more than that in Surrounding areas. 67. The density of population in the inner city of greater Mumbai is the highest in India. 68. The increase in density of population in urban areas has out grower the increase in amenities. 69. The pace of Indian urbanisation is much slower by international standards. 70. At the time of planning the cities in the pace the use of bigger roads was envisaged by the planners. Directions (Q. 71-75): In each of the questions given below which one of the five answer figures on the right should come after the problem figures on the left, if the sequence were continued? 71.

(1) 72.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Passage
A worrying feature of Indian urbanisation has been its tendency to increase pressure on the inner (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

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Practice Set Paper 7 9

73.

75.

(1) 74.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

ANSWERS
1. (5) 11. (2) 21. (5) 31. (3) 41. (1) 51. (4) 61. (3) 71. (2) 2. (2) 12. (1) 22. (2) 32. (1) 42. (1) 52. (3) 62. (1) 72. (1) 3. (1) 13. (1) 23. (5) 33. (2) 43. (4) 53. (3) 63. (2) 73. (4) 4. (1) 14. (1) 24. (2) 34. (4) 44. (3) 54. (1) 64. (3) 74. (3) 5. (4) 15. (3) 25. (5) 35. (5) 45. (2) 55. (3) 65. (1) 75. (5) 6. (3) 16. (2) 26. (2) 36. (5) 46. (1) 56. (1) 66. (1) 7. (1) 17. (4) 27. (4) 37. (3) 47. (2) 57. (2) 67. (5) 8. (4) 18. (1) 28. (1) 38. (1) 48. (5) 58. (5) 68. (2) 9. (2) 19. (5) 29. (2) 39. (4) 49. (5) 59. (4) 69. (3) 10. (5) 20. (3) 30. (5) 40. (5) 50. (4) 60. (2) 70. (5)

HINTS & SOLUTIONS


6. All books are novels + Some novels are poems = A + I = No conclusion. Hence conclusion I does not follow Some novels are poems +. Some poems are stories = I + I = No conclusion. Hence II and III do not follow. But they make a complementary I-E pair. Hence either II or III follows. 7. Some trousers are shirts + All shirts are coats = I + A = I Some trousers are coats. Hence conclusion I follows. Some bags are suits + All suits are trousers = I + A = I = Some bags are trousers. Hence II follows. All suits are trousers + Some trousers are shirts = A + I = No conclusion. Hence III does not follow.

8. All flowers are fruits + No fruit is juice = A + E = E = No flower is juice. Hence III follows. Some juices are proteins + All proteins are vitamins = I + A= I = Some juices are vitamins. Hence II follows. No fruit is juice + Some juices are vitamins = E + I = O* = Some vitamins are not fruits. Hence conclusion I does not follow. 9. All buildings are flats + No flat is house = A + E = E = No building is house. Hence con clusion I follows. Some towers are pillars + Some pillars are buildings = I + I = No conclusion. Hence neither II nor III follows. 13. R > J ... (i); J < 5 F ... (ii); F < E ... (iii); E < M ... (iv) Combining (iii) and (iv), we get F < M ...(v). Hence conclusion II (F < M ) does not follow.

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10 8 Practice Set Paper Combining (ii) and (v), we get M > J ... (vi). Hence conclusion I follows. But comparing (i) and (vi), we do not get any relationship between M and R. Hence III does not follow. D < Q ... (i); Q = L ... (ii); L > T ... (iii); T < 5 H ... (iv) Combining (i) and (ii), we get D < Q = L or D < L. Hence conclusion I follows. But L and H cant be compared on the basis of (iii) and (iv). Hence neither II nor III follows. 15.3; M > K ... (i); M = F ... (ii); F<_ Q ... (iii); Q < H ... (iv) Combining all, we get K < M = F < Q < H (v) Hence H > K. Which means conclusion I is true. Again, Q > K. Which means II is true. And, Q > M . Which means III is true. Input: jockey firm 36 43 growth chart 22 45 Step I: 45 jockey firm 36 43 growth chart 22 Step II: 45 jockey 43 firm 36 growth chart 22 Step III: 45 jockey 43 growth firm 36 chart 22 Course of Action I is desirable on humanitarian grounds. II many go a long way in preventing such collapses in the future. Course of Action I may prove to be counterproductive. There is a risk that the increase may be at the cost of quality. Hence it does not follow. II follows because not get ting a college of ones choice is not the end of the road. Students from lesser colleges have also gone on to make a mark in the world. 23. While the first course of action helps in prevention of diseases, the second helps in cure. 24. Course of Action I does not make sense as any kind of imposition at this level may lead to negative effects. II is likely to help things improve as this would reduce the collegegoers obsession with clothes and accessories. 31. Worker Shift Weekly Off L I Tue M II Thu N I Sun O III Sat P III Wed Q II Fri R I Mon S 36. X = Rn = 23 15 12 = 38 12 [applying Rule (i)] = 456 [applying Rule (v)] Now, R2 = X 24 49 = 456 24 49 = 19 49 [applying Rule (iii)] = 68 [applying Rule (i)]

14.

18.

21.

22.

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