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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES : are defined by the laws of mechanism that is the science that deals with energy and forces and their effect on bodies. Mechanical properties are the measured responses both elastic and plastic, of materials under an applied force or distribution of forces. Stress and Strain When an external force acts on a solid body a reaction force results that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the external force. The external force is called LO !. "nternal force #tress $ rea on which it acts Where%er stress is present strain is also seen in most of the cases. #train can be defined as the change in length per unit length & #o, #tress $ rea 'hange in rea #train $ (nit area Hookes law Stress and Strain #train may be either elastic ) plastic or a combination

#tress may be + #imple + 'omplex Simple : #tress can be classified based on their directions. *. Tensile stresses ,. 'ompressi%e stresses -. #hear Tensile stress is caused by a load that tends to stretch or elongate a body. There are %ery few pure tensile stresses situations seen commonly. More commonly seen are complex stresses, which will be discussed later. "n fixed bridges and crown prosthodontics a candy called .u.ubes is used because of its adhesi%e nature to see how much tensile force is needed to dislodge a crown when a patient opens his)her mouth. Compressi e stress When a body is placed under a load that tends to compress ) shorten it the internal resistance to such a load is called compressi%e stresses. With both tensile and compressi%e stresses the forces are applied at right angles to the area which they act on To calculate either tensile stress or compressi%e stress &orce $ 'ross sectional are /erpendicular to the force direction

Shear stress This stress resists a twisting motion or the sliding of one body o%er another is called shear stress Example: "f a force is applied on the enamel of a tooth by a sharp edged instrument parallel to the interface between the enamel and an orthodontic brac0et. The brac0et will debond due to the shear stress produced which will be due to the shear stress failure of the luting agent. &orce #hear stress $ rea parallel to direction of force #hear stress failure is reduced in the oral ca%ity by the presence of chamfers and be%els. Complex stresses or Flexural stresses "n any body it is %ery difficult to produce a stress of one type. Example: When a force is applied on a three unit bridges. 1xample : When pressure is applied at point , tensile stress de%elops on the

tissue side of the bridge compressi%e stress de%elops on the occlusal side. Whereas in a cantele%er bridge the opposite occurs. Elastic and Plastic Stresses 1lastic stresses occur in ductile and malleable materials li0e gold. These do not under 23 permanent deformation.

/lastic stresses on the other hand cause deformation and may be high enough to produce fracture. 1xample of the elastic shear deformation. Elastic limit When a tensile stress is applied on a wire and is increased in small increments and then released after each addition of stress. stress %alue will be found after which the wire does not return to its original length after it is unloaded. This %alue is called elastic limit. #o elastic limit can be defined as the greatest stress to which a material can be sub.ected such that it will return to its original dimensions when the forces are released. Proportional limit "f the same wire is loaded till it ruptures without remo%al of the load each time and if each stress and strain is plotted on a graph, the point where the straight line graph cur%es is called the proportional limit. That is the point till which stress is directly proportional to strain according to 45oo0e6s law7. !ield stren"t# 8ield strength is the stress at which plastic strain which produces slight permanent deformation. This should be within tolerable limits for different materials. lthough

the term elastic limit, proportional limit and yield strength are defined differently they ha%e nearly same magnitudes and can be used interchangeably for all practical purposes.

These %alues are important in the e%aluation of dental materials since they represent the stress at which permanent deformation begins. "f they are exceeded by masticatory stresses the restoration ) appliance may no longer fit as originally designed. Modulus o$ elasticit% The term elastic modulus describes the relati%e rigidity or stiffness of the material. "f any stress equal to or less than the proportional limit is di%ided by its strain a constant of proportionality will result. This is called 8oung6s modulus of elasticity and it is calculated as follows: 1 + 1lastic modulus & + pplied force ) load + 'ross sectional area l* + "ncrease in length L: + Original length ;y definition #tress $ &) #train $ l*)l: #tress #train $ l*)l: &) $ l* $1 &l:

"f a stress strain graph is plotted for enamel and dentin with a simulated compressi%e test, the following graph is obtained

,<: ,:: *<: *:: <: : 1 /L /L


Which shows that elastic modulus of enamel is - times greater than dentin. !entin is capable of sustaining high load before it fractures so it is more flexible and tougher than enamel. 1lastic modulus can be measured by a dynamic as well as static method. ;ased on the %elocity and density of the material the modulus and /oissons ratio can be determined. Poissons Ratio When a tensile force is applied to an ob.ect it becomes longer and thinner. 'ompressi%e force ma0es it shorter and thic0er. "f an axial tensile stress = in the = direction of a mutually perpendicular xy= coordinate system produce an elastic tensile strain and accompanying elastic contractions in the x and y directions> then The ratio of ex or ey e= e=

is an engineering property of the material called /oisson6s ratio 4%7. +ex %$ e= e= for an ideal isotropic material of constant %olume the ratio is <. Most engineering material ha%e %alues of &le'i(ilit% These can be defined as the strain that occurs when the material is stretched to its proportional limit. $ +ey

The relation between maximum flexibility, proportional limit and modulus of elasticity may be expressed mathematically as follows. 1 $ Modulus of elasticity /$ proportional limit 1m $ maximum flexibility / #ince 1 $


em $
e Resilience s the inter atomic spacing increases internal energy increases. resilience. @esilience can be defined as the amount of energy absorbed by a material when it is stressed to its proportional limit. To compare the resilience of , materials we must plot stress strain graphs and obser%e the area of elasticity in these graphs. The material with larger elastic area has more resilience. When a dental restoration is deformed during mastication, the chewing force acts on the tooth structure, the restoration or both. The magnitude of deformation is determined by the induced stresses. "n most dental restoration large stains are precluded due to the propriocepti%e response of the periodontal ligament. s long

as the stress is not greater than the proportional limit this energy is called as

The pain stimulus causes the strain to decrease and the induced stress to be reduced thus the damage to the teeth is pre%ented. Example: proximal inlay might cause excessi%e mo%ement of the ad.acent

tooth if large proximal strains de%elop during compressi%e loading. #o, materials should exhibit a high elastic modulus and low resilience thereby in%iting the elastic strain that is produced. Stren"t# #trength is the stress that is necessary to cause fracture or a specified amount of plastic deformation. Mostly when strength is discussed we tal0 about the amount of stress it requires to fracture. ;ut these , should be early differentiated. #trength can be defined by: *. /roportional limit. ,. 1lastic limit. -. 8ield strength. 9. (ltimate tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and compressi%e strength. /roportional limit the is stress abo%e which stress is no longer directly proportional to strain. 1lastic limit: The maximum stress after which plastic deformation starts.

8ield strength: The strength required to produce a gi%en amount of plastic strain. nd tensile strength, compressi%e strength etc. each of which are the maximum stress to produce fracture. !ield stren"t# "t is often a property that represents the stress %alue at which a small amount of plastic strain has occurred. %alue of either *C or ,C is selected and is called percent offset. #o yield strength is the strength required to produce the particular offset strain that has been chosen. "f yield strength %alues of , materials ha%e to be seen then the percent offset %alue has to be same. lthough the term strength implies that the material has fractured it has .ust undergone permanent plastic deformation. "n a strain graph. line drawn from the offset till it meets the stress

strain cur%e is called yield strength. &or brittle materials such as composites and ceramic the stress strain plot is a straight line so there is no plastic region so yield strength cant be measured at either *C or ,C offset. )iametral Tensile Stren"t# Tensile strength is determined usually by sub.ecting a load, wire etc. to loading or a un axial tension test. ;ut for brittle metals.

!iametral 'ompression Test is used. This test is used for materials that exhibit elastic and not plastic deformation. Met#od compressi%e load is placed by a flat plate against the side of a short cylindrical specimen or dis0, the %ertical force produces a tensile stress that is perpendicular to the %ertical plane that passes through the centre of the dis0. &racture occurs along the %ertical plane. 5ere the tensile stress is directly proportional to the compressi%e load applied. ,/ Tensile stress $ x!xt / D load ! D diameter t+ thic0ness D ,,)A $ -.*9 &lexure #trength or Trans%erse strength or Modulus of rupture is essentially a strength test of a bar supported at each end 4or a thin dis0 reported along a lower support circle under a static load for the bar supported at - pt flexure, the formula is -pl $ ,bd, D flexural strength. l D distance between the supports. b D width of the specimen.


d D depth or thic0ness of the specimen. p D maximum load at the point of fracture. ;etween these two =ones we see the presence of the neutral axis where there is no change. This test is usually done for little mat is such as ceramics to simulate stresses seen in dental prosthesis such as cantele%ered bridges and multiple unit bridges. &ati"ue stren"t# Most of the prosthetic and restorati%e fractures de%elop progressi%ely o%er many stress cycles after initiation of a crac0 from a critical flaw and then by propagation of that crac0 until a sudden unexpected fracture occur. #ometimes stress %alues much below the ultimate tensile strength can produce premature fracture of a dental prosthesis because microscopic flaws grow slowly o%er many cycles of stress. The phenomenon is called fatigue failure. Eormal mastication can induce thousands of stress cycles per day within a dental restoration for glasses and certain glass containing ceramics the induced tensile stress and the presence of an aqueous amount causes an extension of the microscopic flows by chemical attac0 and further reduce the number of cycles to cause dynamics fatigue failure. How to determine The material is sub.ected to a cyclic stress of maximum 0nown %alue, the number of cycles that are required to produce failure are determined.


"f a graph is drawn of failure stress %ersus number of cycles to failure it enables a calculation of a maximum ser%ice stress le%el or an endurance limit that is the maximum stress that can be maintained without failure o%er an infinite number of cycles. "f the surface is rough endurance limit is low. *. #tatic ,. dynamic Static 'eramic orthodontic brac0ets and acti%ated wires within the brac0ets represent a clinical system that can exhibit static fatigue failure. The delayed fracture of molar ceramic crowns that are sub.ected to periodic cyclic forces may be caused by dynamic fatigue failure. Impact The term impact is used to describe the reaction of a stationery ob.ect to a collision with a mo%ing ob.ect. Impact stren"t# D may be defined as the energy required to fractures a material under an impact force. charpy type impact tester is usually used to measure impact strength. pendulum is released that swings down to fracture the centre of a specimen that is supported at both ends. The energy lost by the pendulum during the fracture of the specimen can be determined by the comparison of the length of the swing after the impact with that of its free swing when no impact occurs. rough brittle material

would fail in fewer cycles of stress. &atigue may be of , types.


The dimensions shape and design of the specimen to be tested should be identical for uniform results. nother impact de%ice called the "FO! "M/ 'T T1#T1@, the specimen is clamped %ertically at one end. The blow is deli%ered at a certain distance abo%e the clamped end instead of at the center of the specimen supported at both ends and described for the charpy impact test. With appropriate %alues for %elocities and masses in%ol%ed, a blow by first to .aw can be considered an impact situation. material with low elastic modulus and high tensile strength is more resistance to impact forces. ;ut if both the %alues are low imp resistance is also low. 1xample : !entalporcelain D 9: G/ <:+*::M/a malgam D ,*G/ 9?: M/a 'omposite @esin + *A G/ ) -:+2 M/a /olymethhymethacrylate D -.< G/ 9?: M/ Permanent plastic de$ormation "f a material is deformed by a stress to a point abo%e the proportional limit before fracture. The remo%al of the applied force will reduce the stress to =ero but strain does not decrease to =ero because of plastic deformation. Thus if the ob.ect does not return to its original dimension when the force is remo%ed. "t remains plastically deformed. Some ot#er mec#anical properties


Toughness "t is defined as the amount of elastic and plastic deformation energy required to fracture a material and it is the measure of the resistance to fracture. Toughness can be measured as the total area under the stress strain cur%e from =ero stress to fracture stress. Toughness depends on strength and ductility. The higher these , %alues are the greater the toughness. Thus we can conclude that a tough metal may be strong, but a strong metal may not be tough. &racture tou"#ness This is a property that describes the resistance of brittle metals to catastrophic propagation of flaws. "t is gi%en in units of stress times the square root of crac0 length. i.e. M/a x m H or ME m+-), *rittleness ;rittleness is the relati%e inability of a material to sustain plastic deformation before fracture of a material occurs. 1xample : amalgam ceramics and composites are brittle at oral temperature <+ <<3'. They sustain little or no plastic strain before they fracture. "f a brittle material fractures at or near its proportional limit.


;ut a brittle material may not necessarily be wea0. 1xample : a cobalt chromium partial denture alloy has *.< C elongation but (T# of BA: M/a. The (T# of a glass infiltrated alumina core ceramic is high 9<: M/a but it has :C elongation. "f it is drawn into a fibre with %ery smooth surfaces and insignificant internal flaws its ) tensile strength may be as high as ,B:: M/a and it will ha%e :C elongation. Thus ! materials with little or no elongation ha%e little or no burnishability as they ha%e no plastic deformation potential. )uctilit% and Mallea(ilit% !uctility is the ability of materials to sustain a large permanent deformation without fracture. Malleability is the ability of a material to sustain stress and not rupture under compression as in hammering or rolling into a sheet is termed malleability. Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal and second is sil%er. /latinum D Third in ductility, 'opper D Third in malleability. Measurement o$ ductilit% There are three common methods for measurement of ductility: *. /ercentage elongation after fracture. ,. @eduction in area in the fractured region ends.


-. 'old bend test. The simplest and most commonly used test is to compare the increase in length of a wire or rod after fracture in tension to its length before fracture , mar0s are placed on the wire ) rod a specified distance apart and this distance is said to be Igauge lengthJ. The standard GL for dental materials is <*mm. The wire ) rod is then pulled apart under a tensile load the fractured ends are fitted together and length is measured. The ratio of the original length to increased in length after fracture expressed in percent is called percentage elongation. nother method utilises the nec0ing or cone shaped constriction occurs at the fractured end of a ductile wire after rupture under a tensile load. The percentage of decrease in cross sectional area of the fractured end in comparison to the original area of the wire or rod is called reduction in area. third method is 0nown as the cold bend test. The material is clamped in a %ise and bent around a mandrel of specified radius. The number of bends to fracture is counted the greater the number the greater the ductility. The first bend is made from %ertical to hori=ontal all subsequent bends are made through angles of *B:3. Structural and stress rela'ation fter a substance has been permanently deformed there are trapped internal stresses. This situation is unstable. The atoms that are displaced are not in equilibrium positions. Through a solid+state diffusion process dri%en by thermal energy they slowly mo%e bac0 to their equilibrium positions. The result is a change in the shape or contour of the solid as a gross manifestation of the


re arrangements in atomic or molecular positions. The material warps or distorts this is called stress relaxation. The rate of relaxation increases with an increase in temperature. This phenomenon man result in an inaccurate fit of dental appliance. Example: There may be many materials that may undergo relaxation at high temperatures if they are cooled before usage. Hardness The term hardness is difficult to define. "n mineralogy the relati%e hardness of a substance is based on its ability to resist scratching. "n metallurgy and in most other disciplines the concept of hardness that is most generally, accepted is its resistance to indentation. The indentation produced on the surface of a material from an applied force of a sharp point or an abrasi%e particle results from the interaction of numerous properties. The properties that are related to the hardness of a material are strength proportional limit and ductility. T#e sur$ace #ardness tests used commonl% in dentistr%: *. ;arcol ,. ;rinnel -. @oc0well 9. #choll <. Kic0ers. ?. Lnoop.


T#e *rinnel Test + + One of the oldest test used. hardened steel ball is pressed under a specified load into the polished surface of a metal. The load is di%ided by the area of the pro.ected surface of the indentation and the quotient6s referred to as the ;.hardness no 4abbre%iation ;5E7. Rockwell "t is somewhat similar to ;rinnel, a steel ball or conical diamond pt is used. The depth of the indentation is measured by a dial gauge on the instrument. number of indenting points with different si=es are a%ailable for testing a %ariety of different materials. The @.5.E. is designated according to the particular indenter and load employed. ;oth these tests are not for brittle metal. #ame as the ;rinnel test but a diamond in the shape of a square based pyramid. The lengths of the diagonals of the indentation are measured and collaged. The Kic0ers test is employed in the casting alloys. "t is suitable for brittle materials so it is used for the measured of hardness of tooth structures. +icker,s test #imilar to ;rinnel test but instead of a steel ball a diamond in the shape of a square based pyramid is used. .!. . specification for dental


Impression D square instead of round Uses + !ental casting gold alloys + Tooth structure as it measures the hardness of brittle materials. -noop "n this test a diamond indenting tool is used that is cut in geometric configuration. The impression is rhombic in outline and the length of the largest diagonal is measure. The pro.ected area is di%ided by load to gi%e the 0noop hardness no when the indentation is made and the indentation is remo%ed the shape of the 0noop indenter is causes elastic reco%ery of the pro.ected impression to occur along the short diagonal. The stresses are therefore distributed in a matter that only the dimension of the minor axis are sub.ect to change by relaxation. #o the hardness %alue is %irtually independent of the ductility of the material tested. The load to be used may be %aried o%er a wide range from *gm to more than one 0g so that %alues for both hard and soft materials can be obtained by this test. Lnoop and Kic0ers test are called microhardness tests. The ;rinnel and @oc0well are macrohardness test. L M K tests used loads less than 2.BE. The indentations are small and are limited to a depth of less than *2m. Other less sophisticated tests li0e #choll and ;arcol are employed for increasing the hardness of dental materials particularly rubbers and plastics.


These tests used compact partable indenters of the type generally used in industry for quality control. The hardness no is based on the depth of penetration of the indent patient into the materials. A(rasion and A(rasion Resistance brasion is a complex mechanism in the oral en%ironment that in%ol%es an interaction between numerous factors. (sually hardness has often been used as an index of the ability of a material to resist abrasion or wear that the reliability of hardness as a predictor of abrasion resistance is limited. lthough it may be used to compare materials that are similar i.e. one brand of cast metal with another brand of the same type of casting alloys it cannot be used to e%aluate different classes of materials eg. #ynthetic resin with metal. The hardness of a material is only one of the factors that affect the wear of the contacting enamel. Other factors are: *. ;iting force. ,. &requency of chewing. -. brasi%eness of the diet.

9. 'omposition of liquids. <. Temperature changes. ?. @oughness of each surface.


A. /hysical properties. B. #urface irregularities. The excessi%e wear of tooth enamel by an opposing restoration is more li0ely to occur. "f the opposing restoration is rough therefore restorations should be polished to mechanisms this type of abrasion.

Stress concentration $actors (nexpected fractures sometimes occur in high quality materials also. The cause of this is the presence of small microscopic flaws on the surface or within the external structure. These flaws are especially critical in brittle materials. There are , important aspects of these flaws. *. #tress intensity increases with the length of the flaw especially when it is oriented perpendicular to the direction of tensile stresses. ,. &laws on the surface are associated with higher stresses than are flaws of the same si=e in interior regions. -. #o surface finishing is %ery critical in material li0e ceramics, amalgams and composites. reas of high stress concentrations are caused by one or more of the following factors. *. Large surface or interior flaw such as porosity, grinding roughness and machining damage.


,. #harp changes in shape of the sharp internal angle at the pulpal axial line angle of a tooth preparation for an amalgam restoration. -. The interface region of a bonded structure in which the elastic moduli of , components are quite different. 9. The interface region of a bonded structure in which the thermal expansion or thermal contraction coefficient of the two components are different. <. load applied at a point to the surface of a brittle material.

.a%s to minimi/e t#e stress concentration *. #urfaces should be polished to reduce depth of flaws. ,. Eotches should be a%oided. -. "nternal line angles should be rounded to minimi=e the cusp fracture. 9. The elastic moduli of the materials must be closely matched. <. The coefficient of expansion and contraction should be matched. ?. The cusp tip of an opposing crown or tooth should be rounded so that occlusal contact areas in brittle material are larged. &actors $or selectin" dental materials The strength properties and %alues that ha%e been got by %arious tests represent the a%erage stress %alue below which <:C of test specimens ha%e fractured and abo%e which only <:C ha%e sur%i%ed.


&rom an ultra conser%ati%e point of %iew the lowest strength %alues should be used to compare materials and also to design a prosthesis to resist fracture at a high le%el of confidence. The magnitudes of mastication forces cannot be 0nown to the extent that the dentist can predict the stresses. To conclude, the true test for any material is the test of time. @eferences: /hillips6 #cience of !1ET L M T1@" L# ) Lenneth N. 1la%enth 1dition @1#TO@ T"K1 !1ET L M T1@" L# ) @obert G. 'raig M Nohn M. /owers ) ** th 1dition nusa%ie)


"ntroduction #tress and #train 1lastic limit /roportional limit Modulus of elasticity &lexibility and @esilience #trength Other mechanical properties &actors that cause fracture or failure 'riteria for selection of dental materials @eferences


Mechanical Properties

Seminar by Dr. N.Upendra Natha Reddy Postgraduate Student