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Session No.

2 Course Title: Hazards Risk Management Session 2: Emergency Management: Past, Present and uture Time: ! "ours #$%ecti&es: 2.1 Understand some basic characteristics of the American federal system 2.2 Understand the public management context for the evolution emergency management in the United States. 2.3 Understand emergency management: what it is why it is necessary and its essential elements. 2.! "eview the involvement of the federal government in emergency management 2.# "eview lessons learned about emergency management in the public sector 2.$ %iscuss examples of ma&or disasters in recent decades in order to learn about historic events that were milestone events in the development of the 'mergency (anagement field. 2.) %iscuss ma&or recent changes at the national level that led to the formation of the %epartment of *omeland Security Sco'e: +his session provides some bac,ground information regarding public management including discussions of (ederalism intergo&ernmental relations"i's and inter)organization arrangements that will set the stage for understanding public emergency management. +here are several emergency management -'(. systems in place to deal with the broad array of ha/ards crises and disasters that have affected the U.S. 0 most notably those dealing with natural disasters and with ma&or industrial accidents and emergencies. Since the catastrophic terrorist attac,s on Sept. 11 2111 at all levels of government EM systems and organizations are undergoing 'ro(ound c"anges. Under scrutiny and revision are public sector capabilities and capacities as well as organi/ational and response systems. 2hile many systems and organi/ations may be in transition there still are basic purposes elements and needs that must be met by public sector emergency management. +he focus of this review of recent history will be on those essential elements.


************************************************************************** Readings: Student "eading: +he assignment of reading to students will depend on the courses the students have ta,en prior to this one. 4f some or all or the students have not completed courses dealing with policies and politics and with public administration and emergency management then supplemental readings will be necessary. 5'(A6s *igher 'ducation program has produced the following instructor guides -47s. selected excerpts from which are excellent source material. 47s can be downloaded from 5'(A6s website. %etails are provided in the list of references8resources included at the end of this session. 7lossary of terms included as a handout for Session 1 5'(A *igher 'ducation 9ro&ect 47 3 Public Administration and Emergency Management, -author is 2illiam :. 2augh ;r.. (arch 2111. At a minimum the students should be familiar with the material covered in the following three sessions. -1. Session 3: <verview of 'mergency (anagement in the U.S. -31 pp.. -2. Session !: %isasters and 4ntergovernmental "elations -2= pp.. -3. Session #: %isasters and 4ntra3governmental "elations -3# pp.. 5'(A *igher 'ducation 9ro&ect 47 3 Political and Policy Basis of Emergency Management -author is "ichard Sylves. 1>>=. +he 4nstructor should select the most useful and needed references from the list below. Depending on the extent of background that students have from previous courses, some or all of the following may be assigned. -1. Session 2: +he American 9olitical System and %isasters -11 pp.. 3 +his session provides very basic information about the U.S. form of government and may be used or s,ipped depending on the ,nowledge level of the students. -2. Session 3 American *a/ards and %isaster Agents. -11 pp.. -3. Session !: +he 5undamentals of 'mergency (anagement -11pp.. -!. Session #: 'xecutive 9olitical 4ssues and %isasters -12pp.. -#. Session >: +he 5ederal <rgani/ation and 9olicy -1= pp.. -$. Session 11: State 9olitical and <rgani/ational 4ssues -13 pp. . -). Session 11: :ocal 9olitical and <rgani/ational 4ssues -1# pp. . -=. Session 12: 4ntergovernmental "elations -1) pp.. U.S. 7overnment 9rinting <ffice. Bens Guide to American Government. http:88bensguide.gpo.gov8>3128government8federalism.html 2augh 2illiam :. ;r. -2111. :iving 2ith *a/ards %ealing 2ith %isasters. -?@: (.'. Sharpe Ao... See especially Ahapter 1: 'mergency (anagement 9rofession and 5ield of StudyB Ahapter 2: 'mergency (anagement in the U.S.B and Ahapter #: 9olicy 4ssues in 'mergency (anagement.


4nstructor "eading: %epending on the bac,ground of the instructor the amount of reading time will vary regarding reviewing many of the concepts and facts presented in the above3mentioned 47s that are essential to this course. A review or the list of 47s that have been completed and posted in the past 12 to 1= months may provide additional information. 5'(A6s *igher 'ducation 9rogram posts the 47s at: http:88training.fema.gov8'(42eb8edu8aemCcourses.htm Some additional recommended readings are: "egarding terrorism: 5'(A *igher 'ducation 9ro&ect 47 3 Terrorism and Emergency Management -author is 2illiam 2augh. 2111. See especially Session ): Applying the 'mergency (anagement 5ramewor, -2>pp.. and Session =: *a/ard Analysis and "is, Assessment -21pp... "egarding emergency response: +ierney et al -2111. 5acing the Unexpected: %isaster 9reparedness and "esponse in the U.S. -2ashington %A: ;oseph *enry 9ress.. See especially Ahapter !: (eeting the Ahallenge: <rgani/ational and 7overnmental "esponse in %isasterB Ahapter #: 5actors 4nfluencing %isaster 9reparedness and "esponse and Ahapter $: +he 2ider Aontext: Societal factors influencing 'mergency (anagement 9olicy and 9ractice. 5or general bac,ground: 2augh -2112. :iving 2ith *a/ards %ealing with %isasters -?.@.:(.'. Sharpe.. CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC +eneral Re,uirements: +his session includes specific reading assignments for each ob&ective and a student research8writing assignment to be completed prior to the ob&ective. +he 4nstructor should consider these student assignments and structure the class time necessary to cover the material. Some of the additional 47s as well as the lists of web resources provided by 5'(A6s *igher 'ducation program should be reviewed and used as appropriate as resources by both the instructor and the students. Since many 47s are being developed simultaneously with this one it is not possible at this time to identify all of the pertinent 47s available to use as references and resources. 9ower 9oint slides are provided for the instructor6s use if so desired. 4t is recommended that the instructor use graphic displays of past ma&or disaster events and their outcomes in order to illustrate and facilitate comprehension of the past patterns of disasters and national responses. D5ree downloadable copies of the Disaster Time Line: Selected Major Events and T eir !"S" #utcomes $%&'()*++ the Terrorism Time Line: Selected Major Events and T eir


!"S" #utcomes $%&,,)*++%- and the .omeland Security Time Line$ %&//)*++*-0under development as of 1281>812E are available from +he instructor is encouraged to allow five to ten minutes at the end of the session to complete the modified experiential learning cycle through class discussion for the material covered in this session. #$%ecti&e 2.- .nderstand some $asic c"aracteristics o( t"e /merican (ederal system Re,uirements: +he instructor will have to decide the content of his8her lecture and the readings to be assigned based upon an assessment of the educational and life experiences of the students and their understanding of the fundamental facts about the ..S. (ederal system the relati&e roles and 'o0ers o( eac" le&el o( go&ernment and the dynamics o( inter)go&ernmental relations. Student reading assignments in the 47s: Sylves 3 Session 2 and 2augh 3 Session 3. "eading time: estimated at from 1 to 2 hours. +his first reading assignment should be completed prior to this class session. 9resent the material by lecture and encourage student input and discussion. Use Fuestions to stimulate discussion. 5or example for 4.%.1. below: 2hat is a federal system of governmentGB 2hat is a unitary system of governmentG 2hat system of government do we have in the U.S.G Remarks: 1. 4ntroduction of the (ederal system o( go&ernment in t"e .nited States /. +he purpose of this introduction is to ensure that all students will have adeFuate information about the U.S. political system to serve as a (oundation (or understanding emergency management. 2. 'mergency management typically involves many complex inter3governmental and inter3organi/ational relationships hence it is essential to understand and antici'ate suc" relations"i's. C. Understanding the federal system provides students with tools to better understand interpret and analy/e go&ernment decision)making before during and after disasters. 3. Some specific aspects of the /merican 'olitical system reFuiring emphasis include: 1. %efine a 5ederal system and a unitary system and explain the differences between the two.


a. 4n the .nitary system of government -as in 7reat Hritain and 5rance. the national government embodies the complete sovereignty of the state. :esser governments and regional authorities -such as counties towns and municipalities owe their origin legitimacy and continuation to the national government. +he national government is free to reorgani/e abolish or create lesser governments. b. 4n the ederal system sovereignty is shared among national and lesser governments. Aertain powers reside exclusively in certain levels of government and certain powers are shared concurrently. c. 4n the /merican (ederal system the U.S. Aonstitution accords the States certain reserved powers not controlled by the national government.. Under a federal system the national government is not free to abolish State governments but may redefine federal3State relations if the redefinition is constitutional. 2. %iscuss the role and functions of each level of government: local State and 5ederal. a. As noted above the States have some powers and functions that are reserved for them exclusively. Po0er is s"ared between the national government and individual state -and local. governments. b. :ocal governments are the creation of the State and as such there are many &ariations in ty'es o( local go&ernments 33 such as towns cities boroughs 0 and in functions such as budgetary authority that local governments have in the U.S. 3. %iscuss the exclusive powers of the national and state governments and also their shared powers. a. Some of the 'o0ers reser&ed (or only t"e ederal go&ernment include: print money regulate interstate and international trade ma,e treaties and conduct foreign policy declare war and provide an army and navy. b. Some of the e4clusi&e 'o0ers o( t"e State go&ernments are: issue licenses conduct elections establish local governments ta,e measures for public health and safety and exert powers the Aonstitution does not delegate to the national government or prohibit the states from using. c. Additionally both national and state go&ernments s"are t"e 'o0er of being able to: collect taxes build roads borrow money establish courts ma,e and enforce laws charter ban,s and corporations spend money for the general welfare and ta,e private property for public purposes with &ust compensation.


!. 'xplain a few general points about the role and functions of the 9resident. a. Presidents and +o&ernors 0ork as c"ie( e4ecuti&es. %espite what many people believe American chief executives cannot often exercise direct power but must share power with others. b. Hoth 9residents and 7overnors usually play a larger role in 'olicy de&elo'ment then they do in the implementation of policy. c. 9residents have se&eral sources o( 'o0er both direct and indirect. -%etails about this topic are in Sylves session #.. 5or purposes of this course the emergency powers of the 9resident are of greatest relevance. d. Emergency 'o0ers refer to the actions that the 9resident may exercise on extraordinary occasions such as in the case of a rebellion an epidemic a labor stri,e or a disaster. e. Also of interest is the process by which a 9residential disaster declaration is made. -See Sylves session #.. #. "eview the role of interest groups in policy ma,ing a. As more demands are made on government more governmental programs proliferate. 1nterest grou's often ma,e the initial demands and then come to have a sta,e in the future of those programs. b. 4nterest groups often (orce 'olicy)makers to address grie&ances. +here are many existing interest groups that are public interest or citi/en interest groups -such as Union of Aoncerned Scientists Aommon Aause etc.. and there are ad hoc groups. c. "egarding disasters ad "oc interest grou's freFuently emerge such as citi/ens who are dissatisfied with public assistance after a hurricane and the currently active group of families of victims of the 2orld +rade Aenter disaster -2111. who successfully pressured the 9resident to commission a study group to loo, into the causes of that disaster during 2112. Su''lemental Considerations: After reviewing the courses ta,en and degree of familiarity with American government and public administration on the part of the students in your class you may need to assign extra reading to some students. Hoth Sylves and 2augh provide references to pertinent documents. +he instructor should relate some of the elemental conce'ts o( t"e ..S. 'olitical systems to the special challenges posed by disasters and emergencies. 5or example


5and use 'lanning and controls are typically a local government function. -See 4H*S site: 000.i$"s.org6.. :and use decisions can be very emotional and controversial issues with multiple sta,eholders and strongly held beliefs concerning the rights and use of private property and the rights of the general community. +wo examples of disaster)related 'ro'erty rig"ts issues are -a. public acFuisition of structures and land that are in high ris, coastal areas and -b. reducing the /oning reFuirements -down/oning. of a residential area because of high seismic ris,. 2uilding codes -see: 000.i$" Huilding codes can become political and economic issues leading to different codes between and within communities. %isaster mitigation is only one of often competing considerations in building code development implementation and enforcement.

#$%ecti&e 2.2 .nderstand t"e 'u$lic management conte4t (or t"e e&olution o( emergency management in t"e ..S. Re,uirements 4t is recommended that the instructor review the Public Administration and Emergency Management 47 by 2illiam 2augh. +his document provides an e4cellent account o( t"e gradual in&ol&ement o( go&ernment in emergency management as well as an account of ma%or non)go&ernmental actors. 4f the instructor chooses to cover8review material from this or other 47s the remar,s sections from the specific 47 should be used. Student reading assignment from the Public Administration and Emergency Management 47. -1. Session !: %isasters and 4ntergovernmental "elations -2# pp. -2. Session #: %isasters and 4ntra3governmental "elations -31 pp.. 4n Political and Policy Basis of EM: -1. Session !: +he 5undamentals of 'mergency (anagement -11 pp.. -2. Session 11: State 9olitical and <rgani/ational 4ssues -1! pp.. -3. Session 11: :ocal 9olitical and <rgani/ational 4ssues -1$ pp.. -!. Session 12: 4ntergovernmental "elations -1# pp.. 4f the students do not have a good wor,ing ,nowledge of American government and basic public administration concepts or if they have not previously ta,en other *igher 'ducation courses they should be assigned additional readings that cover essentially the full range of topics covered in the 2augh 47. Remarks:


I. Emergency management is a component of public management. It is essential to understand the broader context before one can understand the purpose and practice of emergency management. Issues regarding organizational arrangements, garnering resources, and budgeting for emergency management have to be considered in their public management context. II. Key points to consider include: A. +he general e&olution o( emergency management in the U.S. -"eferences: 2augh 47 Session 3B Sylves 47 session !. H. ormation and de&elo'ment of the 5ederal 'mergency (anagement Agency - 5'(A website: www.fema.gov8about8history.shtm. A. +he 'lacement and organization of state and local emergency management offices. 1. State governments have a great variety of organi/ational arrangements to house the State emergency management agency. Aiting only four examples -a. in the <ffice of the 7overnor -AA. -b. under the Ad&utant 7eneral -SA. -c. %ept. of Aommunity Affairs -5:. and -d. with the State 9olice -(ichigan. 2. +ypically county go&ernments and large cities "a&e t"eir o0n emergency management coordinator and o((ice. Again the placement varies widely regarding the location of that office but most freFuently the function resides in the fire dept. or in the city manager6s office. %. 4nvolvement of non)'ro(it and (or)'ro(it organization in emergency management -"eference: 2augh 47 session ). '. Aoncept of Com're"ensi&e Emergency Management 7CEM8 1. +his term is used to refer to emergency management that encompasses four phases of emergency management 7're'aredness, res'onse, reco&ery, and mitigation. all sectors of society -public private and non3profit. and all three levels of government. 2. 5'(A has promoted A'( and an all3ha/ards approach to thin,ing about crises and disasters since its formation. 5. %iscuss how government officials at each level of government currently 're'are (or and organize to deal with emergencies and disastersG -"eferences: 2augh 47 session !B 2augh -2111. p 33..


7. +he national emergency management system in terms of the roles of the ma&or intergovernmental actors -"eferences: 2augh 47 session !B Sylves sessions 11 and 11. CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC #$%ecti&e 2.! .nderstand emergency management )) 0"at it is, 0"y it is necessary, and its essential elements. Re,uirements: A si/eable list of readings was provided for the previous ob&ectives. %epending on what readings were assigned for the previous ob&ective3 have the students complete the recommended readings from ob&ectives 2.1 and 2.2 for ob&ective 2.3. Remarks: 4. 4t is important to be familiar with the essential elements and c"aracteristics of emergency management in the U.S. +hroughout this course ,ey definitions and concepts will be covered that promote this understanding. +he systems that have evolved are uniFue in that they were shaped by our form of government and by the types of ma&or and catastrophic events that have occurred in this country. +here are many reasons why systems and processes were created and have functioned. A brief review of the history of emergency management in the U.S. is essential to understanding ha/ards ris, management. Some of the essential elements reFuiring review include: A. 2hy do we need '(G 1. 2illiam 2augh has noted t"at 9emergency management is t"e ,uintessential go&ernment role. 4t is the role for which communities were formed and governments were constituted in the first place 0 to provide support and assistance when the resources of individuals and families are overwhelmed.I1 Although he did not explicitly note it a ma&or crisis or disaster usually is beyond the capabilities and resources of the private sector as well. 2. 2augh goes on to say that J4n the simplest terms emergency management is the management of ris, so that society can li&e 0it" en&ironmental and tec"nical "azards and deal 0it" t"e disasters that they cause.I +hat is not to say that emergency management is only a governmental responsibility because indi&iduals and organizations are also res'onsi$le.



2augh -2111. p. 3.


3. Although the locality is the component closest to the disaster it is also the one with the smallest resource $ase and 0it" t"e least access to resources. Since local governments generally have a smaller tax base than other levels of government and are faced with a great variety of demands funding of emergency services is often limited. H. 2hat is '(G 1. <ur national emergency management system is a com'le4 net0ork o( 'u$lic, 'ri&ate, and non)'ro(it organizations and indi&iduals. +his system includes federal state and local government agencies as well as special districts and Fuasi3governmental organi/ationB it includes non profit service and charitable organi/ations as well as ad hoc volunteer groups and individuals and it includes private sector firms that provide government services by contract services and products. 2. @et some ma&or and catastrophic disasters can overwhelm even the largest communities and private organi/ationsB therefore t"e ultimate guarantor o( aid is t"e (ederal go&ernment. 3. +he key go&ernmental organizations in this endeavor include emergency management agencies scientific agencies with expertise in areas such as meteorology geology public safety and emergency response and public health. !. Although most people tend to thin, of emergency management primarily in terms of disaster planning and response in fact there are many more facets to it. Com're"ensi&e emergency management includes (our '"ases: 're'aredness, res'onse, reco&ery, and mitigation. #. 2augh notes that emergency management is Ja 'rocess o( managing risk so t"at 0e can li&e 0it" kno0n and unkno0n natural and man)made "azards and can deal 0it" t"e disasters t"at do occur.I 2 5or a detailed account of the origins of A'( as well as detailed descriptions of each of the four phases see 2augh -2111. pp 11312. $. Another concept that has emerged in recent years is that of t"e :all)"azards; a''roac". +his is based on the idea that there are generic processes for addressing most ,inds of ha/ards and disaster. A. *ow has '( evolvedG 1. As noted by 2augh -2111. and displayed in the graphic Disaster Time Line: Selected Milestone Disaster Events and t eir !"S", #utcomes $%&'()*+%+- the

2augh -2111. p. $.

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..S. emergency management system "as de&elo'ed 'rimarily in res'onse to s'eci(ic ma%or disasters. 5or the most part policies and programs have been instituted and implement in the aftermath of a disaster based almost solely on that disaster experience and with little investment in capacity building to deal with the next disaster. 2. According to 2augh there are increasing political and economic pressures to reduce disaster losses but there are still 'olitical, economic, and social and cultural o$stacles to t"e de&elo'ment o( an e((ecti&e national emergency management system. 2hile there has been more investment in emergency management during the last decade and capabilities are expanding much needs to be done to improve the national system. 3 %. 2hat are some of the current and future concerns facing '(G 1. /''lication o( (indings and researc". +he extent to which findings based on studies of natural ha/ards8disasters planning carry over into the technological and human3induced ha/ards area and vice versa remains unclear. 2. T"e need (or risk assessment at all le&els o( go&ernment and in all sectors. :ater in this 47 more details will be provided with respect to the need for and use of ris, assessment ris, management and ris, communications. 3. Ne0 strategies. Among the challenges ahead for local and other governments is the ability to develop a comprehensive but flexible strategy for managing a wide array of threats8ha/ards and preparing for a variety of potential disasters. +o that end increased professionali/ation of the emergency management field is essential including greater use of science technology and decision science.

#$%ecti&e 2.< Re&ie0 t"e in&ol&ement o( t"e (ederal go&ernment in emergency management. Re,uirements Student readings: 2augh-2112. text pp. 2$333 and Sylves 47 session >. 5'(A historical information at: http:88www.fema.gov8about8history.shtm

2augh -2111. p. 2!

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Disaster Time Line 0 +he students should access the %isaster +ime :ine at "tt':66000.disaster) prior to covering this ob&ective and should print a copy to be referred to in this and subseFuent ob&ectives. Alass 'xercise: 9rior to covering this ob&ective divide the class into small groups of three to five student -the groups will remain intact for several sessions. and assign each group one of the plans to research -each member of the group should research his8her assigned plan prior to covering this ob&ective in class.. +he following U":s are a logical starting point for the students: 5ederal "esponse 9lan: www.fema.gov8rrr.frp ?ational Aontingency 9lan: www.epa.gov8oilspill8ncpover.htm +errorism Annex: www.fema.gov8rrr.frp8frpterr.shtm A<?9:A?: 000.(ema.go&6rrr6con'lan6(or0ard6s"tm

+he 4nstructor should determine the depth of the reFuired student research and establish a timeframe for the level of effort reFuired -e.g. spend 31 minutes researching your assigned plan.. At a minimum the students should be prepared to discuss -for their assigned plan.: -1. *ighlights of the features of the planB -2. +he limitation of the planB and -3. +he varying thresholds for federal involvement in each ha/ard8threat category. 5or the actual classroom group exercise: Assign roles to group members. "oles will rotate in subseFuent activities. As, the groups to discuss the individual member research and reach a group consensus on the following points: -1. *ighlights of the features of the planB -2. +he limitation of the planB and -3. +he varying thresholds for federal involvement in each ha/ard8threat category. +he groups6 team reporters will be expected to provide a short -3 0 # minute. oral report on their group6s findings to the entire class. Aonduct the small3group activityB circulate among the groups and intervene as necessary. 9rovide sufficient time -31 0!# minutes. for the groups to complete their discussion and reach consensus. *ave each group6s reporter present the results of their group6s wor, -3 0 # minute oral report..

Remarks: 4. +he "istory o( ederal in&ol&ement

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A. %uring the past century (ire and (loods 0ere t"e most common and costly disasters in t"e ..S. and were the focus of the earliest emergency management efforts. H. +he first emergency management programs in the U.S. were created to deal with floods and civil defense. +he earliest authority that allowed the 9resident to issue disaster declarations authori/ing federal agencies to provide direct assistance to state and local governments came from the 3isaster Relie( /ct o( -=>?. A. Hoth the lood Control /ct o( -=!@ and the %isaster "elief Act of 1>#1 were passed because of the long history of flooding along the (ississippi "iver. %. Ci&il de(ense 'rograms such as air raid warning and emergency shelter systems were established during 2244 to protect the civilian population from attac,. 5ollowing the war the ederal Ci&il 3e(ense /ct o( -=>? created a nationwide system of civil defense agencies. '. Hy the late 1>)16s (ederal res'onsi$ilities encompassed civil defense disaster assistance to state and local governments disaster assistance to individuals and families training of firefighters flood mitigation program and flood insurance. 1. Until the formation of EM/ 7-=AB8 federal responsibility for disaster management was still scattered among the %ept. of %efense %ept. of Aommerce %ept of *ousing and Urban %evelopment and the 7eneral Services Administration. +his fragmented disaster preparedness and recovery system was viewed as a serious administrative problem especially by the 7overnors of the states and territories. 2. %etails about the origins and "istory o( EM/ are available from the 5'(A website. http:88www.fema.gov8about8history.shtm 5. 4n 1>)= at the reFuest of the ?ational 7overnors Association 9resident Aarter initiated the organi/ation of a federal preparedness program through Reorganization Plan No. !. As a result the 5ederal 'mergency (anagement Agency was formed incorporating some of the responsibilities and organi/ational units from the five federal departments8agencies discussed earlier in this session as well as some programs managed in the 'xecutive office of the 9resident. 7. +hroughout the decades since the formation of 5'(A various ma&or and catastrophic disaster e&ents "a&e dri&en c"anges in legislation regulations organi/ations and other outcomes. *. 2hile the federal reorgani/ation of 1>)= and the formation of 5'(A was a ma&or milestone in the history of federal emergency management those activities are

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relatively small compared with the ma&or federal reorgani/ation entailed in enacting and implementing the new 3e't. o( Homeland Security. 1. +he creation of this new federal department is t"e greatest reorganization o( t"e (ederal go&ernment since -=<A when the %ept. of %efense was created. 2. As of ?ovember 2# 2112 EM/ 0ill $e a$sor$ed into t"e ne0 3e't. o( Homeland Security. +he new name shape and mission of the independent agency -which existed for about 2! years. and its functions remain to be determined. 44. 'volution of T"ree Ma%or ederal Res'onse Plans A. Although federal agencies are in fact involved in all phases of emergency management the area in which the federal government6s presence is most visible and highly significant financially is in res'onding to ma%or crises and disasters o( all ty'es. H. +here are several types of (ederal res'onse 'lans but the three that are the most freFuently used and hence the most well ,nown are the following: 1. T"e National Contingency Plan 7NCP8 2. T"e ederal Res'onse Plan 7 RP8 3. /nti)terrorism 'lans a. +errorism annex to the 5"9 b. Aoncept of <perations 9lan -A<?9:A?. 444. Aonduct the small group wor, and class exercise described above in the "eFuirements section and in the Supplemental Aonsiderations section. A. Assign (ormal roles to individuals in each group. 1. +rou' leader 0 overall responsibility for the group6s wor,B ,eeps group focus on tas,. 2. Timer 0 informs leader and group of time remaining to complete the tas,. 3. Recorder 0 records ideas. !. Re'orter 0 reports for the group to the class.

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H. 4nform the class that this is not a com'etition between the groups but an overall coo'erati&e e((ort to generate ideas. A. See the Supplemental Aonsiderations Section for additional discussion of group wor,. ***************************************************************************** * Su''lemental Considerations Student small group wor, and presentations are considered essential to developing and enhancing social and analytic s,ills and abilities -see <b&ective 1.#.. Small groups of three to five students -considered the ideal si/e for group discussions. should be formed. +he groups will remain intact for several sessions with roles and responsibilities rotated. Assign formal roles in the group including the group leader -,eeps the group focus on the tas,. a timer -informs leader and group of time left to complete the assigned tas,. recorder -records ideas. and reporter -reports for the group to the class.. +he 4nstructor should circulate to observe each group and intervene in the group process if necessary remembering that for some of the students this will be an uncomfortable experience. Since this is the first time small groups will be used in the course the groups should complete the modified experiential learning cycle not only for the content of the small3group exercise but also for the process they followed in their groups. +hey should be given the opportunity to discuss as a group their feelings about the discussion and their assignment to formal roles within the group. +he groups should be as,ed to consider what types of behavior could be dysfunctional for the group as a means of raising their awareness of such behavior for this and future group exercises. At the end of the class session each group should be given the opportunity to report on its group experience. +his should include the content of the group discussions and how the members felt about wor,ing in the group. +he group reporters should be provided the opportunity to comment on how they felt presenting their groupKs wor, to the entire class. "emar,s re A<?9:A?: Since this is the least well ,nown of the material listed above some extra details are provided. 1..S. +o&ernment 1nteragency 3omestic Terrorism Conce't o( #'erations Plan -C#NP5/N8 %ated ;anuary 2111 the C#NP5/N was designed to provide overall guidance to 5ederal State and local agencies concerning how the federal government would response to a potential or actual terrorist threat or incident that occurs in the U.S. particularly one involving 2eapons of (ass %estruction -2(%.. 4ts special features are: 4t outlines an organized and uni(ied ca'a$ility (or a timely, coordinated res'onse by federal agencies to a terrorist threat or act. +his plan lays out the responsibilities of the

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two federal agencies with the lead for response to a ma&or disaster the %ept. of ;ustice -%o;. and 5'(A. 4t provides conce'tual guidance (or assessing and monitoring a de&elo'ing t"reat notifying appropriate federal state and local agencies of the nature of the threat and deploying the reFuisite advisory and technical resources to assist the :ead 5ederal Agency -:5A. in facilitating interagency8interdepartmental coordination of a crisis and conseFuence management response. 4t defines the relations"i's $et0een structures under which the federal government will marshal crisis and conseFuence management resources to respond to a threatened or actual terrorist incident.

Six federal agencies are signatories to the plan: 3oC, EM/, EP/, 3oE, 3o3, and HHS. +his plan was created to implement Presidential 3ecision 3irecti&e != -1>>#. which sets forth U.S. 9olicy on Aounterterrorism. As the lead (ederal agency 75 /8 for crisis management the 21 will implement a federal crisis management response. 4n that capacity the 5H4 will designate a federal on3scene commander -<SA. to ensure appropriate coordination of the overall U.S. 7overnment response with federal State and local authorities until such time as the Attorney 7eneral transfers the :5A role to 5'(A. As the :5A for conseFuence management 5'(A will implement the 5ederal "esponse 9lan -5"9. to manage and coordinate the federal conseFuence management response in support of State and local authorities. A<?9:A? essentially provides details about the coordination planned between crisis and conseFuence management in order to ensure an effective federal response to a ma&or terrorist incident. 4t is envisioned as the Jfoundation for further development of detailed federal state regional and local operational plans and procedures.I National Ca'ital Region 7Das"ington, 3C area8 , Dea'ons o( Mass 3estruction 1ncident Contingency Plan 7-26?>62??- dra(t8. +his particular plan is an example of a local8regional plan that was designed and developed to supplements the 5ederal "esponse 9lan providing a contingency plan for federal disaster operations and a baseline for federal conseFuence management response for the ?ational Aapital "egion -?A".. 4t provides details about the federal conseFuence management process that will be implemented according to standing policies and produces that support the 5"9 and "egional Supplements to the 5"9. 4t became effective on Sept. 2! 2111. +wo uniFue features of this plan are: -1. creation of a special ?ational Aapitol "egion 'mergency "esponse +eam Advance 'lement -?A" '"+3A. that will be deployed to an initial operating facility to coordinate federal response operations and -2. determination that incidents within the ?A" will be coordinated by 5'(A *L while events outside the ?A" will be coordinated by the 5'(A "egions. Su''lemental 1n(ormation: A<?9:A?

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U":: "tt':66000.(ema.go&6rrr6con'lan6(or0ord.s"tm ?A"2(% "egarding the ?ational Aapital Area 2eapons of (ass %estruction 9lan there is no obvious web site for this planB it may not be available to the public. **************************************************************************** #$%ecti&e 2.> Re&ie0 lessons learned a$out emergency management in t"e 'u$lic sector Re,uirements: Mnowledge of the history and experience of the emergency management communities in the past few decades. See Tierney et al. Disaster and Terrorism Time Lines 0 +he students should access the %isaster -previously accessed and printed. and +errorism +ime :ine at "tt':66000.disaster) prior to covering this ob&ective and should print a copy to be referred to in this and subseFuent ob&ectives. "egarding mitigation approaches and programs over the years a recent 7eneral Account <ffice "eport .a1ard Mitigation: Pro2osed 3 anges to 4EMA5s Multi a1ard Mitigation ProgramsPresent 3 allenges .7A<3123113# Sept. 2112 provides a valuable review of the options considered at the national level during the past several decades. U":: "tt':66000.gao.go&6ne0.items6d?2-?!>.'d( Remarks: 4. 'xperiential ,nowledge gained from past disasters. A. <ver the years academic and other researchers have identified some of the ,ey characteristics of e((ecti&e and e((icient emergency management by means of fieldwor, observations and other formal research efforts. H. Some of the essential lessons learning in recent decades include: 1. +he 1m'ortance o( Com're"ensi&e Emergency Management 7CEM8. As noted earlier since the formation of 5'(A special emphasis has been given to Aomprehensive 'mergency (anagement in the U.S. A'( was a ma&or shift of perspective for the '( community in that it involved all four phases of emergency management all levels of government interacting and all sectors of society. 2. +he Ealue o( Mitigation. 4n recent years 5'(A has developed a national mitigation strategy and a number of high profile programs dealing with mitigation such as 9ro&ect 4mpact.

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a. According to 5'(A a mitigation 'lan is Ja systematic evaluation of the nature and extent of vulnerability to the effects of natural ha/ards typically present in the state and includes a description of actions to minimi/e future vulnerability to ha/ards.I D(itigation 7uide N1 2111.E b. Pro%ect 1m'act will be covered in depth in Session #. 2 ! 3. Planned &ersus /d Hoc /ctions a. As noted earlier dealing 0it" ma%or and catastro'"ic disasters usually entails actions demands and resources beyond the means of individuals businesses and other groups in a community. b. <ver the years as the societal e4'osure to risks increased efforts relying solely upon well3intentioned but ill3prepared volunteers and8or inadeFuately trained 'u$lic agencies 0ere o&er0"elmed. An early example of this is the transition from volunteer fire brigades to full3time paid professional fire fighters in ma&or cities. c. 4n the past few decades there have been several catastro'"ic natural disasters in the U.S. such as *urricane Andrew -1>>2. and the recent catastrophic terrorist event the Sept. 11 2111 attac,s. Such large3scale disasters have increasingly re,uired not only more local go&ernment ca'acity $ut also concerted regional and national go&ernment action. +his fact is one of the many reasons the %ept. of *omeland Security was created. !. +he 1m'ortance and 3i((iculties o( Emergency Management a. 'mergency management is a "ig"ly c"allenging 'ro(ession where employees are regularly confronted with unexpected events 0 of all ,inds and si/es 0 and because of this a vast spectrum of expertise and s,ills is needed. b. 'mergency management is a field that may re,uire e4'ertise and e4'erience in a 0ide &ariety o( tec"nical skills ranging from land3use planning to engineering and from financial management to public relations. Also managers must have the s,ills to simultaneously tac,le political negotiations conflict resolution logistics and ris, communications. >. Centralization and 3ecentralization a. +here has been a gradual trend to0ards centralization of emergency managementB one that has been accelerated through a recent focus on terrorism and human3induced disasters.

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b. 'ven with regard to natural ha/ards and disasters national 'rograms -such as 9ro&ect 4mpact. tend to reinforce the li,elihood that State and local governments will come to the 5ederal government for assistance and funding even before they experience a disaster. c. +errorist events usually have a criminal6la0 en(orcement com'onent which natural disasters and ha/ardous material discharge8spill accidents do not have. d. +he recent catastro'"ic terrorist e&ents of Sept. 11 2111 were highly political events involving the 9resident of the U.S. almost immediately. +he degree of federal involvement and centrali/ation of the response and recovery was unprecedented particularly with respect to payments to victims6 families. ***************************************************************************** * #$%ecti&e 2.@ 3iscuss e4am'les o( ma%or disasters in recent decades in order to learn a$out "istoric e&ents t"at 0ere milestone e&ents in t"e de&elo'ment o( t"e EM (ield Re,uirements Using the %isaster +ime :ines or other sources examine some of the well3,nown and well3 documented disasters of the past such as *urricane Andrew -1>>2. the :oma 9rieta 'arthFua,e -1>=>. the 'xxon Oalde/ oil spill -1>==. and the 2orld +rade Aenter bombing -2111.. Assign each student a particular disaster to research prior to covering this ob&ective in class. 'ach student should prepare a one3page paper -typed single spaced. covering the following areas: An overall description of the disaster -when it happened what happened why it happened. +he response to the disaster +he student6s appraisal of how well the disaster was handled

+he paper should be submitted at the start of this ob&ective and the 4nstructor may decide to have some or all of the students provide a short oral report on their assigned disaster. CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC Remarks: 4. %iscuss the disasters assigned to the students. A. %id they obtain ,ey facts about the event including deaths in&uries estimated cost of damage to structuresB the estimate total costG H. %id they note the full range of impacts: economic -direct and indirect. social political -if appropriate.G

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A. %o they get a feeling for the horror sorrow and disruption that ma&or disasters causeG -Sometimes facts and figures seem rather antiseptic. He sure they have some understanding of human impact. 5or example as a result of the roughly 3 111 deaths of occupants of the 2+A on Sept. 11 2111 about # 111 children lost one or both parents.. %. %id they observe and comment on the complexity of inter3organi/ational and intergovernmental relationships during the response and recovery periodsG 44. +he instructor should choose several milestone disasters to help students understand the many dimensions of large and catastrophic events. +he instructor should explain to the students how the outcomes of these events have lead to changes in legislation policies programs and organi/ations.


"efer to the brief case examples in 2augh -2111. 0 such as the ?orthridge 'arthFua,e of 1>>! -p. $>. or *urricane Andrew 1>>2 -p.)=. or in the report on the Major Terrorist Events and T eir #utcomes $%&,,)*++%. by "ubin et. al. -2113.. ********************************************************************* #$%ecti&e 2.A 3iscuss ma%or recent c"anges at t"e national le&el t"at led to t"e (ormation o( t"e 3e't. o( Homeland Security Re,uirements See web sites provided in the Supplemental Aonsiderations section below for *omeland Security information Remarks 4. 5ormation of the new 3e't. o( Homeland Security A. Since September 11 2111 emergency management in the U.S. has been changing in fundamental ways. +here are numerous new considerations factors and concerns that must be dealt with by the emergency management communities in the U.S. +hese ne0 concerns (ocus on countering terrorism and ensuring "omeland security . H. As of ?ovember 2# 2112 the new %ept. of *omeland Security was established spurring several ma%or organizational and ot"er c"anges in t"e (ederal go&ernment. 9resident Hush was reFuired to submit a reorgani/ation plan that will serve as a blueprint for creating the department. *e began transferring agencies >1 days after the plan was put forward. All agencies must be transferred within a year of the 9residentKs submission of the reorgani/ation plan. A. Aurrently many of the ma%or organizations and institutions t"at "a&e dealt 0it" emergency management are $eing reorganized. Also many of the basic texts and articles dealing with the foundation of emergency management will have to be revised to be more inclusive in scope and more current in order to account for the

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significant number of substantive legal regulatory organi/ational and programmatic changes that have occurred in late 2111 and during 2112. %. 7iven the ma%or c"anges t"at are currently under0ay one can expect possible changes in the underlying authorities mission and purpose of the new department as well as ma&or changes in organi/ations programs and activities related to emergency management. ?otwithstanding the state of flux and the li,elihood of significant changes during the after the completion of this 47 this course will rely on some of the existing foundational documents. 44. "eview the errorist ime !ine with the students. +he Time Line shows about 11 ma&or terrorist events that have occurred in the past 1# years and also the various types of outcomes from ma&or defining events 0 legislations regulations policies programs and organi/ational changes. A. +he recent report "a#or errorist $vents and heir %utcomes $%&,,)*++% D<n3line 2or,ing 9aper from the University of Aolorado *a/ards AenterB U":: www.colorado.edu8ha/ardsE provides a narrative explanation of the events and their outcomes. H. +hese descriptions can be used to show the recent "istory o( terrorist e&ents highlighting some of the focusing events that occurred before Sept. 11 2111. Su''lemental Considerations: 4nformation about homeland security: ?ational :evel %ept of *omeland Security State :evel ?ational 7overnor6s Association :ocal :evel 4nternational Association of 'mergency (anagement #t"ers: /nser. +o&ernment E4ecuti&e: "tt':66000.go&e4ec.com6"omeland6 3isaster Central: 000.disaster)

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Recent Sources: Among the recent additions to the literature that ta,es into account various ha/ards8threats and ris,s are: 7-8 EM/. .nderstanding Four CommunityGs RisksH 1denti(ying Hazards, /nd 3etermining Risks. EM/)!B@)2 -U":: http:88www.fema.gov8fima8planningCtoc3.shtm. +his document deals entirely with natural ha/ards and provides a ready framewor, for the processes of assessing vulnerability and ris,s. -2. 5'(A: 6ntegrating .uman)3aused .a1ards 6nto Mitigation PlanningB Sept. 2112B 5'(A 3=$3) -U":: "tt':66000.(ema.go&6(ima6'lanning*toc@.s"tm. +his document deals with human3caused threats and ha/ards. As stated in Session 4 the goal of this course is to contribute to reducing the toll of disasters in the United States by halting and eventually reversing the increasing disaster losses the U.S. has experienced over the last several decades. 2ithout intervention these losses have been pro&ected to worsen over the next several decades. "ole of government in anticipating disasters and promoting mitigation. Oarious levels of government get involved often all three levels wor, together. +wo such examples: Use of 9ro&ect 4mpact information. 5or example note wor, in the Aity of +ulsa Use of <regon Showcase pro&ect:

Re(erences EM/ 1nstructor;s +uides: ?ote that full text downloads of all completed 47s can be done at 5'(A6s *igher 'd website: U":: http:88training.fema.gov8'(42eb8edu8completeAourses.htm -18 Public Administration and Emergency Management, -author is 2illiam :. 2augh ;r..4.7. (arch 2111 -2. Terrorism and Emergency Management -author is 2illiam :. 2augh ;r.. Sept. 2111. 4.7. -3. Political and Policy Basis of Emergency Management 4.7. -author is "ichard Sylves. 1>>=. 2ooks:

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(ichael M. :indell and "onald 2. 9erry. 2e"a&ioral oundations o( Community Emergency Planning. -2ashington %.A.: *emisphere 9ublishing Aorp.. 1>>2. 2illiam :. 2augh ;r. 5i&ing Dit" Hazards 3ealing Dit" 3isasters: /n 1ntroduction to Emergency Management. -?.@.: (.'. Sharpe. 2111. Mathleen ;. +ierney (ichael M :indell and "onald 2. 9erry. acing t"e .ne4'ected: 3isaster Pre'aredness and Res'onse in t"e ..S. -2ashington %A: ;oseph *enry 9ress. 2111. #t"er Sources: 7eneral Account <ffice. .a1ard Mitigation: Pro2osed 3 anges to 4EMA5s Multi a1ard Mitigation Programs Present 3 allenges " 7A#)+*)%+/(, Se2t" *++*" U":: "tt':66000.gao.go&6ne0.items6d?2-?!>.'d( 1nstitute (or 2uilding and Home Sa(ety 712HS8 000.i$" History o( EM/ U":: http:88www.fema.gov8about8history.shtm Disaster Time Line: Selected Milestone Events and T eir !"S" #utcomes $%&'()*++%000.disaster) Terrorism Time Line: Selected (ilestone 'vents and their U.S. <utcomes -1>==32111 .omeland Security Time Line -forthcoming in 2113. Major Terrorist Events and T eir !"S" #utcomes $ %&,,)*++%-, by Alaire H. "ubin et al. 5orthcoming from the University of Aolorado *a/ards AenterB 2or,ing 9aperB 2113. U":: www.colorado.edu8ha/ards A<?9:A? U":: "tt':66000.(ema.go&6rrr6con'lan6(or0ord.s"tm Recommended De$ sites: 5'(A (itigation resources: http:88www.fema.gov8fima8planresource.shtm University of Aolorado *a/ards Aenter www.colorado.edu8ha/ards

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University of %elaware %isaster "esearch Aenter www.udel.edu8%"A ?ational 7overnors Association "is, (anagement www.ris,.org 1n(ormation a$out "omeland security: ?ational :evel %ept of *omeland Security State :evel ?ational 7overnor6s Association :ocal :evel 4nternational Association of 'mergency (anagement

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